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Project Description

CHANGES

1.1

(supports Zope 3.4/Zope 2.11/ZODB 3.8)

1.1.1

  • Add support for both ZODB 3.7 and ZODB 3.8 via a small import location monkey patch.
  • Fix name errors caught by pyflakes.

1.1.0

  • adjust to BTrees changes in ZODB 3.8 (thanks Juergen Kartnaller)
  • converted buildout to rely exclusively on eggs

1.0

(supports Zope 3.3/Zope 2.10/ZODB 3.7)

1.0.2

  • Incorporated tests and bug fixes to relationship containers from Markus Kemmerling:
    • ManyToOneRelationship instantiation was broken
    • The findRelationships method misbehaved if both, source and target, are not None, but bool(target) evaluated to False.
    • ISourceRelationship and ITargetRelationship had errors.

1.0.1

(supports Zope 3.3/Zope 2.10/ZODB 3.7)

  • Incorporated test and bug fix from Gabriel Shaar:

    if the target parameter is a container with no objects, then shared.AbstractContainer.isLinked resolves to False in a bool context and tokenization fails. target and tokenize({‘target’: target}) returns the target instead of the result of the tokenize function.

  • Made README.txt tests pass on hopefully wider set of machines (this was a test improvement; the relationship index did not have the fragility). Reported by Gabriel Shaar.

1.0

(supports Zope 3.3/Zope 2.10/ZODB 3.7)

Initial release

Overview

The Relationship package currently contains two main types of components: a relationship index, and some relationship containers. Both are designed for use within the ZODB. They share the model that relationships are full-fledged objects that are indexed for optimized searches. They also share the ability to perform optimized intransitive and transitive relationship searches, and to support arbitrary filter searches on relationship tokens.

The index is a very generic component that can be used to optimize searches for N-ary relationships, can be used standalone or within a catalog, can be used with pluggable token generation schemes, and generally tries to provide a relatively policy-free tool. It is expected to be used primarily as an engine for more specialized and constrained tools and APIs.

The relationship containers use the index to manage two-way relationships, using a derived mapping interface. It is a reasonable example of the index in standalone use.

This document describes the relationship index. See container.txt for documentation of the relationship container.

Index

The index interface searches for object and relationship tokens. To use a relationship index, you need to have interface attributes, or methods callable with no arguments, that are treated as relationship pointers. The pointers may be a collection of items or a single item.

To exercise the index, we’ll come up with a somewhat complex relationship to index. Let’s say we are modeling a generic set-up like SUBJECT RELATIONSHIPTYPE OBJECT in CONTEXT. This could let you let users define relationship types, then index them on the fly. The context can be something like a project, so we could say

“Fred” “has the role of” “Project Manager” on the “zope.org redesign project”.

Mapped to the parts of the relationship object, that’s

[“Fred” (SUBJECT)] [“has the role of” (RELATIONSHIPTYPE)] [“Project Manager” (OBJECT)] on the [“zope.org redesign project” (CONTEXT)].

Without the context, you can still do interesting things like

[“Ygritte” (SUBJECT)] [“manages” (RELATIONSHIPTYPE)] [“Uther” (OBJECT)]

So let’s define a basic interface without the context, and then an extended interface with the context.

>>> from zope import interface
>>> class IRelationship(interface.Interface):
...     subjects = interface.Attribute(
...         'The sources of the relationship; the subject of the sentence')
...     relationshiptype = interface.Attribute(
...         '''unicode: the single relationship type of this relationship;
...         usually contains the verb of the sentence.''')
...     objects = interface.Attribute(
...         '''the targets of the relationship; usually a direct or
...         indirect object in the sentence''')
...
>>> class IContextAwareRelationship(IRelationship):
...     def getContext():
...         '''return a context for the relationship'''
...

Now we’ll create an index. To do that, we must minimally pass in an iterable describing the indexed values. Each item in the iterable must either be an interface element (a zope.interface.Attribute or zope.interface.Method associated with an interface, typically obtained using a spelling like IRelationship[‘subjects’]) or a dict. Each dict must have at least one key: ‘element’, which is the interface element to be indexed. It then can contain other keys to override the default indexing behavior for the element.

The element’s __name__ will be used to refer to this element in queries, unless the dict has a ‘name’ key, which must be a non-empty string.

The element is assumed to be a single value, unless the dict has a ‘multiple’ key with a value equivalent True. In our example, “subjects” and “objects” are potentially multiple values, while “relationshiptype” and “getContext” are single values.

By default, the values for the element will be tokenized and resolved using an intid utility, and stored in a BTrees.IFBTree. This is a good choice if you want to make object tokens easily mergable with typical Zope 3 catalog results. If you need different behavior for any element, you can specify three keys per dict:

  • ‘dump’, the tokenizer, a callable taking (obj, index, cache) and returning a token;
  • ‘load’ the token resolver, a callable taking (token, index, cache) to return the object which the token represents; and
  • ‘btree’, the btree module to use to store and process the tokens, such as BTrees.OOBTree.

If you provide a custom ‘dump’ you will almost certainly need to provide a custom ‘load’; and if your tokens are not integers then you will need to specify a different ‘btree’ (either BTrees.OOBTree or BTrees.OIBTree, as of this writing).

The tokenizing function (‘dump’) must return homogenous, immutable tokens: that is, any given tokenizer should only return tokens that sort unambiguously, across Python versions, which usually mean that they are all of the same type. For instance, a tokenizer should only return ints, or only return strings, or only tuples of strings, and so on. Different tokenizers used for different elements in the same index may return different types. They also may return the same value as the other tokenizers to mean different objects: the stores are separate.

In addition to the one required argument to the class, the signature contains four optional arguments. The ‘defaultTransitiveQueriesFactory’ is the next, and allows you to specify a callable as described in interfaces.ITransitiveQueriesFactory. Without it transitive searches will require an explicit factory every time, which can be tedious. The index package provides a simple implementation that supports transitive searches following two indexed elements (TransposingTransitiveQueriesFactory) and this document describes more complex possible transitive behaviors that can be modeled. For our example, “subjects” and “objects” are the default transitive fields, so if Ygritte (SUBJECT) manages Uther (OBJECT), and Uther (SUBJECT) manages Emily (OBJECT), a search for all those transitively managed by Ygritte will transpose Uther from OBJECT to SUBJECT and find that Uther manages Emily. Similarly, to find all transitive managers of Emily, Uther will change place from SUBJECT to OBJECT in the search.

The next three arguments, ‘dumpRel’, ‘loadRel’ and ‘relFamily’, have to do with the relationship tokens. The default values assume that you will be using intid tokens for the relationships, and so ‘dumpRel’ and ‘loadRel’ tokenize and resolve, respectively, using the intid utility; and ‘relFamily’ defaults to BTrees.IFBTree.

If relationship tokens (from ‘findRelationshipChains’ or ‘apply’ or ‘findRelationshipTokenSet’, or in a filter to most of the search methods) are to be merged with other catalog results, relationship tokens should be based on intids, as in the default. For instance, if some relationships are only available to some users on the basis of security, and you keep an index of this, then you will want to use a filter based on the relationship tokens viewable by the current user as kept by the catalog index.

If you are unable or unwilling to use intid relationship tokens, tokens must still be homogenous and immutable as described above for indexed values tokens.

The last argument is ‘deactivateSets’, which defaults to False. This is an optimization to try and keep relationship index searches from consuming too much of the ZODB’s object cache. It can cause inefficiency under some usages–if queries against the relationship index are very frequent and often use the same sets, for instance–and it exposes a bug in the ZODB at the time of this writing (_p_deactivate on a new object that has been given an _p_oid but has not yet been committed will irretrievably snuff out the object before it has had a chance to be committed, so if you add and query in the same transaction you will have trouble). Pass True to this argument to enable this optimization.

If we had an IIntId utility registered and wanted to use the defaults, then instantiation of an index for our relationship would look like this:

>>> from zc.relationship import index
>>> ix = index.Index(
...     ({'element': IRelationship['subjects'], 'multiple': True},
...      IRelationship['relationshiptype'],
...      {'element': IRelationship['objects'], 'multiple': True},
...      IContextAwareRelationship['getContext']),
...     index.TransposingTransitiveQueriesFactory('subjects', 'objects'))

That’s the simple case. With relatively little fuss, we have an IIndex, and a defaultTransitiveQueriesFactory, implementing ITransitiveQueriesFactory, that switches subjects and objects as described above.

>>> from zc.relationship import interfaces
>>> from zope.interface.verify import verifyObject
>>> verifyObject(interfaces.IIndex, ix)
True
>>> verifyObject(
...     interfaces.ITransitiveQueriesFactory,
...     ix.defaultTransitiveQueriesFactory)
True

For the purposes of a more complex example, though, we are going to exercise more of the index’s options–we’ll use at least one of ‘name’, ‘dump’, ‘load’, and ‘btree’.

  • ‘subjects’ and ‘objects’ will use a custom integer-based token generator. They will share tokens, which will let us use the default TransposingTransitiveQueriesFactory. We can keep using the IFBTree sets, because the tokens are still integers.
  • ‘relationshiptype’ will use a name ‘reltype’ and will just use the unicode value as the token, without translation but with a registration check.
  • ‘getContext’ will use a name ‘context’ but will continue to use the intid utility and use the names from their interface. We will see later that making transitive walks between different token sources must be handled with care.

We will also use the intid utility to resolve relationship tokens. See the relationship container (and container.txt) for examples of changing the relationship type, especially in keyref.py. The example also turns on the ‘deactivateSets’ optimization.

Here are the methods we’ll use for the ‘subjects’ and ‘objects’ tokens, followed by the methods we’ll use for the ‘relationshiptypes’ tokens.

>>> lookup = {}
>>> counter = [0]
>>> prefix = '_z_token__'
>>> def dump(obj, index, cache):
...     assert (interfaces.IIndex.providedBy(index) and
...             isinstance(cache, dict)), (
...         'did not receive correct arguments')
...     token = getattr(obj, prefix, None)
...     if token is None:
...         token = counter[0]
...         counter[0] += 1
...         if counter[0] >= 2147483647:
...             raise RuntimeError("Whoa!  That's a lot of ids!")
...         assert token not in lookup
...         setattr(obj, prefix, token)
...         lookup[token] = obj
...     return token
...
>>> def load(token, index, cache):
...     assert (interfaces.IIndex.providedBy(index) and
...             isinstance(cache, dict)), (
...         'did not receive correct arguments')
...     return lookup[token]
...
>>> relTypes = []
>>> def relTypeDump(obj, index, cache):
...     assert obj in relTypes, 'unknown relationshiptype'
...     return obj
...
>>> def relTypeLoad(token, index, cache):
...     assert token in relTypes, 'unknown relationshiptype'
...     return obj
...

Note that these implementations are completely silly if we actually cared about ZODB-based persistence: to even make it half-acceptable we should make the counter, lookup, and and relTypes persistently stored somewhere using a reasonable persistent data structure. This is just a demonstration example.

Now we can make an index.

As in our initial example, we are going to use the simple transitive query factory defined in the index module for our default transitive behavior: when you want to do transitive searches, transpose ‘subjects’ with ‘objects’ and keep everything else; and if both subjects and objects are provided, don’t do any transitive search.

>>> from BTrees import OIBTree # could also be OOBTree
>>> ix = index.Index(
...     ({'element': IRelationship['subjects'], 'multiple': True,
...       'dump': dump, 'load': load},
...      {'element': IRelationship['relationshiptype'],
...       'dump': relTypeDump, 'load': relTypeLoad, 'btree': OIBTree,
...       'name': 'reltype'},
...      {'element': IRelationship['objects'], 'multiple': True,
...       'dump': dump, 'load': load},
...      {'element': IContextAwareRelationship['getContext'],
...       'name': 'context'}),
...     index.TransposingTransitiveQueriesFactory('subjects', 'objects'))

We’ll want to put the index somewhere in the system so it can find the intid utility. We’ll add it as a utility just as part of the example. As long as the index has a valid __parent__ that is itself connected transitively to a site manager with the desired intid utility, everything should work fine, so no need to install it as utility. This is just an example.

>>> from zope import interface
>>> sm = app.getSiteManager()
>>> sm['rel_index'] = ix
>>> import zope.component.interfaces
>>> registry = zope.component.interfaces.IComponentRegistry(sm)
>>> registry.registerUtility(ix, interfaces.IIndex)
>>> import transaction
>>> transaction.commit()

Now we’ll create some representative objects that we can relate, and create and index our first example relationship.

In the example, note that the context will only be available as an adapter to ISpecialRelationship objects: the index tries to adapt objects to the appropriate interface, and considers the value to be empty if it cannot adapt.

>>> import persistent
>>> from zope.app.container.contained import Contained
>>> class Base(persistent.Persistent, Contained):
...     def __init__(self, name):
...         self.name = name
...     def __repr__(self):
...         return '<%s %r>' % (self.__class__.__name__, self.name)
...
>>> class Person(Base): pass
...
>>> class Role(Base): pass
...
>>> class Project(Base): pass
...
>>> class Company(Base): pass
...
>>> class Relationship(persistent.Persistent, Contained):
...     interface.implements(IRelationship)
...     def __init__(self, subjects, relationshiptype, objects):
...         self.subjects = subjects
...         assert relationshiptype in relTypes
...         self.relationshiptype = relationshiptype
...         self.objects = objects
...     def __repr__(self):
...         return '<%r %s %r>' % (
...             self.subjects, self.relationshiptype, self.objects)
...
>>> class ISpecialRelationship(interface.Interface):
...     pass
...
>>> from zope import component
>>> class ContextRelationshipAdapter(object):
...     component.adapts(ISpecialRelationship)
...     interface.implements(IContextAwareRelationship)
...     def __init__(self, adapted):
...         self.adapted = adapted
...     def getContext(self):
...         return getattr(self.adapted, '_z_context__', None)
...     def setContext(self, value):
...         self.adapted._z_context__ = value
...     def __getattr__(self, name):
...         return getattr(self.adapted, name)
...
>>> component.provideAdapter(ContextRelationshipAdapter)
>>> class SpecialRelationship(Relationship):
...     interface.implements(ISpecialRelationship)
...
>>> people = {}
>>> for p in ['Abe', 'Bran', 'Cathy', 'David', 'Emily', 'Fred', 'Gary',
...           'Heather', 'Ingrid', 'Jim', 'Karyn', 'Lee', 'Mary',
...           'Nancy', 'Olaf', 'Perry', 'Quince', 'Rob', 'Sam', 'Terry',
...           'Uther', 'Van', 'Warren', 'Xen', 'Ygritte', 'Zane']:
...     app[p] = people[p] = Person(p)
...
>>> relTypes.extend(
...     ['has the role of', 'manages', 'taught', 'commissioned'])
>>> roles = {}
>>> for r in ['Project Manager', 'Software Engineer', 'Designer',
...           'Systems Administrator', 'Team Leader', 'Mascot']:
...     app[r] = roles[r] = Role(r)
...
>>> projects = {}
>>> for p in ['zope.org redesign', 'Zope 3 manual',
...           'improved test coverage', 'Vault design and implementation']:
...     app[p] = projects[p] = Project(p)
...
>>> companies = {}
>>> for c in ['Ynod Corporation', 'HAL, Inc.', 'Zookd']:
...     app[c] = companies[c] = Company(c)
...
>>> app['fredisprojectmanager'] = rel = SpecialRelationship(
...     (people['Fred'],), 'has the role of', (roles['Project Manager'],))
>>> IContextAwareRelationship(rel).setContext(
...     projects['zope.org redesign'])
>>> ix.index(rel)
>>> transaction.commit()

Token conversion

Before we examine the searching features, we should quickly discuss the tokenizing API on the index. All search queries must use value tokens, and search results can sometimes be value or relationship tokens. Therefore converting between tokens and real values can be important. The index provides a number of conversion methods for this purpose.

Arguably the most important is tokenizeQuery: it takes a query, in which each key and value are the name of an indexed value and an actual value, respectively; and returns a query in which the actual values have been converted to tokens. For instance, consider the following example. It’s a bit hard to show the conversion reliably (we can’t know what the intid tokens will be, for instance) so we just show that the result’s values are tokenized versions of the inputs.

>>> res = ix.tokenizeQuery(
...     {'objects': roles['Project Manager'],
...      'context': projects['zope.org redesign']})
>>> res['objects'] == dump(roles['Project Manager'], ix, {})
True
>>> from zope.app.intid.interfaces import IIntIds
>>> intids = component.getUtility(IIntIds, context=ix)
>>> res['context'] == intids.getId(projects['zope.org redesign'])
True

Tokenized queries can be resolved to values again using resolveQuery.

>>> sorted(ix.resolveQuery(res).items()) # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[('context', <Project 'zope.org redesign'>),
 ('objects', <Role 'Project Manager'>)]

Other useful conversions are tokenizeValues, which returns an iterable of tokens for the values of the given index name;

>>> examples = (people['Abe'], people['Bran'], people['Cathy'])
>>> res = list(ix.tokenizeValues(examples, 'subjects'))
>>> res == [dump(o, ix, {}) for o in examples]
True

resolveValueTokens, which returns an iterable of values for the tokens of the given index name;

>>> list(ix.resolveValueTokens(res, 'subjects'))
[<Person 'Abe'>, <Person 'Bran'>, <Person 'Cathy'>]

tokenizeRelationship, which returns a token for the given relationship;

>>> res = ix.tokenizeRelationship(rel)
>>> res == intids.getId(rel)
True

resolveRelationshipToken, which returns a relationship for the given token;

>>> ix.resolveRelationshipToken(res) is rel
True

tokenizeRelationships, which returns an iterable of tokens for the relations given; and

>>> app['another_rel'] = another_rel = Relationship(
...     (companies['Ynod Corporation'],), 'commissioned',
...     (projects['Vault design and implementation'],))
>>> res = list(ix.tokenizeRelationships((another_rel, rel)))
>>> res == [intids.getId(r) for r in (another_rel, rel)]
True

resolveRelationshipTokens, which returns an iterable of relations for the tokens given.

>>> list(ix.resolveRelationshipTokens(res)) == [another_rel, rel]
True

Basic searching

Now we move to the meat of the interface: searching. The index interface defines several searching methods:

  • findValues and findValueTokens ask “to what is this related?”;
  • findRelationshipChains and findRelationshipTokenChains ask “how is this related?”, especially for transitive searches;
  • isLinked asks “does a relationship like this exist?”;
  • findRelationshipTokenSet asks “what are the intransitive relationships that match my query?” and is particularly useful for low-level usage of the index data structures;
  • findRelationships asks the same question, but returns an iterable of relationships rather than a set of tokens;
  • findValueTokenSet asks “what are the value tokens for this particular indexed name and this relationship token?” and is useful for low-level usage of the index data structures such as transitive query factories; and
  • the standard zope.index method apply essentially exposes the findRelationshipTokenSet and findValueTokens methods via a query object spelling.

findRelationshipChains and findRelationshipTokenChains are paired methods, doing the same work but with and without resolving the resulting tokens; and findValues and findValueTokens are also paired in the same way.

It is very important to note that all queries must use tokens, not actual objects. As introduced above, the index provides a method to ease that requirement, in the form of a tokenizeQuery method that converts a dict with objects to a dict with tokens. You’ll see below that we shorten our calls by stashing tokenizeQuery away in the ‘q’ name.

We have indexed our first example relationship–”Fred has the role of project manager in the zope.org redesign”–so we can search for it. We’ll first look at findValues and findValueTokens. Here, we ask ‘who has the role of project manager in the zope.org redesign?’. We do it first with findValues and then with findTokenValues.

>>> q = ix.tokenizeQuery
>>> list(ix.findValues(
...     'subjects',
...     q({'reltype': 'has the role of',
...       'objects': roles['Project Manager'],
...       'context': projects['zope.org redesign']})))
[<Person 'Fred'>]
>>> [load(t, ix, {}) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...     'subjects',
...     q({'reltype': 'has the role of',
...       'objects': roles['Project Manager'],
...       'context': projects['zope.org redesign']}))]
[<Person 'Fred'>]

If we want to find all the relationships for which Fred is a subject, we can use findRelationshipTokenSet. It, combined with findValueTokenSet, is useful for querying the index data structures at a fairly low level, when you want to use the data in a way that the other search methods don’t support.

findRelationshipTokenSet, given a single dictionary of {indexName: token}, returns a set (based on the btree family for relationships in the index) of relationship tokens that match it, intransitively.

>>> res = ix.findRelationshipTokenSet(q({'subjects': people['Fred']}))
>>> res # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<BTrees.IFBTree.IFTreeSet object at ...>
>>> [intids.getObject(t) for t in res]
[<(<Person 'Fred'>,) has the role of (<Role 'Project Manager'>,)>]

findRelationships does the same thing but with resolving the relationships.

>>> list(ix.findRelationships(q({'subjects': people['Fred']})))
[<(<Person 'Fred'>,) has the role of (<Role 'Project Manager'>,)>]

findValueTokenSet, given a relationship token and a value name, returns a set (based on the btree family for the value) of value tokens for that relationship.

>>> res = ix.findValueTokenSet(list(res)[0], 'subjects')
>>> res # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<BTrees.IFBTree.IFTreeSet object at ...>
>>> [load(t, ix, {}) for t in res]
[<Person 'Fred'>]

The apply method, part of the zope.index.interfaces.IIndexSearch interface, can essentially only duplicate the findValueTokens and findRelationshipTokenSet search calls. The only additional functionality is that the results always are IFBTree sets: if the tokens requested are not in an IFBTree set (on the basis of the ‘btree’ key during instantiation, for instance) then the index raises a ValueError. A wrapper dict specifies the type of search with the key, and the value should be the arguments for the search.

Here, we ask for the current known roles on the zope.org redesign.

>>> res = ix.apply({'values':
...     {'resultName': 'objects', 'query':
...         q({'reltype': 'has the role of',
...            'context': projects['zope.org redesign']})}})
>>> res # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
IFSet([...])
>>> [load(t, ix, {}) for t in res]
[<Role 'Project Manager'>]

Ideally, this would fail, because the tokens, while integers, are not actually mergable with a intid-based catalog results. However, the index only complains if it can tell that the returning set is not an IFTreeSet or IFSet.

Here, we ask for the relationships that have the ‘has the role of’ type.

>>> res = ix.apply({'relationships':
...     q({'reltype': 'has the role of'})})
... doctest: +ELLIPSIS
>>> res # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<BTrees.IFBTree.IFTreeSet object at ...>
>>> [intids.getObject(t) for t in res]
[<(<Person 'Fred'>,) has the role of (<Role 'Project Manager'>,)>]

Here, we ask for the known relationships for the zope.org redesign. It will fail, because the result cannot be expressed as an IFBTree.IFTreeSet

>>> res = ix.apply({'values':
...     {'resultName': 'reltype', 'query':
...         q({'context': projects['zope.org redesign']})}})
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: cannot fulfill `apply` interface because cannot return an
            IFBTree-based result

The last basic search methods, isLinked, findRelationshipTokenChains, and findRelationshipChains, are most useful for transitive searches. We have not yet created any relationships that we can use transitively. They still will work with intransitive searches, so we will demonstrate them here as an introduction, then discuss them more below when we introduce transitive relationships.

findRelationshipChains and findRelationshipTokenChains let you find transitive relationship paths. Right now a single relationship–a single point–can’t create much of a line. So first, here’s a somewhat useless example:

>>> [[intids.getObject(t) for t in path] for path in
...  ix.findRelationshipTokenChains(
...     q({'reltype': 'has the role of'}))]
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[[<(<Person 'Fred'>,) has the role of (<Role 'Project Manager'>,)>]]

That’s useless, because there’s no chance of it being a transitive search, and so you might as well use findRelationshipTokenSet. This will become more interesting later on.

Here’s the same example with findRelationshipChains, which resolves the relationship tokens itself.

>>> list(ix.findRelationshipChains(q({'reltype': 'has the role of'})))
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[(<(<Person 'Fred'>,) has the role of (<Role 'Project Manager'>,)>,)]

isLinked returns a boolean if there is at least one path that matches the search–in fact, the implementation is essentially

try:
    iter(ix.findRelationshipTokenChains(...args...)).next()
except StopIteration:
    return False
else:
    return True

So, we can say

>>> ix.isLinked(q({'subjects': people['Fred']}))
True
>>> ix.isLinked(q({'subjects': people['Gary']}))
False
>>> ix.isLinked(q({'subjects': people['Fred'],
...                'reltype': 'manages'}))
False

This is reasonably useful as is, to test basic assertions. It also works with transitive searches, as we will see below.

An even simpler example

(This was added to test that searching for a simple relationship works even when the transitive query factory is not set.)

Let’s create a very simple relation type, using strings as the source and target types:

>>> class IStringRelation(interface.Interface):
...     name = interface.Attribute("The name of the value.")
...     value = interface.Attribute("The value associated with the name.")
>>> class StringRelation(persistent.Persistent, Contained):
...     interface.implements(IStringRelation)
...
...     def __init__(self, name, value):
...         self.name = name
...         self.value = value
>>> app[u"string-relation-1"] = StringRelation("name1", "value1")
>>> app[u"string-relation-2"] = StringRelation("name2", "value2")
>>> transaction.commit()

We can now create an index that uses these:

>>> from BTrees import OOBTree
>>> sx = index.Index(
...     ({"element": IStringRelation["name"],
...       "load": None, "dump": None, "btree": OOBTree},
...      {"element": IStringRelation["value"],
...       "load": None, "dump": None, "btree": OOBTree},
...      ))
>>> app["sx"] = sx
>>> transaction.commit()

And we’ll add the relations to the index:

>>> app["sx"].index(app["string-relation-1"])
>>> app["sx"].index(app["string-relation-2"])

Getting a relationship back out should be very simple. Let’s look for all the values associates with “name1”:

>>> query = sx.tokenizeQuery({"name": "name1"})
>>> list(sx.findValues("value", query))
['value1']

Searching for empty sets

We’ve examined the most basic search capabilities. One other feature of the index and search is that one can search for relationships to an empty set, or, for single-value relationships like ‘reltype’ and ‘context’ in our examples, None.

Let’s add a relationship with a ‘manages’ relationshiptype, and no context; and a relationship with a ‘commissioned’ relationship type, and a company context.

Notice that there are two ways of adding indexes, by the way. We have already seen that the index has an ‘index’ method that takes a relationship. Here we use ‘index_doc’ which is a method defined in zope.index.interfaces.IInjection that requires the token to already be generated. Since we are using intids to tokenize the relationships, we must add them to the ZODB app object to give them the possibility of a connection.

>>> app['abeAndBran'] = rel = Relationship(
...     (people['Abe'],), 'manages', (people['Bran'],))
>>> ix.index_doc(intids.register(rel), rel)
>>> app['abeAndVault'] = rel = SpecialRelationship(
...     (people['Abe'],), 'commissioned',
...     (projects['Vault design and implementation'],))
>>> IContextAwareRelationship(rel).setContext(companies['Zookd'])
>>> ix.index_doc(intids.register(rel), rel)

Now we can search for Abe’s relationship that does not have a context. The None value is always used to match both an empty set and a single None value. The index does not support any other “empty” values at this time.

>>> sorted(
...     repr(load(t, ix, {})) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...         'objects',
...         q({'subjects': people['Abe']})))
["<Person 'Bran'>", "<Project 'Vault design and implementation'>"]
>>> [load(t, ix, {}) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...     'objects', q({'subjects': people['Abe'], 'context': None}))]
[<Person 'Bran'>]
>>> sorted(
...     repr(v) for v in ix.findValues(
...         'objects',
...         q({'subjects': people['Abe']})))
["<Person 'Bran'>", "<Project 'Vault design and implementation'>"]
>>> list(ix.findValues(
...     'objects', q({'subjects': people['Abe'], 'context': None})))
[<Person 'Bran'>]

Note that the index does not currently support searching for relationships that have any value, or one of a set of values. This may be added at a later date; the spelling for such queries are among the more troublesome parts.

Working with transitive searches

It’s possible to do transitive searches as well. This can let you find all transitive bosses, or transitive subordinates, in our ‘manages’ relationship type. Let’s set up some example relationships. Using letters to represent our people, we’ll create three hierarchies like this:

    A        JK           R
   / \      /  \
  B   C    LM   NOP     S T U
 / \  |     |          /| |  \
D  E  F     Q         V W X   |
|     |                    \--Y
H     G                       |
|                             Z
I

This means that, for instance, person “A” (“Abe”) manages “B” (“Bran”) and “C” (“Cathy”).

We already have a relationship from Abe to Bran, so we’ll only be adding the rest.

>>> relmap = (
...     ('A', 'C'), ('B', 'D'), ('B', 'E'), ('C', 'F'),
...     ('F', 'G'), ('D', 'H'), ('H', 'I'), ('JK', 'LM'), ('JK', 'NOP'),
...     ('LM', 'Q'), ('R', 'STU'), ('S', 'VW'), ('T', 'X'), ('UX', 'Y'),
...     ('Y', 'Z'))
>>> letters = dict((name[0], ob) for name, ob in people.items())
>>> for subs, obs in relmap:
...     subs = tuple(letters[l] for l in subs)
...     obs = tuple(letters[l] for l in obs)
...     app['%sManages%s' % (''.join(o.name for o in subs),
...                          ''.join(o.name for o in obs))] = rel = (
...         Relationship(subs, 'manages', obs))
...     ix.index(rel)
...

Now we can do both transitive and intransitive searches. Here are a few examples.

>>> [load(t, ix, {}) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...     'subjects',
...     q({'objects': people['Ingrid'],
...        'reltype': 'manages'}))
...     ]
[<Person 'Heather'>, <Person 'David'>, <Person 'Bran'>, <Person 'Abe'>]

Here’s the same thing using findValues.

>>> list(ix.findValues(
...     'subjects',
...     q({'objects': people['Ingrid'],
...        'reltype': 'manages'})))
[<Person 'Heather'>, <Person 'David'>, <Person 'Bran'>, <Person 'Abe'>]

Notice that they are in order, walking away from the search start. It also is breadth-first–for instance, look at the list of superiors to Zane: Xen and Uther come before Rob and Terry.

>>> res = list(ix.findValues(
...     'subjects',
...     q({'objects': people['Zane'], 'reltype': 'manages'})))
>>> res[0]
<Person 'Ygritte'>
>>> sorted(repr(p) for p in res[1:3])
["<Person 'Uther'>", "<Person 'Xen'>"]
>>> sorted(repr(p) for p in res[3:])
["<Person 'Rob'>", "<Person 'Terry'>"]

Notice that all the elements of the search are maintained as it is walked–only the transposed values are changed, and the rest remain statically. For instance, notice the difference between these two results.

>>> [load(t, ix, {}) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...     'objects',
...     q({'subjects': people['Cathy'], 'reltype': 'manages'}))]
[<Person 'Fred'>, <Person 'Gary'>]
>>> res = [load(t, ix, {}) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...     'objects',
...     q({'subjects': people['Cathy']}))]
>>> res[0]
<Person 'Fred'>
>>> sorted(repr(i) for i in res[1:])
["<Person 'Gary'>", "<Role 'Project Manager'>"]

The first search got what we expected for our management relationshiptype– walking from Cathy, the relationshiptype was maintained, and we only got the Gary subordinate. The second search didn’t specify the relationshiptype, so the transitive search included the Role we added first (Fred has the role of Project Manager for the zope.org redesign).

The maxDepth argument allows control over how far to search. For instance, if we only want to search for Bran’s subordinates a maximum of two steps deep, we can do so:

>>> res = [load(t, ix, {}) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...     'objects',
...     q({'subjects': people['Bran']}),
...     maxDepth=2)]
>>> sorted(repr(i) for i in res)
["<Person 'David'>", "<Person 'Emily'>", "<Person 'Heather'>"]

The same is true for findValues.

>>> res = list(ix.findValues(
...     'objects',
...     q({'subjects': people['Bran']}), maxDepth=2))
>>> sorted(repr(i) for i in res)
["<Person 'David'>", "<Person 'Emily'>", "<Person 'Heather'>"]

A minimum depth–a number of relationships that must be traversed before results are desired–can also be achieved trivially using the targetFilter argument described soon below. For now, we will continue in the order of the arguments list, so filter is up next.

The filter argument takes an object (such as a function) that provides interfaces.IFilter. As the interface lists, it receives the current chain of relationship tokens (“relchain”), the original query that started the search (“query”), the index object (“index”), and a dictionary that will be used throughout the search and then discarded that can be used for optimizations (“cache”). It should return a boolean, which determines whether the given relchain should be used at all–traversed or returned. For instance, if security dictates that the current user can only see certain relationships, the filter could be used to make only the available relationships traversable. Other uses are only getting relationships that were created after a given time, or that have some annotation (available after resolving the token).

Let’s look at an example of a filter that only allows relationships in a given set, the way a security-based filter might work. We’ll then use it to model a situation in which the current user can’t see that Ygritte is managed by Uther, in addition to Xen.

>>> s = set(intids.getId(r) for r in app.values()
...         if IRelationship.providedBy(r))
>>> relset = list(
...     ix.findRelationshipTokenSet(q({'subjects': people['Xen']})))
>>> len(relset)
1
>>> s.remove(relset[0])
>>> dump(people['Uther'], ix, {}) in list(
...     ix.findValueTokens('subjects', q({'objects': people['Ygritte']})))
True
>>> dump(people['Uther'], ix, {}) in list(ix.findValueTokens(
...     'subjects', q({'objects': people['Ygritte']}),
...     filter=lambda relchain, query, index, cache: relchain[-1] in s))
False
>>> people['Uther'] in list(
...     ix.findValues('subjects', q({'objects': people['Ygritte']})))
True
>>> people['Uther'] in list(ix.findValues(
...     'subjects', q({'objects': people['Ygritte']}),
...     filter=lambda relchain, query, index, cache: relchain[-1] in s))
False

The next two search arguments are the targetQuery and the targetFilter. They both are filters on the output of the search methods, while not affecting the traversal/search process. The targetQuery takes a query identical to the main query, and the targetFilter takes an IFilter identical to the one used by the filter argument. The targetFilter can do all of the work of the targetQuery, but the targetQuery makes a common case–wanting to find the paths between two objects, or if two objects are linked at all, for instance–convenient.

We’ll skip over targetQuery for a moment (we’ll return when we revisit findRelationshipChains and isLinked), and look at targetFilter. targetFilter can be used for many tasks, such as only returning values that are in specially annotated relationships, or only returning values that have traversed a certain hinge relationship in a two-part search, or other tasks. A very simply one, though, is to effectively specify a minimum traversal depth. Here, we find the people who are precisely two steps down from Bran, no more and no less. We do it twice, once with findValueTokens and once with findValues.

>>> [load(t, ix, {}) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...     'objects', q({'subjects': people['Bran']}), maxDepth=2,
...     targetFilter=lambda relchain, q, i, c: len(relchain)>=2)]
[<Person 'Heather'>]
>>> list(ix.findValues(
...     'objects', q({'subjects': people['Bran']}), maxDepth=2,
...     targetFilter=lambda relchain, q, i, c: len(relchain)>=2))
[<Person 'Heather'>]

Heather is the only person precisely two steps down from Bran.

Notice that we specified both maxDepth and targetFilter. We could have received the same output by specifying a targetFilter of len(relchain)==2 and no maxDepth, but there is an important difference in efficiency. maxDepth and filter can reduce the amount of work done by the index because they can stop searching after reaching the maxDepth, or failing the filter; the targetFilter and targetQuery arguments simply hide the results obtained, which can reduce a bit of work in the case of getValues but generally don’t reduce any of the traversal work.

The last argument to the search methods is transitiveQueriesFactory. It is a powertool that replaces the index’s default traversal factory for the duration of the search. This allows custom traversal for individual searches, and can support a number of advanced use cases. For instance, our index assumes that you want to traverse objects and sources, and that the context should be constant; that may not always be the desired traversal behavior. If we had a relationship of PERSON1 TAUGHT PERSON2 (the lessons of PERSON3) then to find the teachers of any given person you might want to traverse PERSON1, but sometimes you might want to traverse PERSON3 as well. You can change the behavior by providing a different factory.

To show this example we will need to add a few more relationships. We will say that Mary teaches Rob the lessons of Abe; Olaf teaches Zane the lessons of Bran; Cathy teaches Bran the lessons of Lee; David teaches Abe the lessons of Zane; and Emily teaches Mary the lessons of Ygritte.

In the diagram, left-hand lines indicate “taught” and right-hand lines indicate “the lessons of”, so

E   Y
 \ /
  M

should be read as “Emily taught Mary the lessons of Ygritte”. Here’s the full diagram:

          C   L
           \ /
        O   B
         \ /
E   Y D   Z
 \ /   \ /
  M     A
   \   /
    \ /
     R

You can see then that the transitive path of Rob’s teachers is Mary and Emily, but the transitive path of Rob’s lessons is Abe, Zane, Bran, and Lee.

Transitive queries factories must do extra work when the transitive walk is across token types. We have used the TransposingTransitiveQueriesFactory to build our transposers before, but now we need to write a custom one that translates the tokens (ooh! a TokenTranslatingTransposingTransitiveQueriesFactory! …maybe we won’t go that far…).

We will add the relationships, build the custom transitive factory, and then again do the search work twice, once with findValueTokens and once with findValues.

>>> for triple in ('EMY', 'MRA', 'DAZ', 'OZB', 'CBL'):
...     teacher, student, source = (letters[l] for l in triple)
...     rel = SpecialRelationship((teacher,), 'taught', (student,))
...     app['%sTaught%sTo%s' % (
...         teacher.name, source.name, student.name)] = rel
...     IContextAwareRelationship(rel).setContext(source)
...     ix.index_doc(intids.register(rel), rel)
...
>>> def transitiveFactory(relchain, query, index, cache):
...     dynamic = cache.get('dynamic')
...     if dynamic is None:
...         intids = cache['intids'] = component.getUtility(
...             IIntIds, context=index)
...         static = cache['static'] = {}
...         dynamic = cache['dynamic'] = []
...         names = ['objects', 'context']
...         for nm, val in query.items():
...             try:
...                 ix = names.index(nm)
...             except ValueError:
...                 static[nm] = val
...             else:
...                 if dynamic:
...                     # both were specified: no transitive search known.
...                     del dynamic[:]
...                     cache['intids'] = False
...                     break
...                 else:
...                     dynamic.append(nm)
...                     dynamic.append(names[not ix])
...         else:
...             intids = component.getUtility(IIntIds, context=index)
...             if dynamic[0] == 'objects':
...                 def translate(t):
...                     return dump(intids.getObject(t), index, cache)
...             else:
...                 def translate(t):
...                     return intids.register(load(t, index, cache))
...             cache['translate'] = translate
...     else:
...         static = cache['static']
...         translate = cache['translate']
...     if dynamic:
...         for r in index.findValueTokenSet(relchain[-1], dynamic[1]):
...             res = {dynamic[0]: translate(r)}
...             res.update(static)
...             yield res
>>> [load(t, ix, {}) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...     'subjects',
...     q({'objects': people['Rob'], 'reltype': 'taught'}))]
[<Person 'Mary'>, <Person 'Emily'>]
>>> [intids.getObject(t) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...     'context',
...     q({'objects': people['Rob'], 'reltype': 'taught'}),
...     transitiveQueriesFactory=transitiveFactory)]
[<Person 'Abe'>, <Person 'Zane'>, <Person 'Bran'>, <Person 'Lee'>]
>>> list(ix.findValues(
...     'subjects',
...     q({'objects': people['Rob'], 'reltype': 'taught'})))
[<Person 'Mary'>, <Person 'Emily'>]
>>> list(ix.findValues(
...     'context',
...     q({'objects': people['Rob'], 'reltype': 'taught'}),
...     transitiveQueriesFactory=transitiveFactory))
[<Person 'Abe'>, <Person 'Zane'>, <Person 'Bran'>, <Person 'Lee'>]

transitiveQueryFactories can be very powerful, and we aren’t finished talking about them in this document: see “Transitively mapping multiple elements” below.

We have now discussed, or at least mentioned, all of the available search arguments. The apply method’s ‘values’ search has the same arguments and features as findValues, so it can also do these transitive tricks. Let’s get all of Karyn’s subordinates.

>>> res = ix.apply({'values':
...     {'resultName': 'objects', 'query':
...         q({'reltype': 'manages',
...           'subjects': people['Karyn']})}})
>>> res # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
IFSet([...])
>>> sorted(repr(load(t, ix, {})) for t in res)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
["<Person 'Lee'>", "<Person 'Mary'>", "<Person 'Nancy'>",
 "<Person 'Olaf'>", "<Person 'Perry'>", "<Person 'Quince'>"]

As we return to findRelationshipChains and findRelationshipTokenChains, we also return to the search argument we postponed above: targetQuery.

The findRelationshipChains and findRelationshipTokenChains can simply find all paths:

>>> res = [repr([intids.getObject(t) for t in path]) for path in
...  ix.findRelationshipTokenChains(
...     q({'reltype': 'manages', 'subjects': people['Jim']}
...     ))]
>>> len(res)
3
>>> sorted(res[:2]) # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
["[<(<Person 'Jim'>, <Person 'Karyn'>) manages
    (<Person 'Lee'>, <Person 'Mary'>)>]",
 "[<(<Person 'Jim'>, <Person 'Karyn'>) manages
    (<Person 'Nancy'>, <Person 'Olaf'>, <Person 'Perry'>)>]"]
>>> res[2] # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
"[<(<Person 'Jim'>, <Person 'Karyn'>) manages
   (<Person 'Lee'>, <Person 'Mary'>)>,
  <(<Person 'Lee'>, <Person 'Mary'>) manages
   (<Person 'Quince'>,)>]"
>>> res == [repr(list(p)) for p in
...  ix.findRelationshipChains(
...     q({'reltype': 'manages', 'subjects': people['Jim']}
...     ))]
True

Like findValues, this is a breadth-first search.

If we use a targetQuery with findRelationshipChains, you can find all paths between two searches. For instance, consider the paths between Rob and Ygritte. While a findValues search would only include Rob once if asked to search for supervisors, there are two paths. These can be found with the targetQuery.

>>> res = [repr([intids.getObject(t) for t in path]) for path in
...  ix.findRelationshipTokenChains(
...     q({'reltype': 'manages', 'subjects': people['Rob']}),
...     targetQuery=q({'objects': people['Ygritte']}))]
>>> len(res)
2
>>> sorted(res[:2]) # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
["[<(<Person 'Rob'>,) manages
    (<Person 'Sam'>, <Person 'Terry'>, <Person 'Uther'>)>,
   <(<Person 'Terry'>,) manages (<Person 'Xen'>,)>,
   <(<Person 'Uther'>, <Person 'Xen'>) manages (<Person 'Ygritte'>,)>]",
 "[<(<Person 'Rob'>,) manages
    (<Person 'Sam'>, <Person 'Terry'>, <Person 'Uther'>)>,
   <(<Person 'Uther'>, <Person 'Xen'>) manages (<Person 'Ygritte'>,)>]"]

Here’s a query with no results:

>>> len(list(ix.findRelationshipTokenChains(
...     q({'reltype': 'manages', 'subjects': people['Rob']}),
...     targetQuery=q({'objects': companies['Zookd']}))))
0

isLinked takes the same arguments as all of the other transitive-aware methods. For instance, Rob and Ygritte are transitively linked, but Abe and Zane are not.

>>> ix.isLinked(
...     q({'reltype': 'manages', 'subjects': people['Rob']}),
...     targetQuery=q({'objects': people['Ygritte']}))
True
>>> ix.isLinked(
...     q({'reltype': 'manages', 'subjects': people['Abe']}),
...     targetQuery=q({'objects': people['Ygritte']}))
False

Detecting cycles

Suppose we’re modeling a ‘king in disguise’: someone high up in management also works as a peon to see how his employees’ lives are. We could model this a number of ways that might make more sense than what we’ll do now, but to show cycles at work we’ll just add an additional relationship so that Abe works for Gary. That means that the very longest path from Ingrid up gets a lot longer– in theory, it’s infinitely long, because of the cycle.

The index keeps track of this and stops right when the cycle happens, and right before the cycle duplicates any relationships. It marks the chain that has cycle as a special kind of tuple that implements ICircularRelationshipPath. The tuple has a ‘cycled’ attribute that contains the one or more searches that would be equivalent to following the cycle (given the same transitiveMap).

Let’s actually look at the example we described.

>>> res = list(ix.findRelationshipTokenChains(
...     q({'objects': people['Ingrid'], 'reltype': 'manages'})))
>>> len(res)
4
>>> len(res[3])
4
>>> interfaces.ICircularRelationshipPath.providedBy(res[3])
False
>>> rel = Relationship(
...     (people['Gary'],), 'manages', (people['Abe'],))
>>> app['GaryManagesAbe'] = rel
>>> ix.index(rel)
>>> res = list(ix.findRelationshipTokenChains(
...     q({'objects': people['Ingrid'], 'reltype': 'manages'})))
>>> len(res)
8
>>> len(res[7])
8
>>> interfaces.ICircularRelationshipPath.providedBy(res[7])
True
>>> [sorted(
...     (nm, nm == 'objects' and load(t, ix, {}) or t)
...     for nm, t in search.items()) for search in res[7].cycled]
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[[('objects', <Person 'Abe'>),
  ('reltype', 'manages')]]

Notice that there is nothing special about the new relationship, by the way. If we had started to look for Fred’s supervisors, the cycle marker would have been given for the relationship that points back to Fred as a supervisor to himself. There’s no way for the computer to know which is the “cause” without further help and policy.

Handling cycles can be tricky. Now imagine that we have a cycle that involves a relationship with two objects, only one of which causes the cycle. The other object should continue to be followed.

For instance, lets have Q manage L and Y. The link to L will be a cycle, but the link to Y is not, and should be followed. This means that only the middle relationship chain will be marked as a cycle.

>>> rel = Relationship((people['Quince'],), 'manages',
...                    (people['Lee'], people['Ygritte']))
>>> app['QuinceManagesLeeYgritte'] = rel
>>> ix.index_doc(intids.register(rel), rel)
>>> res = [p for p in ix.findRelationshipTokenChains(
...     q({'reltype': 'manages', 'subjects': people['Mary']}))]
>>> [interfaces.ICircularRelationshipPath.providedBy(p) for p in res]
[False, True, False]
>>> [[intids.getObject(t) for t in p] for p in res]
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[[<(<Person 'Lee'>, <Person 'Mary'>) manages (<Person 'Quince'>,)>],
 [<(<Person 'Lee'>, <Person 'Mary'>) manages (<Person 'Quince'>,)>,
  <(<Person 'Quince'>,) manages (<Person 'Lee'>, <Person 'Ygritte'>)>],
 [<(<Person 'Lee'>, <Person 'Mary'>) manages (<Person 'Quince'>,)>,
  <(<Person 'Quince'>,) manages (<Person 'Lee'>, <Person 'Ygritte'>)>,
  <(<Person 'Ygritte'>,) manages (<Person 'Zane'>,)>]]
>>> [sorted(
...     (nm, nm == 'reltype' and t or load(t, ix, {}))
...     for nm, t in search.items()) for search in res[1].cycled]
[[('reltype', 'manages'), ('subjects', <Person 'Lee'>)]]

Transitively mapping multiple elements

Transitive searches can do whatever searches the transitiveQueriesFactory returns, which means that complex transitive behavior can be modeled. For instance, imagine genealogical relationships. Let’s say the basic relationship is “MALE and FEMALE had CHILDREN”. Walking transitively to get ancestors or descendants would need to distinguish between male children and female children in order to correctly generate the transitive search. This could be accomplished by resolving each child token and examining the object or, probably more efficiently, getting an indexed collection of males and females (and cacheing it in the cache dictionary for further transitive steps) and checking the gender by membership in the indexed collections. Either of these approaches could be performed by a transitiveQueriesFactory. A full example is left as an exercise to the reader.

Lies, damn lies, and statistics

The zope.index.interfaces.IStatistics methods are implemented to provide minimal introspectability. wordCount always returns 0, because words are irrelevant to this kind of index. documentCount returns the number of relationships indexed.

>>> ix.wordCount()
0
>>> ix.documentCount()
25

Reindexing and removing relationships

Using an index over an application’s lifecycle usually requires changes to the indexed objects. As per the zope.index interfaces, index_doc can reindex relationships, unindex_doc can remove them, and clear can clear the entire index.

Here we change the zope.org project manager from Fred to Emily.

>>> [load(t, ix, {}) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...     'subjects',
...     q({'reltype': 'has the role of',
...       'objects': roles['Project Manager'],
...       'context': projects['zope.org redesign']}))]
[<Person 'Fred'>]
>>> rel = intids.getObject(list(ix.findRelationshipTokenSet(
...     q({'reltype': 'has the role of',
...       'objects': roles['Project Manager'],
...       'context': projects['zope.org redesign']})))[0])
>>> rel.subjects = (people['Emily'],)
>>> ix.index_doc(intids.register(rel), rel)
>>> q = ix.tokenizeQuery
>>> [load(t, ix, {}) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...     'subjects',
...     q({'reltype': 'has the role of',
...       'objects': roles['Project Manager'],
...       'context': projects['zope.org redesign']}))]
[<Person 'Emily'>]

Here we remove the relationship that made a cycle for Abe in the ‘king in disguise’ scenario.

>>> res = list(ix.findRelationshipTokenChains(
...     q({'objects': people['Ingrid'],
...        'reltype': 'manages'})))
>>> len(res)
8
>>> len(res[7])
8
>>> interfaces.ICircularRelationshipPath.providedBy(res[7])
True
>>> rel = intids.getObject(list(ix.findRelationshipTokenSet(
...     q({'subjects': people['Gary'], 'reltype': 'manages',
...        'objects': people['Abe']})))[0])
>>> ix.unindex(rel) # == ix.unindex_doc(intids.getId(rel))
>>> ix.documentCount()
24
>>> res = list(ix.findRelationshipTokenChains(
...     q({'objects': people['Ingrid'], 'reltype': 'manages'})))
>>> len(res)
4
>>> len(res[3])
4
>>> interfaces.ICircularRelationshipPath.providedBy(res[3])
False

Finally we clear out the whole index.

>>> ix.clear()
>>> ix.documentCount()
0
>>> list(ix.findRelationshipTokenChains(
...     q({'objects': people['Ingrid'], 'reltype': 'manages'})))
[]
>>> [load(t, ix, {}) for t in ix.findValueTokens(
...     'subjects',
...     q({'reltype': 'has the role of',
...       'objects': roles['Project Manager'],
...       'context': projects['zope.org redesign']}))]
[]

Optimizing relationship index use

There are three optimization opportunities built into the index.

  • use the cache to load and dump tokens;
  • don’t load or dump tokens (the values themselves may be used as tokens); and
  • have the returned value be of the same btree family as the result family.

For some operations, particularly with hundreds or thousands of members in a single relationship value, some of these optimizations can speed up some common-case reindexing work by around 100 times.

The easiest (and perhaps least useful) optimization is that all dump calls and all load calls generated by a single operation share a cache dictionary per call type (dump/load), per indexed relationship value. Therefore, for instance, we could stash an intids utility, so that we only had to do a utility lookup once, and thereafter it was only a single dictionary lookup. This is what the default generateToken and resolveToken functions in index.py do: look at them for an example.

A further optimization is to not load or dump tokens at all, but use values that may be tokens. This will be particularly useful if the tokens have __cmp__ (or equivalent) in C, such as built-in types like ints. To specify this behavior, you create an index with the ‘load’ and ‘dump’ values for the indexed attribute descriptions explicitly set to None.

>>> ix = index.Index(
...     ({'element': IRelationship['subjects'], 'multiple': True,
...       'dump': None, 'load': None},
...      {'element': IRelationship['relationshiptype'],
...       'dump': relTypeDump, 'load': relTypeLoad, 'btree': OIBTree,
...       'name': 'reltype'},
...      {'element': IRelationship['objects'], 'multiple': True,
...       'dump': None, 'load': None},
...      {'element': IContextAwareRelationship['getContext'],
...       'name': 'context'}),
...     index.TransposingTransitiveQueriesFactory('subjects', 'objects'))
...
>>> sm['rel_index_2'] = ix
>>> app['ex_rel_1'] = rel = Relationship((1,), 'has the role of', (2,))
>>> ix.index(rel)
>>> list(ix.findValueTokens('objects', {'subjects': 1}))
[2]

Finally, if you have single relationships that relate hundreds or thousands of objects, it can be a huge win if the value is a ‘multiple’ of the same type as the stored BTree for the given attribute. The default BTree family for attributes is IFBTree; IOBTree is also a good choice, and may be preferrable for some applications.

>>> ix = index.Index(
...     ({'element': IRelationship['subjects'], 'multiple': True,
...       'dump': None, 'load': None},
...      {'element': IRelationship['relationshiptype'],
...       'dump': relTypeDump, 'load': relTypeLoad, 'btree': OIBTree,
...       'name': 'reltype'},
...      {'element': IRelationship['objects'], 'multiple': True,
...       'dump': None, 'load': None},
...      {'element': IContextAwareRelationship['getContext'],
...       'name': 'context'}),
...     index.TransposingTransitiveQueriesFactory('subjects', 'objects'))
...
>>> sm['rel_index_3'] = ix
>>> from BTrees import IFBTree
>>> app['ex_rel_2'] = rel = Relationship(
...     IFBTree.IFTreeSet((1,)), 'has the role of', IFBTree.IFTreeSet((2,)))
>>> ix.index(rel)
>>> list(ix.findValueTokens('objects', {'subjects': 1}))
[2]

Remember that BTrees (not just BTreeSets) can be used for these values: the keys are used as the set members in that case.

__contains__ and Unindexing

You can test whether a relationship is in an index with __contains__. Note that this uses the actual relationship, not the relationship token.

>>> ix = index.Index(
...     ({'element': IRelationship['subjects'], 'multiple': True,
...       'dump': dump, 'load': load},
...      {'element': IRelationship['relationshiptype'],
...       'dump': relTypeDump, 'load': relTypeLoad, 'btree': OIBTree,
...       'name': 'reltype'},
...      {'element': IRelationship['objects'], 'multiple': True,
...       'dump': dump, 'load': load},
...      {'element': IContextAwareRelationship['getContext'],
...       'name': 'context'}),
...     index.TransposingTransitiveQueriesFactory('subjects', 'objects'))
>>> ix.documentCount()
0
>>> app['fredisprojectmanager'].subjects = (people['Fred'],)
>>> ix.index(app['fredisprojectmanager'])
>>> ix.index(app['another_rel'])
>>> ix.documentCount()
2
>>> app['fredisprojectmanager'] in ix
True
>>> list(ix.findValues(
...     'subjects',
...     q({'reltype': 'has the role of',
...       'objects': roles['Project Manager'],
...       'context': projects['zope.org redesign']})))
[<Person 'Fred'>]
>>> app['another_rel'] in ix
True
>>> app['abeAndBran'] in ix
False

As noted, you can unindex using unindex(relationship) or unindex_doc(relationship token).

>>> ix.unindex_doc(ix.tokenizeRelationship(app['fredisprojectmanager']))
>>> app['fredisprojectmanager'] in ix
False
>>> list(ix.findValues(
...     'subjects',
...     q({'reltype': 'has the role of',
...       'objects': roles['Project Manager'],
...       'context': projects['zope.org redesign']})))
[]
>>> ix.unindex(app['another_rel'])
>>> app['another_rel'] in ix
False

As defined by zope.index.interfaces.IInjection, if the relationship is not in the index then calling unindex_doc is a no-op; the same holds true for unindex.

>>> ix.unindex(app['abeAndBran'])
>>> ix.unindex_doc(ix.tokenizeRelationship(app['abeAndBran']))
Release History

Release History

2.0dev

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1.0

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File Name & Checksum SHA256 Checksum Help Version File Type Upload Date
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