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Xml2rfc generates RFCs and IETF drafts from document source in XML according to the IETF xml2rfc v2 and v3 vocabularies.

Project description


The IETF uses a specific format for the standards and other documents it publishes as RFCs, and for the draft documents which are produced when developing documents for publications. There exists a number of different tools to facilitate the formatting of drafts and RFCs according to the existing rules, and this tool, xml2rfc, is one of them. It takes as input an xml file which contains the text and meta-information about author names etc., and transforms it into suitably formatted output. The input xml file should follow the grammars in RFC7749 (for v2 documents) or RFC7991 (for v3 documents). Note that the grammar for v3 is still being refined, and changes will eventually be captured in the bis draft for 7991. Changes not yet captured can be seen in the xml2rfc source v3.rng.

xml2rfc provides a variety of output formats. See the command line help for a full list of formats. It also provides conversion from v2 to v3, and can run the preptool on its input.


Installation of the python package is done as usual with ‘pip install xml2rfc’, using appropriate switches and/or sudo.

Installation of support libraries for the PDF-formatter

In order to generate PDFs, xml2rfc uses the WeasyPrint module, which depends on external libaries that must be installed as native packages on your platform, separately from the xml2rfc install.

First, install the Cairo, Pango, and GDK-PixBuf library files on your system. See installation instructions on the WeasyPrint Docs:

(Python 3 is not needed if your system Python is 2.7, though).

(On some OS X systems with System Integrity Protection active, you may need to create a symlink from your home directory to the library installation directory (often /opt/local/lib):

ln -s /opt/local/lib ~/lib

in order for weasyprint to find the installed cairo and pango libraries. Whether this is needed or not depends on whether you used macports or homebrew to install cairo and pango, and the homebrew / macport version.)

Next, install the pycairo and weasyprint python modules using pip. Depending on your system, you may need to use ‘sudo’ or install in user-specific directories, using the –user switch. On OS X in particular, you may also need to install a newer version of setuptools using –user before weasyprint can be installed. If you install with the –user switch, you may need to also set PYTHONPATH, e.g.,


for Python 2.7.

The basic pip commands (modify as needed according to the text above) are:

pip install ‘pycairo>=1.18’ ‘weasyprint<=0.42.3’

With these installed and available to xml2rfc, the –pdf switch will be enabled.

For PDF output, you also need to install the Noto font set. Download the full set from, and install as appropriate for your platform.


xml2rfc accepts a single XML document as input and outputs to one or more conversion formats.

Basic Usage: xml2rfc SOURCE [options] FORMATS...

Run xml2rfc --help for a full listing of command-line options.


Version 3.0.0 (02 Sep 2020)

Transition to using the new schema v3 output formatters by default

This release provides the functionality that the 2.47.0 release had (with some enhancements), but is backwards incompatible because the default settings for some switches has changed. The –legacy switch must now be set explicitly in order to use the old output formatters. By default, XML input files with schema v2 content will be converted to v3 on the fly and the output formatting of the converted XML will be done with the new schema v3 formatters. With this release, support of Python 2.7, which is past end-of-life, will no longer be part of the test suite.

There are also a number of other changes. From the commit log:

  • Replaced the use of the deprecated optparse module with the newer argparse python module.

  • Removed testing with Python 2.7, and added Python 3.8

  • Updated the bin/mkrelease script to generate documentation HTML and text for the release, place it on, and mention the documentation URL in the release notes.

  • Updated the major revision to 3, given that we no longer support Py27 and have switched default output formatters.

  • Changed bin/mkrelease to install using pip3.6 on the tools servers (the default pip might be for Py2.7).

  • Added an ‘indent’ attribute for <t>, in order to support indented paragraphs without the one-item unordered list workaround, as approved by the schema change board. Added default values for the ‘indent’ attributes for <dl>, <ul>, <ol>, <t>. For the <t> element, the ‘indent’ attribute indicates any extra amount of indentation to be used when rendering the paragraph of text. The indentation amount is interpreted as characters when rendering plain-text documents, and en-space units when rendering in formats that have richer typographic support such as HTML or PDF. One en-space is assumed to be the length of 0.5 em-space in CSS units. Only non-negative integer amounts of indentation are supported.

  • Improved an error message about bad attribute values to show the line of XML source on which the error was found.

  • Added information about command-line switches that have negations (–no-foo… versions) to the context handed to the documentation template.

  • Changed the default of some switches for the 3.0.0 release: –v3 => true; –legacy-date => true; –external-js => false.

  • Improved the documentation file output for switch default values and for options with negation switches.

  • Updated the Makefile to use the appropriate 3.x release series switches.

  • Updated the requirements for a number of python modules.

  • Fixed an issue where hrefs without matching ids could be generated by the HTML renderer from empty <name> elements. This also fixed an issue with missing figure and table captions in some unusual cases.

  • Added support for multi-level ordered lists through a ‘%p’ (for parent) code for use in the <ol> ‘type’ attribute. Fixes issue #465.

  • Added more documentation for the –version switch

  • Updated the schema and tests to permit <blockquote> within <aside>. Fixes issue #524.

  • Added a list of available postal elements for a country to the warning for unused postal address parts.

  • Added a length limitation for the running header title in paginated text documents, to avoid overwriting other parts of the running header.

  • Changed the schema to permit nested <sub> and <sup>, as approved by the v3 schema change board.

  • Added support for outdent handling to propagate upwards to parent elements if the full needed outdent amount could not be done in the local context, in order to be able to apply artwork outdenting to <artwork> elements which aren’t situated immediately under <section>.

  • Changed many instances of reference source indications (xml:base) from “” to just “”. Removed the massaging of reference XML to place seriesInfo elements in the backwards-incomplatible location inside reference/front. Changed the –add-xinclude flag to use as the location of draft reference entries.

  • Added a couple of entries to the test suite reference cache.

  • Improved the handling of missing day information for <date> to make sure we don’t pick days outside the acceptable range for the given month and also pick a reasonable value based on whether the year and month is in the past, present or future.

  • Improved an error message for a case of disallowed XML text content. Tweaked the ‘block_tags’ list.

  • Changed the manpage template to not use comma before ‘and’ when rendering a list of 2 elements.

  • Changed the schema to permit <aside> within <dl> on request from the RPC, with schema change board approval. Updated renderers, CSS and tests accordingly.

  • Tweaked the CSS for block elements that are direct first children of <dd> to render the same way in HTML as in text (i.e., vertically distinct, not on the same line as <dt>).

Version 2.47.0 (17 Jul 2020)

CSS fixes, Built-in documentation, manpage mode, and more

The major feature in this release is the addition of built-in documentation generated from:

  • the actual XML schema distributed with the tool

  • the differences between the current schema and the RFC7991 schema

  • the code’s settings for which elements and attributes are deprecated

  • text snippets describing the schema parts and how the code handles them.

There are new –doc/–docfile and –man/–manpage switches; the first will generate documentation in the form of a v3 XML document that can then itself be processed to generate the various supported formats. The second, –man, will generate the documentation XML internally and then process it to text output which is shown with a pager, like ‘man’.

From the commit log:

  • Corrected the CSS line height of compact lists (it should not be different than for non-compact lists; compact should only affect spacing between items, not line height). Also corrected the CSS top margin for nested lists; extra top margin is desired for a top-level list, but not when nesting them, due to the resulting inconsistency in apparent line height variations.

  • Changed <section> within <toc> from oneOrMore to zeroOrMore, in order to make it possible to honour the tocInclude setting, and reordered some true/false entries for consistency, and changed the line breaking of some lines in the RNG compact representation to fit on 72-character lines.

  • Added .rng and .rnc files with the RFC7991 schema, in order to be able to automatically determine which elements and attributes are new in the schema since 7991.

  • Added a new writer, ‘doc’, and template and text snippet files for autogenerated documentation.

  • Updated the requirements file with some new module requirements.

  • Refactured the code a bit to make it more straightforward to generate text without writing it out to file.

  • Moved the list of deprecated attributes to writers/, and did some slight refactoring for consistent naming of some class variables and avoidance of duplicate parsing of the schema file.

  • Did some minor code cleanup and dead code removal, and corrected the header generation for non-IETF documents (using <rfc ipr=’’>).

  • Fixed an issue where XML parser errors could be reported for ‘<string>’ instead of the actual input file name.

  • Added new options –docfile/–doc and –manpage/–man, used to trigger generation and display of the built-in documentation. Reorganised the option grouping. Updated some option help strings. Made it possible to propagate all command-line option information to the documentation template.

  • Corrected the default templates path. This is related to change [3723].

  • Reverted a change from [3722] in the v2v3 converter.

  • Added a custom Jinja2 filter ‘capfirst()’, for use in the documentation template.

  • Tweaked the documentation template: Some changed wording, support for sub-items not wrapped in <t>, corrected capitalisation using the ‘capfirst’ filter.

  • Updated hastext() and iscomment() to do the right thing if given content with embedded xml processing instructions.

  • Tweaked the handling of default values for –date, so as to give better documentation of the option, and also tweaked the help text for –table-borders.

  • Added a class utility method to get any current PI related to a given setting, and fixed another case of template path default value, related to [3722].

  • Added PI support for text table borders setting, and improved the text table output for transitions between <th> and <td> rows> for ‘light’ and ‘minimal’ borders.

  • Added makefile support for testing of the –manpage and –docfile switches. Added silencing of one unavoidable warning in the test of –unprep.

Version 2.46.0 (23 Jun 2020)

  • Added <dd class=’break’/> and <span class=’break’/> entries in additional places, as a workaround for WeasyPrint’s eagerness to break between <dt> and <dd>. Fixes issue #529.

  • Tweaked the rendering of <tt> inside table cells in text mode to not use double quotes to distinguish the <tt> content from surrounding text when the only cell content is the <tt> element.

  • Modified the text rendering of table cells. <thead> and <tfoot> now implies no special rendering (earlier, they caused a change in table border on transition) while <th> now always renders with distinct borders compared with <td>. Also added ‘light’, and ‘minimal’ table renderings, with different table border settings when compared to the previous rendering, which now is available as ‘full’. The ‘light’ rendering is closer to the v2 formatter table rendering, but does not permit table cells with colspan or rowspan different from 1 to be properly distinguished. The changes in <th> rendering fixes issue #527.

  • Added a –table-borders option with possible values ‘full’, ‘light’, ‘minimal’, to control the table rendering of the text renderer. The current default value is ‘full’, but ‘light’ is closer to the v2 text renderer’s output.

  • Added a new internal join/indent setting to the Joiner nametuple to control outdenting. Used the outdenting setting to enable outdenting for artwork wider than 69 characters in the v3 text renderer. Fixes issue #518.

  • Added missing support for @indent for <ul> in the HTML renderer, and tweaked the same for <ol>. Fixes issue #528.

  • Corrected is_htmlblock() to not count <dt>, <dd>, and <li> as block elements as they cannot be wrapped in <div>.

  • Updated and refined the div-wrapping used to introduce additional IDs to deal better with anchors on <dt>, <dd>, and <li>. Fixes issue #530.

  • Made the CSS setting of background colour on <tt> and <code> more selective in order not to interfere with background colour in tables, for instance.

  • Removed CSS that made URLs in references not break across lines – the drawbacks turn out to be more of a bother than the original reason not to let these wrap.

  • Did some HTML cleanup to make the validator happy.

  • Fixed a few places in the HTML renderer where an empty tag could cause an exception.

  • Added test cases for empty and double email addresses, and added support for multiple email addresses within an author’s address block. Fixes issue #522.

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