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Ray tracing and wave propagation in x-ray regime, primarily meant for modeling synchrotron beamlines and beamline elements

Project Description
Package xrt (XRayTracer) is a python software library for ray tracing and
wave propagation in x-ray regime. It is primarily meant for modeling
synchrotron sources, beamlines and beamline elements.

Features of xrt
---------------

* *Rays and waves*. Classical ray tracing and :ref:`wave propagation <waves>`
via Kirchhoff integrals, also freely intermixed. No further approximations,
such as thin lens or paraxial. The optical surfaces may have :ref:`figure
errors, analytical or measured<warping>`. In wave propagation, partially
coherent radiation is treated by incoherent accumulation of coherently
diffracted fields generated per electron.

* *Publication quality graphics*. 1D and 2D position histograms are
*simultaneously* coded by hue and brightness. Typically, colors represent
energy and brightness represents beam intensity. The user may select other
quantities to be encoded by colors: angular and positional distributions,
various polarization properties, beam categories, number of reflections,
incidence angle etc. Brightness can also encode partial flux for a selected
polarization and incident or absorbed power. Publication quality plots are
provided by `matplotlib <http://matplotlib.org>`_ with image formats PNG,
PostScript, PDF, SVG.

* *Unlimited number of rays*. The colored histograms are *cumulative*. The
accumulation can be stopped and resumed.

* *Parallel execution*. xrt can be run :ref:`in parallel <tests>` in several
threads or processes (can be opted), which accelerates the execution on
multi-core computers. Alternatively, xrt can use the power of GPUs via OpenCL
for running special tasks such as the calculation of an undulator source or
performing wave propagation.

* *Scripting in Python*. xrt can be run within Python scripts to generate a
series of images under changing geometrical or physical parameters. The image
brightness and 1D histograms can be normalized to the global maximum
throughout the series.

* :ref:`Synchrotron sources <synchrotron-sources>`. Bending magnet, wiggler,
undulator and elliptic undulator are calculated internally within xrt. There
is also a legacy approach to sampling synchrotron sources using the codes
`ws` and `urgent` which are parts of XOP package. Please look the section
:ref:`comparison-synchrotron-sources` for the comparison between the
implementations. If the photon source is one of the synchrotron sources, the
total flux in the beam is reported not just in number of rays but in physical
units of ph/s. The total power or absorbed power can be opted instead of flux
and is reported in W. The power density can be visualized by isolines. The
magnetic gap of undulators can be :ref:`tapered <tapering_comparison>`.
Undulators can be calculated in :ref:`near field <near_field_comparison>`.
Undulators can be :ref:`calculated on GPU <calculations_on_GPU>`, with a high
gain in computation speed, which is important for tapering and near field
calculations.

* *Shapes*. There are several predefined shapes of optical elements implemented
as python classes. The inheritance mechanism simplifies creation of other
shapes. The user specifies methods for the surface height and the surface
normal. For asymmetric crystals, the normal to the atomic planes can be
additionally given. The surface and the normals are defined either in local
(x, y) coordinates or in user-defined parametric coordinates. Parametric
representation enables closed shapes such as capillaries or wave guides. It
also enables exact solutions for complex shapes (e.g. a logarithmic spiral)
without any expansion. The methods of finding the intersections of rays with
the surface are very robust and can cope with pathological cases as sharp
surface kinks. Notice that the search for intersection points does not
involve any approximation and has only numerical inaccuracy which is set by
default as 1 fm. Any surface can be combined with a (differently and variably
oriented) crystal structure and/or (variable) grating vector. Surfaces can be
faceted.

* *Energy dispersive elements*. Implemented are :meth:`crystals in dynamical
diffraction <xrt.backends.raycing.materials.Crystal.get_amplitude>`,
gratings (also with efficiency calculations), Fresnel zone plates,
Bragg-Fresnel optics and :meth:`multilayers in dynamical diffraction
<xrt.backends.raycing.materials.Multilayer.get_amplitude>`. Crystals can work
in Bragg or Laue cases, in reflection or in transmission. The
two-field polarization phenomena are fully preserved, also within the Darwin
diffraction plateau, thus enabling the ray tracing of crystal-based phase
retarders.

* *Materials*. The material properties are incorporated using :class:`three
different tabulations <xrt.backends.raycing.materials.Element>` of the
scattering factors, with differently wide and differently dense energy
meshes. Refraction index and absorption coefficient are calculated from the
scattering factors. Two-surface bodies, such as plates or refractive lenses,
are treated with both refraction and absorption.

* *Multiple reflections*. xrt can trace multiple reflections in a single
optical element. This is useful, for example in 'whispering gallery' optics
or in Montel or Wolter mirrors.

* *Non-sequential optics*. xrt can trace non-sequential optics where different
parts of the incoming beam meet different surfaces. Examples of such optics
are :ref:`poly-capillaries<polycapillary>` and Wolter mirrors.

* *Global coordinate system*. The optical elements are positioned in a global
coordinate system. This is convenient for modeling a real synchrotron
beamline. The coordinates in this system can be directly taken from a CAD
library. The optical surfaces are defined in their local systems for the
user's convenience.

* *Beam categories*. xrt discriminates rays by several categories: `good`,
`out`, `over` and `dead`. This distinction simplifies the adjustment of
entrance and exit slits. An alarm is triggered if the fraction of dead rays
exceeds a specified level.

* *Portability*. xrt runs on Windows and Unix-like platforms, wherever you can
run python.

* *Examples*. xrt comes with many examples; see the galleries, the links are at
the top bar.

Dependencies
------------
:mod:`numpy`, :mod:`scipy` and :mod:`matplotlib` are required. If you use
OpenCL for calculations on GPU or CPU, you need AMD/NVIDIA drivers,
``Intel CPU only OpenCL runtime`` (these are search key words), :mod:`pytools`
and :mod:`pyopencl`.

Python 2 and 3
--------------
The code can run in both Python branches without any modification.
Release History

Release History

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1.2.4

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1.2.3

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1.2.2

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1.2.1

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1.0.2

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1.0.1

This version
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1.0.0

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0.9.99

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0.9.4

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0.9.3

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0.9.2

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0.9.1

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0.9.0

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