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Network Gateway Interface

Project description

Network Gateway Interface

The Network Gateway Interface provides:

  • the ability to test application networking code without use of sockets, threads or subprocesses
  • clean separation of application code and low-level networking code
  • a fairly simple inheritence free set of networking APIs
  • an event-based framework that makes it easy to handle many simultaneous connections while still supporting an imperative programming style.

To learn more, see


2.1.0 (2017-08-31)

New features:

  • support IPv6

2.0.1 (2012-04-06)

Bugs Fixed

  • Sending data faster than a socket could transmit it wasn’t handled correctly.

2.0.0 (2011-12-10)

Bugs Fixed

  • zc.ngi.async listeners didn’t provide the real address when binding to port 0.

2.0.0a6 (2011-05-26)

Bugs Fixed

  • If application code made many small writes, each write was sent individually, which could trigger Nagle’s algorithm.

2.0.0a5 (2010-08-19)

New Features:

  • Connection objects have a new peer_address attribute, which is equivilent to calling getpeername() on sockets.

Bugs Fixed:

  • Servers using unix-domain sockets didn’t clean up socket files.
  • When testing listeners were closed, handle_close, rather than close, was called on server connections.
  • The zc.ngi.async connections’ write and writelines methods didn’t raise errors when called on closed connections.
  • The built-in connection adapters and handy adapter base class didn’t implement __nonzero__.

2.0.0a4 (2010-07-27)

Bugs Fixed:

  • When using zc.ngi.testing and a server sent input and closed a connection before set_handler was called on the client, the input sent by the server was lost.

  • By default, calling close on a connection could caause already written data not to be sent. Now, don’t close connections until data passed to write or writelines as, at least, been passed to the underlying IO system (e.g. socket.send).

    (This means the undocumented practive of sending zc.ngi.END_OF_DATA to write is now deprecated.)

2.0.0a3 (2010-07-22)

Bugs Fixed:

  • Fixed a packaging bug.

2.0.0a2 (2010-07-22)

New Features:

  • There’s a new experimental zc.ngi.async.Implementation.listener option to run each client (server connection) in it’s own thread.

    (It’s not documented. It’s experimental, but there is a doctest.)

Bugs Fixed:

  • There was a bug in handling connecting to testing servers that caused printing handlers to be used when they shouldn’t have been.

2.0.0a1 (2010-07-08)

New Features:

  • New improved documentation
  • Support for writing request handlers in an imperative style using generators.
  • Cleaner testing interfaces
  • Refactored zc.ngi.async thread management to make the blocking APIs unnecessary. zc.ngi.async.blocking is now deprecated.
  • Added support for running multiple async implementations in separate threads. This is useful in applications with fewer network connections and with handlers that tend to perform long-lating computations that would be unacceptable with a single select loop.
  • Renamed IConnection.setHandler to set_handler.
  • Dropped support for Python 2.4.

Bugs Fixed:

  • The Sized request adapter’s writelines method was broken.
  • There we a number of problems with error handling in the async implementation.

1.1.6 (2010-03-01)

Bug fixed:

  • Fixed bad logging of listening on .... The message was emitted before the actual operation was successful. Emits now a warning unable to listen on... if binding to the given address fails.

1.1.5 (2010-01-19)

Bug fixed:

  • Fixed a fatal win32 problem (socket.AF_UNIX usage).
  • Removed impropper use of the SO_REUSEADDR socket option on windows.
  • The sized adapter performed poorly (because it triggered Nagle’s algorithm).

1.1.4 (2009-10-28)

Bug fixed:

  • Spurious warnings sometimes occurred due to a race condition in setting up servers.
  • Added missing “writelines” method to zc.ngi.adapters.Lines.

1.1.3 (2009-07-30)

Bug fixed:

  • zc.ngi.async bind failures weren’t handled properly, causing lots of annoying log messages to get spewed, which tesnded to fill up log files.

1.1.2 (2009-07-02)

Bugs fixed:

  • The zc.ngi.async thread wasn’t named. All threads should be named.

1.1.1 (2009-06-29)

Bugs fixed:

  • zc.ngi.blocking didn’t properly handle connection failures.

1.1.0 (2009-05-26)

Bugs fixed:

  • Blocking input and output files didn’t properly synchronize closing.
  • The testing implementation made muiltiple simultaneous calls to handler methods in violation of the promise made in
  • Async TCP servers used too low a listen depth, causing performance issues and spurious test failures.

New features:

  • Added UDP support.
  • Implementation responsibilities were clarified through an IImplementation interface. The “connector” attribute of the testing and async implementations was renamed to “connect”. The old name still works.
  • Implementations are now required to log handler errors and to close connections in response to connection-handler errors. (Otherwise, handlers, and especially handler adapters, would have to do this.)

1.0.1 (2007-05-30)

Bugs fixed:

  • Server startups sometimes failed with an error like:

    warning: unhandled read event
    warning: unhandled write event
    warning: unhandled read event
    warning: unhandled write event
    2007-05-30T22:22:43 ERROR zc.ngi.async.server listener error
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "", line 69, in read
      File "", line 385, in handle_read_event
      File "/zc/ngi/", line 325, in handle_accept
        sock, addr = self.accept()
    TypeError: unpack non-sequence

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