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BTree-based persistent dict-like objects (regular dict and ordered) that can be used as base classes. This is a bit of a heavyweight solution, as every zc.dict.Dict (and zc.dict.OrderedDict) is at least 3 persistent objects. Keep this in mind if you intend to create lots and lots of these. To build, run ``python bootstrap/bootstrap.py`` and then ``bin/buildout`` from this directory. A clean, non-system Python is strongly recommended.

Project Description

An efficient, persistent and subclassable dict

PersistentDict is very inefficient if it contains more than a couple of values, and BTrees are not recommended to inherit from.

This class is a simple wrapper over a BTree. It retains the efficiency of BTrees and is safe to use as a base class. Also, it implements the full Python dict interface.

>>> from zc.dict import Dict
>>> d = Dict()
>>> d
<zc.dict.dict.Dict object at ...>
>>> d['foo'] = 'bar'
>>> len(d)
1
>>> d['bar'] = 'baz'
>>> len(d)
2

Note that an important difference between the Python dict and this Dict is that the Python dict uses hashes, and this uses BTree comparisons. Practically, this means that your keys should be of homogenous types. We use strings in these examples.

Length is maintained separately, because len on a BTree is inefficient, as it has to wake up all buckets in the tree from the database.

>>> d._len
<BTrees.Length.Length object at ...>
>>> d._len()
2

In order to keep updates efficient for small changes, we unroll them as a series of setitems.

>>> d.update({'bar': 'moo', 'ding': 'dong', 'beep': 'beep'})
>>> len(d)
4

The Dict supports the full update interface.

>>> d.update([['sha', 'zam'], ['ka', 'pow']])
>>> len(d)
6
>>> d['ka']
'pow'
>>> d.update(left='hook', right='jab')
>>> len(d)
8
>>> d['left']
'hook'

pop needs to update the length.

>>> d.pop('sha')
'zam'
>>> d.pop('ka')
'pow'
>>> d.pop('left')
'hook'
>>> d.pop('right')
'jab'
>>> len(d)
4

…except when it doesn’t.

>>> d.pop('nonexistent')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
KeyError: 'nonexistent'
>>> d.pop('nonexistent', 42)
42
>>> len(d)
4

setdefault also sometimes needs to update the length.

>>> len(d)
4
>>> d.setdefault('newly created', 'value')
'value'
>>> d['newly created']
'value'
>>> len(d)
5
>>> d.setdefault('newly created', 'other')
'value'
>>> d['newly created']
'value'
>>> len(d)
5
>>> del d['newly created'] # set things back to the way they were...

keys, values and items return normal Python lists. Because of the underlying BTree, these are always in sort order of the keys.

>>> d.keys()
['bar', 'beep', 'ding', 'foo']
>>> d.values()
['moo', 'beep', 'dong', 'bar']
>>> d.items()
[('bar', 'moo'), ('beep', 'beep'), ('ding', 'dong'), ('foo', 'bar')]

However, efficient BTree iterators are available via the iter methods:

>>> iter(d)
<OO-iterator object at ...>
>>> d.iterkeys()
<OO-iterator object at ...>
>>> d.iteritems()
<OO-iterator object at ...>
>>> d.itervalues()
<OO-iterator object at ...>

popitem removes from the dict and returns a key-value pair:

>>> len(d)
4
>>> d.popitem()
('bar', 'moo')
>>> len(d)
3

The copy method creates a copy of a Dict:

>>> c = d.copy()
>>> c.items() == d.items()
True

However we don’t support comparison, except for identity, because of cowardice:

>>> c == d
False
>>> Dict() == {}
False
>>> d == d
True

clear removes all the keys from the dict:

>>> d.clear()
>>> d.keys()
[]
>>> len(d)
0

The rest of the dict methods are delegated to the underlying BTree:

>>> c.has_key('beep')
True
>>> 'BEEP' in c
False
>>> c.get('nonexistent', 'default')
'default'

Subclassing

For easy subclassing, the dict is intended to have three important characteristics:

  • All addition is done with __setitem__ so overriding it will control addition.
  • All removal is done with either pop or clear so overriding these methods will control removal.
  • Calling __init__ without passing an argument will not try to access the update method.

Let’s demonstrate these with a quick subclass.

>>> class Demo(Dict):
...     def __setitem__(self, key, value):
...         print '__setitem__', key, value
...         super(Demo, self).__setitem__(key, value)
...     def pop(self, key, *args):
...         print 'pop', key, args and arg[0] or '---'
...         return super(Demo, self).pop(key, *args)
...     def update(self, *args, **kwargs):
...         print 'update'
...         super(Demo, self).update(*args, **kwargs)
...     def clear(self):
...         print 'clear'
...         super(Demo, self).clear()
...
>>> demo1 = Demo()
>>> demo2 = Demo([['foo', 'bar'], ['bing', 'baz']], sha='zam')
update
__setitem__ foo bar
__setitem__ bing baz
__setitem__ sha zam
>>> demo2.setdefault('babble')
__setitem__ babble None
>>> del demo2['bing']
pop bing ---
>>> demo2.popitem()
pop babble ---
('babble', None)
>>> demo2.clear()
clear

Regression tests

When setting an item that’s already in the dict, the length is not increased:

>>> d.clear()
>>> d['foo'] = 'bar'
>>> d['foo'] = 'baz'
>>> len(d)
1

Ordered Dict: An persistent container that maintains order

An OrderedDict provides most of the functionality of a Dict, with the additional feature that it remembers the order in which items were added. It also provides the API to reorder the items.

Importantly, the OrderedDict currently uses a PersistentList to store the order, which does not have good behavior for large collections, because the entire collection of keys must be pickled every time any key, or ordering, changes. A BList would be a preferred data structure, but that has not yet been released.

>>> from zc.dict import OrderedDict
>>> d = OrderedDict()
>>> d
<zc.dict.dict.OrderedDict object at ...>
>>> d['foo'] = 'bar'
>>> len(d)
1
>>> d['bar'] = 'baz'
>>> len(d)
2
>>> d['foo']
'bar'
>>> d['bar']
'baz'

The keys are currently in the order added.

>>> list(d)
['foo', 'bar']

Note that an important difference between the Python dict and the OrderedDict is that the Python dict uses hashes, and this uses BTree comparisons. Practically, this means that your keys should be of homogenous types. We use strings in these examples.

Length is maintained separately, because len on a BTree is inefficient, as it has to wake up all buckets in the tree from the database.

>>> d._len
<BTrees.Length.Length object at ...>
>>> d._len()
2

In order to keep updates efficient for small changes, we unroll them as a series of setitems.

>>> d.update({'bar': 'moo', 'ding': 'dong', 'beep': 'beep'})
>>> len(d)
4

Note that the result of an update of multiple new items in a data structure without order will add the new items to the end of the ordered dict in an undefined order. To set our order, we need to introduce a new method: updateOrder. This method is a heavy-handed approach to changing the order: supply a new one.

>>> list(d) == ['bar', 'beep', 'ding', 'foo']
False
>>> d.updateOrder(('bar', 'beep', 'ding', 'foo'))
>>> d.keys()
['bar', 'beep', 'ding', 'foo']

updateOrder expects the entire list of keys in the new order

>>> d.updateOrder(['bar', 'beep', 'ding'])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Incompatible key set.
>>> d.updateOrder(['bar', 'beep', 'ding', 'sha', 'foo'])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Incompatible key set.
>>> d.updateOrder(['bar', 'beep', 'ding', 'sha'])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Incompatible key set.
>>> d.updateOrder(['bar', 'beep', 'ding', 'ding'])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Duplicate keys in order.

The Dict supports the full update interface. If the input values are ordered, the result will be as well.

>>> d.update([['sha', 'zam'], ['ka', 'pow']])
>>> len(d)
6
>>> d['ka']
'pow'
>>> d.keys()
['bar', 'beep', 'ding', 'foo', 'sha', 'ka']

If keyword arguments are used, no order to the new items is implied, but it otherwise works as expected.

>>> d.update(left='hook', right='jab')
>>> len(d)
8
>>> d['left']
'hook'

pop needs to update the length, and maintain the order.

>>> d.pop('sha')
'zam'
>>> d.pop('ka')
'pow'
>>> d.pop('left')
'hook'
>>> d.pop('right')
'jab'
>>> len(d)
4
>>> d.keys()
['bar', 'beep', 'ding', 'foo']

…except when it doesn’t.

>>> d.pop('nonexistent')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
KeyError: 'nonexistent'
>>> d.pop('nonexistent', 42)
42
>>> len(d)
4

setdefault also sometimes needs to update the length.

>>> len(d)
4
>>> d.setdefault('newly created', 'value')
'value'
>>> d['newly created']
'value'
>>> len(d)
5
>>> d.keys()
['bar', 'beep', 'ding', 'foo', 'newly created']
>>> d.setdefault('newly created', 'other')
'value'
>>> d['newly created']
'value'
>>> len(d)
5
>>> del d['newly created'] # set things back to the way they were...

keys, values and items return normal Python lists. Because of the underlying BTree, these are always in sort order of the keys.

>>> d.keys()
['bar', 'beep', 'ding', 'foo']
>>> d.values()
['moo', 'beep', 'dong', 'bar']
>>> d.items()
[('bar', 'moo'), ('beep', 'beep'), ('ding', 'dong'), ('foo', 'bar')]

However, efficient iterators are available via the iter methods:

>>> iter(d)
<iterator object at ...>
>>> d.iterkeys()
<iterator object at ...>
>>> d.iteritems()
<generator object at ...>
>>> d.itervalues()
<generator object at ...>

popitem removes an item from the dict and returns a key-value pair:

>>> len(d)
4
>>> d.popitem()
('bar', 'moo')
>>> len(d)
3

The copy method creates a copy of a Dict:

>>> c = d.copy()
>>> c.items() == d.items()
True

However we don’t support comparison, except for identity, because of cowardice:

>>> c == d
False
>>> OrderedDict() == {}
False
>>> d == d
True

clear removes all the keys from the dict:

>>> d.clear()
>>> d.keys()
[]
>>> len(d)
0

The rest of the dict methods are delegated to the underlying BTree:

>>> c.has_key('beep')
True
>>> 'BEEP' in c
False
>>> c.get('nonexistent', 'default')
'default'

Subclassing

For easy subclassing, the ordered dict is intended to have three important characteristics:

  • All addition is done with __setitem__ so overriding it will control addition.
  • All removal is done with either pop or clear so overriding these methods will control removal.
  • Calling __init__ without passing an argument will not try to access the update method.

Let’s demonstrate these with a quick subclass.

>>> class Demo(OrderedDict):
...     def __setitem__(self, key, value):
...         print '__setitem__', key, value
...         super(Demo, self).__setitem__(key, value)
...     def pop(self, key, *args):
...         print 'pop', key, args and arg[0] or '---'
...         return super(Demo, self).pop(key, *args)
...     def update(self, *args, **kwargs):
...         print 'update'
...         super(Demo, self).update(*args, **kwargs)
...     def clear(self):
...         print 'clear'
...         super(Demo, self).clear()
...
>>> demo1 = Demo()
>>> demo2 = Demo([['foo', 'bar'], ['bing', 'baz']], sha='zam')
update
__setitem__ foo bar
__setitem__ bing baz
__setitem__ sha zam
>>> demo2.setdefault('babble')
__setitem__ babble None
>>> del demo2['bing']
pop bing ---
>>> demo2.popitem()
pop babble ---
('babble', None)
>>> demo2.clear()
clear

Regression tests

When setting an item that’s already in the dict, the length is not increased:

>>> d.clear()
>>> d['foo'] = 'bar'
>>> d['foo'] = 'baz'
>>> len(d)
1

Legacy tests

Old databases may need to find something importable from zc.dict.ordered.

>>> from zc.dict.ordered import OrderedDict as Olde
>>> Olde is OrderedDict
True
Release History

Release History

History Node

1.3b1

This version
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1.2.1

History Node

1.2

History Node

1.1

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