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Low-level versioning support

Project Description

The zc.vault package provides a low-level versioning support similar to revision control systems, with an example usage and several example add-ons. It’s ZODB-friendly.

Detailed Documentation

Vault

Vaults model versioned containers. A single revision of a vault is typically viewed and (if not yet frozen) manipulated as an “inventory”. Inventories actually manipulate lower-level objects called manifests that are only touched on in this document. Inventories are the primary API.

Inventories model containers, but are not traditional mappings: containment is external to the actual objects in the inventory. You must query the inventory to discover the hierarchy, rather than the objects themselves. For instance, if you put an object in an inventory and want to treat it as a versioned folder, you don’t put children in the object, but in the inventory node that wraps the object. This will be demonstrated repeatedly and in-depth below.

Vaults only contain versioned, frozen manifests, accessed as inventories. Working inventories can be made from any inventory in a vault. They can then be modified, and committed themselves in the vault. Committing an inventory freezes it and all objects it “contains”.

Let’s look at an example. Vaults store manifests, so when you first create one it is empty. Vaults have a basic sequence API, so a len will return 0.

>>> from zc.vault.vault import Vault, Inventory
>>> from zc.vault.core import Manifest
>>> from zc.vault import interfaces
>>> from zope.interface.verify import verifyObject
>>> v = Vault()
>>> len(v)
0
>>> verifyObject(interfaces.IVault, v)
True

The last inventory–the -1 index–is the current one. A shorthand to this inventory is the inventory attribute.

>>> v.inventory # None

Vaults and inventories must have a database connection in order to store their data. We’ll assume we have a ZODB folder named “app” in which we can store our information. This is set up in tests.py when this file is run as a test.

>>> app['vault'] = v

Creating an initial working inventory requires us to merely instantiate it. Usually we pass a versioned inventory on which to base the new inventory, but without that we at least pass the vault.

>>> i = Inventory(vault=v)
>>> verifyObject(interfaces.IInventory, i)
True

Technically, what we have done is create a manifest–the core API for managing the contents–and wrapped an inventory API around it.

>>> verifyObject(interfaces.IManifest, i.manifest)
True

We could have created the manifest explicitly instead.

>>> manifest = Manifest(vault=v)
>>> verifyObject(interfaces.IManifest, manifest)
True
>>> i = Inventory(manifest)
>>> verifyObject(interfaces.IInventory, i)
True

Inventories–or at least the manifests on which they rely–must be stored somewhere in the database before being committed. They provide zope.app.location.interfaces.ILocation so that they can be stored in standard Zope containers as they are being developed.

>>> app['inventory'] = i

Inventories have contents that can seem to directly contain objects. They have a mapping API, and follow the IInventoryContents interface.

>>> verifyObject(interfaces.IInventoryContents, i.contents)
True
>>> len(i.contents.keys())
0
>>> len(i.contents.values())
0
>>> len(i.contents.items())
0
>>> list(i.contents)
[]
>>> i.contents.get('mydemo') # None
>>> 'mydemo' in i
False
>>> i.contents['mydemo']
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
KeyError: 'mydemo'
>>> del i.contents['mydemo']
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
KeyError: 'mydemo'

(ADVANCED SIDE NOTE: feel free to ignore)

The contents object is an API convenience to wrap a relationship. Relationships connect a token to various pieces of information. The token for all inventory contents (the top node) is stored on the vault as the top_token attribute, and lower levels get unique tokens that represent a given location in a vault across inventories.

Contents and items (seen below) essentially get all their data from the relationships and the associated manifest that holds them.

>>> verifyObject(interfaces.IRelationship, i.contents.relationship)
True
>>> i.contents.relationship.token == i.vault.top_token
True
>>> verifyObject(interfaces.IRelationshipContainment,
...              i.contents.relationship.containment)
True
>>> i.contents.relationship.object # None, because contents.

(end ADVANCED SIDE NOTE)

Because it is often convenient to use tokens as a globally unique identifier of a particular object, all inventory items have a “token” attribute.

>>> i.contents.token
1234567

Unlike typical Zope 3 containment as defined in zope.app.container, this containment does not affect the __parent__ or __name__ of the object.

All objects stored in an inventory must be None, or be adaptable to zope.app.keyreference.interfaces.IKeyReference. In standard Zope 3, this includes any instance of a class that extends persistent.Persistent.

All non-None objects must also be adaptable to zc.freeze.interfaces.IFreezable.

Here, we create an object, add it to the application, and try to add it to an inventory.

>>> import persistent
>>> from zope.app.container.contained import Contained
>>> class Demo(persistent.Persistent, Contained):
...     def __repr__(self):
...         return "<%s %r>" % (self.__class__.__name__, self.__name__)
...
>>> app['d1'] = Demo()
>>> i.contents['mydemo'] = app['d1']
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: can only place freezable objects in vault, or None

This error occurs because committing an inventory must freeze itself and freeze all of its contained objects, so that looking at an historical inventory displays the objects as they were at the time of commit. Here’s a simple demo adapter for the Demo objects. We also declare that Demo is IFreezable, an important marker.

>>> import pytz
>>> import datetime
>>> from zope import interface, component, event
>>> from zc.freeze.interfaces import (
...     IFreezing, ObjectFrozenEvent, IFreezable)
>>> from zc.freeze import method
>>> class DemoFreezingAdapter(object):
...     interface.implements(IFreezing)
...     component.adapts(Demo)
...     def __init__(self, context):
...         self.context = context
...     @property
...     def _z_frozen(self):
...         return (getattr(self.context, '_z__freeze_timestamp', None)
...                 is not None)
...     @property
...     def _z_freeze_timestamp(self):
...         return getattr(self.context, '_z__freeze_timestamp', None)
...     @method
...     def _z_freeze(self):
...         self.context._z__freeze_timestamp = datetime.datetime.now(
...             pytz.utc)
...         event.notify(ObjectFrozenEvent(self))
...
>>> component.provideAdapter(DemoFreezingAdapter)
>>> interface.classImplements(Demo, IFreezable)

As an aside, it’s worth noting that the manifest objects provide IFreezing natively, so they can already be queried for the freezing status and timestamp without adaptation. When a manifest is frozen, all “contained” objects should be frozen as well.

It’s not frozen now–and neither is our demo instance.

>>> manifest._z_frozen
False
>>> IFreezing(app['d1'])._z_frozen
False

Now that Demo instances are freezable we can add the object to the inventory. That means adding and removing objects. Here we add one.

>>> i.contents['mydemo'] = app['d1']
>>> i.contents['mydemo']
<Demo u'd1'>
>>> i.__parent__ is app
True
>>> i.contents.__parent__ is i
True
>>> i.contents.get('mydemo')
<Demo u'd1'>
>>> list(i.contents.keys())
['mydemo']
>>> i.contents.values()
[<Demo u'd1'>]
>>> i.contents.items()
[('mydemo', <Demo u'd1'>)]
>>> list(i.contents)
['mydemo']
>>> 'mydemo' in i.contents
True

Now our effective hierarchy simply looks like this:

  (top node)
      |
   'mydemo'
(<Demo u'd1'>)

We will update this hierarchy as we proceed.

Adding an object fires a (special to the package!) IObjectAdded event. This event is not from the standard lifecycleevents package because that one has a different connotation–for instance, as noted before, putting an object in an inventory does not set the __parent__ or __name__ (unless it does not already have a location, in which case it is put in a possibly temporary “held” container, discussed below).

>>> interfaces.IObjectAdded.providedBy(events[-1])
True
>>> isinstance(events[-1].object, int)
True
>>> i.manifest.get(events[-1].object).object is app['d1']
True
>>> events[-1].mapping is i.contents.relationship.containment
True
>>> events[-1].key
'mydemo'

Now we remove the object.

>>> del i.contents['mydemo']
>>> len(i.contents.keys())
0
>>> len(i.contents.values())
0
>>> len(i.contents.items())
0
>>> list(i.contents)
[]
>>> i.contents.get('mydemo') # None
>>> 'mydemo' in i.contents
False
>>> i.contents['mydemo']
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
KeyError: 'mydemo'
>>> del i.contents['mydemo']
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
KeyError: 'mydemo'

Removing an object fires a special IObjectRemoved event (again, not from lifecycleevents).

>>> interfaces.IObjectRemoved.providedBy(events[-1])
True
>>> isinstance(events[-1].object, int)
True
>>> i.manifest.get(events[-1].object).object is app['d1']
True
>>> events[-1].mapping is i.contents.relationship.containment
True
>>> events[-1].key
'mydemo'

In addition to a mapping API, the inventory contents support an ordered container API very similar to the ordered container in zope.app.container.ordered. The ordered nature of the contents mean that iterating is on the basis of the order in which objects were added, by default (earliest first); and that the inventory supports an “updateOrder” method. The method takes an iterable of names in the container: the new order will be the given order. If the set of given names differs at all with the current set of keys, the method will raise ValueError.

>>> i.contents.updateOrder(())
>>> i.contents.updateOrder(('foo',))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Incompatible key set.
>>> i.contents['donald'] = app['d1']
>>> app['b1'] = Demo()
>>> i.contents['barbara'] = app['b1']
>>> app['c1'] = Demo()
>>> app['a1'] = Demo()
>>> i.contents['cathy'] = app['c1']
>>> i.contents['abe'] = app['a1']
>>> list(i.contents.keys())
['donald', 'barbara', 'cathy', 'abe']
>>> i.contents.values()
[<Demo u'd1'>, <Demo u'b1'>, <Demo u'c1'>, <Demo u'a1'>]
>>> i.contents.items() # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[('donald', <Demo u'd1'>), ('barbara', <Demo u'b1'>),
 ('cathy', <Demo u'c1'>), ('abe', <Demo u'a1'>)]
>>> list(i.contents)
['donald', 'barbara', 'cathy', 'abe']
>>> 'cathy' in i.contents
True
>>> i.contents.updateOrder(())
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Incompatible key set.
>>> i.contents.updateOrder(('foo',))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Incompatible key set.
>>> i.contents.updateOrder(iter(('abe', 'barbara', 'cathy', 'donald')))
>>> list(i.contents.keys())
['abe', 'barbara', 'cathy', 'donald']
>>> i.contents.values()
[<Demo u'a1'>, <Demo u'b1'>, <Demo u'c1'>, <Demo u'd1'>]
>>> i.contents.items() # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[('abe', <Demo u'a1'>), ('barbara', <Demo u'b1'>),
 ('cathy', <Demo u'c1'>), ('donald', <Demo u'd1'>)]
>>> list(i.contents)
['abe', 'barbara', 'cathy', 'donald']
>>> i.contents.updateOrder(('abe', 'cathy', 'donald', 'barbara', 'edward'))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Incompatible key set.
>>> list(i.contents)
['abe', 'barbara', 'cathy', 'donald']
>>> del i.contents['cathy']
>>> list(i.contents.keys())
['abe', 'barbara', 'donald']
>>> i.contents.values()
[<Demo u'a1'>, <Demo u'b1'>, <Demo u'd1'>]
>>> i.contents.items() # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[('abe', <Demo u'a1'>), ('barbara', <Demo u'b1'>), ('donald', <Demo u'd1'>)]
>>> list(i.contents)
['abe', 'barbara', 'donald']
>>> i.contents.updateOrder(('barbara', 'abe', 'donald'))
>>> list(i.contents.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald']
>>> i.contents.values()
[<Demo u'b1'>, <Demo u'a1'>, <Demo u'd1'>]

Now our hierarchy looks like this:

             (top node)
             /    |    \
            /     |     \
    'barbara'   'abe'    'donald'
<Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd1'>

Reordering a container fires an event.

>>> interfaces.IOrderChanged.providedBy(events[-1])
True
>>> events[-1].object is i.contents.relationship.containment
True
>>> events[-1].old_keys
('abe', 'barbara', 'donald')

In some circumstances it’s easier to set the new order from a set of tokens. In that case the “updateOrderFromTokens” method is useful.

>>> def getToken(key):
...     return i.contents(k).token
>>> new_order = [getToken(k) for k in ('abe', 'donald', 'barbara')]
>>> i.contents.updateOrderFromTokens(new_order)
>>> list(i.contents.keys())
['abe', 'donald', 'barbara']

Just like “updateOrder”, an event is fired.

>>> interfaces.IOrderChanged.providedBy(events[-1])
True
>>> events[-1].object is i.contents.relationship.containment
True
>>> events[-1].old_keys
('barbara', 'abe', 'donald')

It’s just as easy to put them back so that the hierarchy still looks the same as it did at the end of the previous example.

>>> new_order = [getToken(k) for k in ('barbara', 'abe', 'donald')]
>>> i.contents.updateOrderFromTokens(new_order)
>>> list(i.contents.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald']

As noted in the introduction to this document, the versioned hierarchy is kept external from the objects themselves. This means that objects that are not containers themselves can still be branch nodes–containers, of a sort–within an inventory. In fact, until a reasonable use case emerges for the pattern, the author discourages the use of true containers within a vault as branch nodes: two dimensions of “containerish” behavior is too confusing.

In order to get an object that can act as a container for one of the objects in the inventory, one calls the inventory contents: “i.contents(‘abe’)”. This returns an IInventoryItem, if the key exists. It raises a KeyError for a missing key by default, but can take a default.

>>> i.contents['abe']
<Demo u'a1'>
>>> item = i.contents('abe')
>>> verifyObject(interfaces.IInventoryItem, item)
True
>>> i.contents('foo')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
KeyError: 'foo'
>>> i.contents('foo', None) # None

IInventoryItems extend IInventoryContents to add an ‘object’ attribute, which is the object they represent. Like IInventoryContents, a mapping interface allows one to manipulate the hierarchy beneath the top level. For instance, here we effectively put the ‘cathy’ demo object in the container space of the ‘abe’ demo object.

>>> item.object
<Demo u'a1'>
>>> item.name
'abe'
>>> item.parent.relationship is i.contents.relationship
True
>>> item.__parent__ is item.inventory
True
>>> list(item.values())
[]
>>> list(item.keys())
[]
>>> list(item.items())
[]
>>> list(item)
[]
>>> item.get('foo') # None
>>> item['foo']
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
KeyError: 'foo'
>>> item('foo')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
KeyError: 'foo'
>>> item['catherine'] = app['c1']
>>> item['catherine']
<Demo u'c1'>
>>> item.get('catherine')
<Demo u'c1'>
>>> list(item.keys())
['catherine']
>>> list(item.values())
[<Demo u'c1'>]
>>> list(item.items())
[('catherine', <Demo u'c1'>)]
>>> catherine = item('catherine')
>>> catherine.object
<Demo u'c1'>
>>> catherine.name
'catherine'
>>> catherine.parent.name
'abe'
>>> catherine.parent.object
<Demo u'a1'>
>>> list(catherine.keys())
[]

Now our hierarchy looks like this:

             (top node)
             /    |    \
            /     |     \
    'barbara'   'abe'    'donald'
<Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd1'>
                  |
                  |
             'catherine'
             <Demo u'c1'>

It’s worthwhile noting that the same object can be in multiple places in an inventory. This does not duplicate the hierarchy, or keep changes in sync. If desired, this policy should be performed in code that uses the vault; similarly if a vault should only contain an object in one location at a time, this should be enforced in code that uses a vault.

>>> i.contents('abe')('catherine')['anna'] = app['a1']
>>> i.contents('abe')('catherine').items()
[('anna', <Demo u'a1'>)]
>>> i.contents('abe')('catherine')('anna').parent.parent.object
<Demo u'a1'>

Now our hierarchy looks like this:

             (top node)
             /    |    \
            /     |     \
    'barbara'   'abe'    'donald'
<Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd1'>
                  |
                  |
             'catherine'
             <Demo u'c1'>
                  |
                  |
               'anna'
             <Demo u'a1'>

Even though a1 contains c1 contains a1, this does not constitute a cycle: the hierarchy is separate from the objects.

InventoryItems and InventoryContents are currently created on the fly, and not persisted. They should be compared with “==”, not “is”. They represent a persistent core data object that provides zc.vault.interfaces.IRelationship. The IRelationship itself is hidden from the majority of this discussion and only introduced at the end of the document. But in any case…

>>> i.contents('abe') is i.contents('abe')
False
>>> i.contents('abe') == i.contents('abe')
True
>>> i.contents is i.contents
False
>>> i.contents == i.contents
True
>>> i.contents == None
False
>>> i.contents('abe') == None
False

Comparing inventories will also compare their contents:

>>> i == None
False
>>> i == i
True
>>> i != i
False

Another important characteristic of inventory items is that they continue to have the right information even as objects around them are changed–for instance, if an object’s parent is changed from one part of the hierarchy to another (see moveTo, below), an item generated before the move will still reflect the change correctly.

It’s worth noting that, thanks to the wonder of the zc.shortcut code, views can exist for the object and also, from a proxy, have access to the InventoryItem’s information: this needs to be elaborated (TODO).

Now we’ll try to commit.

>>> v.commit(i) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ConflictError: <zc.vault.core.Manifest object at ...>

Conflicts? We don’t need no stinking conflicts! We didn’t even merge! Where did this come from?

The default vault takes a very strict approach to keeping track of conflicts: for instance, if you add something and then delete it in the same inventory, it will regard this as an “orphan conflict”: a change that happened in this inventory that will not be committed. You must explicitly say that it is OK for these orphaned changes to be lost. Let’s look at the orphans.

>>> orphans = list(i.iterOrphanConflicts())
>>> sorted(repr(item.object) for item in orphans)
["<Demo u'c1'>", "<Demo u'd1'>"]
>>> orphans[0].parent # None
>>> orphans[0].name # None

Ah yes–you can see that we deleted these objects above: we deleted “mydemo” (d1) and cathy (c1). We’ll just tell the inventory that it is ok to not include them. If vault clients want to have more automation so that deletions automatically resolve, then they have the tools to do so. After the resolution, iterOrphanConflicts will then be empty, and iterOrphanResolutions will include the objects.

>>> for o in orphans:
...     o.resolveOrphanConflict()
...
>>> len(list(i.iterOrphanConflicts()))
0
>>> sorted(repr(item.object) for item in i.iterOrphanResolutions())
["<Demo u'c1'>", "<Demo u'd1'>"]

Now when we commit, all objects will be versioned, and we will receive events for the freezing and the committing. The events list represents recent events; when this document is run as a test, it is populated by listening for all events and attaching them to the list.

>>> v.commit(i)
>>> interfaces.IManifestCommitted.providedBy(events[-1])
True
>>> events[-1].object is manifest
True
>>> manifest.__parent__ is v
True
>>> IFreezing(app['a1'])._z_frozen
True
>>> IFreezing(app['b1'])._z_frozen
True
>>> IFreezing(app['c1'])._z_frozen
True
>>> IFreezing(app['d1'])._z_frozen
True
>>> manifest._z_frozen
True
>>> v.manifest is manifest
True
>>> len(v)
1

After the committing, the inventory enforces the freeze: no more changes can be made.

>>> i.contents['foo'] = Demo()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
FrozenError
>>> i.contents.updateOrder(())
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
FrozenError
>>> i.contents('abe')('catherine')['foo'] = Demo()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
FrozenError
>>> v.manifest._z_frozen
True

Enforcing the freezing of the inventory’s objects is the responsibility of other code or configuration, not the vault package.

The manifest now has an __name__ which is the string of its index. This is of very limited usefulness, but with the right traverser might still allow items in the held container to be traversed to.

>>> i.manifest.__name__
u'0'

After every commit, the vault should be able to determine the previous and next versions of every relationship. Since this is the first commit, previous will be None, but we’ll check it now anyway, building a function that checks the most recent manifest of the vault.

>>> def checkManifest(m):
...     v = m.vault
...     for r in m:
...         p = v.getPrevious(r)
...         assert (p is None or
...                 r.__parent__.vault is not v or
...                 p.__parent__.vault is not v or
...                 v.getNext(p) is r)
...
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)

Creating a new working inventory requires a new manifest, based on the old manifest.

For better or worse, the package offers four approaches to this. We can create a new working inventory by specifying a vault, from which the most recent manifest will be selected, and “mutable=True”;

>>> i = Inventory(vault=v, mutable=True)
>>> manifest = i.manifest
>>> manifest._z_frozen
False

by specifying an inventory, from which its manifest will be extracted, and “mutable=True”;

>>> i = Inventory(inventory=v.inventory, mutable=True)
>>> manifest = i.manifest
>>> manifest._z_frozen
False

by specifying a versioned manifest and “mutable=True”;

>>> i = Inventory(v.manifest, mutable=True)
>>> manifest = i.manifest
>>> manifest._z_frozen
False

or by specifying a mutable manifest.

>>> i = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> i.manifest._z_frozen
False

These multiple spellings should be reexamined at a later date, and may have a deprecation period. The last spelling–an explicit pasing of a manifest to an inventory–is the most likely to remain stable, because it clearly allows instantiation of the inventory wrapper for a working manifest or a versioned manifest.

Note that, as mentioned above, the inventory is just an API wrapper around the manifest: therefore, changes to inventories that share a manifest will be shared among them.

>>> i_extra = Inventory(i.manifest)
>>> manifest._z_frozen
False

In any case, we now have an inventory that has the same contents as the original.

>>> i.contents.keys() == v.inventory.contents.keys()
True
>>> i.contents['barbara'] is v.inventory.contents['barbara']
True
>>> i.contents['abe'] is v.inventory.contents['abe']
True
>>> i.contents['donald'] is v.inventory.contents['donald']
True
>>> i.contents('abe')['catherine'] is v.inventory.contents('abe')['catherine']
True
>>> i.contents('abe')('catherine')['anna'] is \
... v.inventory.contents('abe')('catherine')['anna']
True

We can now manipulate the new inventory as we did the old one.

>>> app['d2'] = Demo()
>>> i.contents['donald'] = app['d2']
>>> i.contents['donald'] is v.inventory.contents['donald']
False

Now our hierarchy looks like this:

             (top node)
             /    |    \
            /     |     \
    'barbara'   'abe'    'donald'
<Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd2'>
                  |
                  |
             'catherine'
             <Demo u'c1'>
                  |
                  |
               'anna'
             <Demo u'a1'>

Now we can observe our local changes. One way to do this is to examine the results of iterChangedItems.

>>> len(list(i.iterChangedItems()))
1
>>> iter(i.iterChangedItems()).next() == i.contents('donald')
True

Another is to look at each inventory item. The items specify the type of information in the item: whether it is from the ‘base’, the ‘local’ changes, or a few other options we’ll see when we examine merges.

>>> i.contents('abe').type
'base'
>>> i.contents('donald').type
'local'

This will be true whether or not the change is returned to the original value by hand.

>>> i.contents['donald'] = app['d1']
>>> v.inventory.contents['donald'] is i.contents['donald']
True

However, unchanged local copies are not included in the iterChangedItems results; they are also discarded on commit, as we will see below.

>>> len(list(i.iterChangedItems()))
0

Now our hierarchy looks like this again:

             (top node)
             /    |    \
            /     |     \
    'barbara'   'abe'    'donald'
<Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd1'>
                  |
                  |
             'catherine'
             <Demo u'c1'>
                  |
                  |
               'anna'
             <Demo u'a1'>

Each inventory item represents a single collection of data that stores an object and its effective hierarchy. Therefore, changing either (or both) will generate a local inventory item.

>>> app['e1'] = Demo()
>>> i.contents('barbara').type
'base'
>>> i.contents('barbara')['edna'] = app['e1']
>>> i.contents('barbara').type
'local'
>>> i.contents['barbara'] is v.inventory.contents['barbara']
True
>>> len(list(i.iterChangedItems()))
2

Those are two changes: one new node (edna) and one changed node (barbara got a new child).

Now our hierarchy looks like this (“*” indicates a changed node):

                (top node)
                /    |    \
               /     |     \
       'barbara'*  'abe'    'donald'
   <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd1'>
        /            |
       /             |
    'edna'*     'catherine'
<Demo u'e1'>    <Demo u'c1'>
                     |
                     |
                  'anna'
                <Demo u'a1'>

Modifying the collection of the top level contents means that we have a change as well: even though the inventory does not keep track of a single object at the top of the hierarchy, it does keep track of containment at the top level.

>>> i.contents.type
'base'
>>> app['f1'] = Demo()
>>> i.contents['fred'] = app['f1']
>>> i.contents.type
'local'
>>> len(list(i.iterChangedItems()))
4

That’s four changes: edna, barbara, fred, and the top node.

Now our hierarchy looks like this (“*” indicates a changed or new node):

                      (top node)*
                     /   /  \  \
                 ----   /    \  ---------
                /      |      |          \
       'barbara'*    'abe'   'donald'     'fred'*
   <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd1'>  <Demo u'f1'>
        /            |
       /             |
    'edna'*     'catherine'
<Demo u'e1'>    <Demo u'c1'>
                     |
                     |
                  'anna'
                <Demo u'a1'>

You can actually examine the base from the changed item–and even switch back. The base_item attribute always returns an item with the original object and containment. The local_item returns an item with local changes, or None if no changes have been made. A select method allows you to switch the given item to look at one or the other by default. The readonly selected attribute allows introspection.

>>> list(i.contents.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald', 'fred']
>>> i.contents == i.contents.local_item
True
>>> list(i.contents('barbara').keys())
['edna']
>>> i.contents('barbara') == i.contents('barbara').local_item
True
>>> i.contents('barbara').local_item.selected
True
>>> i.contents('barbara').base_item.selected
False
>>> len(i.contents('barbara').base_item.keys())
0
>>> list(i.contents.base_item.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald']
>>> i.contents('barbara').base_item.select()
>>> len(list(i.iterChangedItems()))
3

That’s fred, the top level, /and/ edna: edna still is a change, even though she is inaccessible with the old version of barbara. If we were to commit now, we would have to resolve the orphan, as shown above.

>>> v.commit(i) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ConflictError: <zc.vault.core.Manifest object at ...>
>>> list(item.object for item in i.iterOrphanConflicts())
[<Demo u'e1'>]

Let’s look around a little more and switch things back:

>>> i.contents('barbara').local_item.selected
False
>>> i.contents('barbara').base_item.selected
True
>>> len(i.contents('barbara').keys())
0
>>> i.contents('barbara') == i.contents('barbara').local_item
False
>>> i.contents('barbara') == i.contents('barbara').base_item
True
>>> i.contents('barbara').local_item.select()
>>> len(list(i.iterChangedItems()))
4
>>> i.contents('barbara').local_item.selected
True
>>> i.contents('barbara').base_item.selected
False
>>> list(i.contents('barbara').keys())
['edna']

The inventory has booleans to examine whether a base item or local item exists, as a convenience (and optimization opportunity).

>>> i.contents('fred').has_local
True
>>> i.contents('fred').has_base
False
>>> i.contents('abe')('catherine').has_local
False
>>> i.contents('abe')('catherine').has_base
True
>>> i.contents('barbara').has_local
True
>>> i.contents('barbara').has_base
True

It also has four other similar properties, has_updated, has_suggested, has_modified, and has_merged, which we will examine later.

Before we commit we are going to make one more change to the inventory. We’ll make a change to “anna”. Notice how we spell this in the code: it this is the first object we have put in an inventory that does not already have a location in app. When an inventory is asked to version an object without an ILocation, it stores it in a special folder on the manifest named “held”. Held objects are assigned names using the standard Zope 3 name chooser pattern and can be moved out even after being versioned. In this case we will need to register a name chooser for our demo objects. We’ll use the standard one.

>>> from zope.app.container.contained import NameChooser
>>> from zope.app.container.interfaces import IWriteContainer
>>> component.provideAdapter(NameChooser, adapts=(IWriteContainer,))
>>> len(i.manifest.held)
0
>>> i.contents('abe')('catherine')['anna'] = Demo()
>>> len(i.manifest.held)
1
>>> i.manifest.held.values()[0] is i.contents('abe')('catherine')['anna']
True

Now our hierarchy looks like this (“*” indicates a changed or new node):

                      (top node)*
                     /   /  \  \
                 ----   /    \  ---------
                /      |      |          \
       'barbara'*    'abe'   'donald'     'fred'*
   <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd1'>  <Demo u'f1'>
        /            |
       /             |
    'edna'*     'catherine'
<Demo u'e1'>    <Demo u'c1'>
                     |
                     |
                  'anna'*
                <Demo ...>

In our previous inventory commit, objects were versioned in place. The vault code provides a hook to generate objects for committing to vault: it tries to adapt objects it wants to version to zc.vault.interfaces.IVersionFactory. This interface specifies any callable object. Let’s provide an example.

The policy here is that if the object is in the inventories’ held container, just return it, but otherwise “make a copy”–which for our demo just makes a new instance and slams the old one’s name on it as an attribute.

>>> @interface.implementer(interfaces.IVersionFactory)
... @component.adapter(interfaces.IVault)
... def versionFactory(vault):
...     def makeVersion(obj, manifest):
...         if obj.__parent__ is manifest.held:
...             return obj
...         res = Demo()
...         res.source_name = obj.__name__
...         return res
...     return makeVersion
...
>>> component.provideAdapter(versionFactory)

Let’s commit now, to show the results. We’ll discard the change to barbara.

>>> len(list(i.iterChangedItems()))
5
>>> i.contents('barbara')('edna').resolveOrphanConflict()
>>> i.contents('barbara').base_item.select()
>>> len(list(i.iterChangedItems()))
4

Edna is included even though she is resolved.

Now our hierarchy looks like this (“*” indicates a changed or new node):

                           (top node)*
                          /   /  \  \
                      ----   /    \  ---------
                     /      |      |          \
            'barbara'     'abe'   'donald'     'fred'*
        <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd1'>  <Demo u'f1'>
                          |
                          |
                     'catherine'
                     <Demo u'c1'>
                          |
                          |
                       'anna'*
                     <Demo ...>

>>> changed = dict(
...     (getattr(item, 'name', None), item)
...     for item in i.iterChangedItems())
>>> changed['anna'].parent.name
'catherine'
>>> changed['fred'].object
<Demo u'f1'>
>>> changed['edna'].object
<Demo u'e1'>
>>> list(changed[None].keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald', 'fred']
>>> old_objects = dict(
...     (k, i.object) for k, i in changed.items() if k is not None)
>>> v.commit(i)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)
>>> len(v)
2
>>> v.manifest is i.manifest
True
>>> v.inventory == i
True

We committed the addition of fred, but not the addition of edna. Once an inventory is committed, unselected changes are discarded. Also, as mentioned above, the data for local item for donald has been discarded, since it did not include any changes.

>>> i.contents.local_item == i.contents
True
>>> i.contents.type
'local'
>>> i.contents('barbara').local_item # None
>>> i.contents('barbara').type
'base'
>>> i.contents('donald').local_item # None
>>> i.contents('donald').type
'base'
>>> IFreezing(app['e1'])._z_frozen
False

Our changes are a bit different than what we had when we began the commit, because of the version Factory. The f1 is not versioned, because we have made a copy instead.

>>> IFreezing(app['f1'])._z_frozen
False
>>> new_changed = dict(
...     (getattr(item, 'name', None), item)
...     for item in i.iterChangedItems())
>>> new_changed['anna'].parent.name
'catherine'
>>> new_changed['anna'].object is old_objects['anna']
True
>>> new_changed['fred'].object is old_objects['fred']
False
>>> new_changed['fred'].object is app['f1']
False
>>> new_changed['fred'].object.source_name
u'f1'
>>> IFreezing(new_changed['anna'].object)._z_frozen
True
>>> IFreezing(new_changed['fred'].object)._z_frozen
True

Now that we have two versions in the vault, we can introduce two additional attributes of the inventories, contents, and items: next and previous. These attributes let you time travel in the vault’s history.

We also look at similar attributes on the manifest, and at the vault’s getInventory method.

For instance, the current inventory’s previous attribute points to the original inventory, and vice versa.

>>> i.previous == v.getInventory(0)
True
>>> i.manifest.previous is v[0]
True
>>> v.getInventory(0).next == i == v.inventory
True
>>> v[0].next is i.manifest is v.manifest
True
>>> i.next # None
>>> manifest.next # None
>>> v.getInventory(0).previous # None
>>> v[0].previous # None

The same is true for inventory items.

>>> list(v.inventory.contents.previous.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald']
>>> list(v.getInventory(0).contents.next.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald', 'fred']
>>> v.inventory.contents.previous.next == v.inventory.contents
True
>>> v.inventory.contents('abe')('catherine')('anna').previous.object
<Demo u'a1'>
>>> (v.inventory.contents('abe').relationship is
...  v.inventory.contents.previous('abe').relationship)
True

Once you step to a previous or next item, further steps from the item remain in the previous or next inventory.

>>> v.inventory.contents('abe')('catherine')['anna'].__name__ == 'a1'
False
>>> v.inventory.contents.previous('abe')('catherine')['anna']
<Demo u'a1'>

In addition, inventory items support previous_version and next_version. The difference between these and previous and next is that the *_version variants skip to the item that was different than the current item. For instance, while the previous_version of the ‘anna’ is the old ‘a1’ object, just like the previous value, the previous_version of ‘abe’ is None, because it has no previous version.

>>> v.inventory.contents(
...     'abe')('catherine')('anna').previous_version.object
<Demo u'a1'>
>>> v.inventory.contents('abe').previous_version # None

These leverage the getPrevious and getNext methods on the vault, which work with relationships.

The previous and next tools are even more interesting when tokens move: you can see positions change within the hierarchy. Inventories have a moveTo method that can let the inventory follow the moves to maintain history. We’ll create a new inventory copy and demonstrate. As we do, notice that inventory items obtained before the move correctly reflect the move, as described above.

>>> manifest = Manifest(v.manifest)
>>> del app['inventory']
>>> i = app['inventory'] = Inventory(manifest)
>>> item = i.contents('abe')('catherine')
>>> item.parent.name
'abe'
>>> i.contents('abe')('catherine').moveTo(i.contents('fred'))
>>> item.parent.name
'fred'
>>> len(i.contents('abe').keys())
0
>>> list(i.contents('fred').keys())
['catherine']

The change actually only affects the source and target of the move.

>>> changes = dict((getattr(item, 'name'), item)
...                for item in i.iterChangedItems())
>>> len(changes)
2
>>> changes['fred'].values()
[<Demo u'c1'>]
>>> len(changes['abe'].keys())
0

So now our hierarchy looks like this (“*” indicates a changed node):

                   (top node)
                  /   /  \  \
              ----   /    \  ---------
             /      |      |          \
    'barbara'     'abe'*  'donald'     'fred'*
<Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd1'>  <Demo u'f1'>
                                           |
                                           |
                                      'catherine'
                                      <Demo u'c1'>
                                           |
                                           |
                                        'anna'
                                      <Demo ...>

If you try to move parts of the hierarchy to someplace that has the same name, you will receive a ValueError unless you specify a name that does not conflict.

>>> i.contents('abe')['donald'] = app['d2']
>>> i.contents('donald').moveTo(i.contents('abe'))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Object with same name already exists in new location
>>> i.contents('donald').moveTo(i.contents('abe'), 'old_donald')
>>> i.contents('abe').items()
[('donald', <Demo u'd2'>), ('old_donald', <Demo u'd1'>)]

Now our hierarchy looks like this (“*” indicates a changed or new node):

                 (top node)*
                  /  |   \
              ----   |     ----
             /       |         \
    'barbara'     'abe'*        'fred'*
<Demo u'b1'>   <Demo u'a1'>     <Demo u'f1'>
               /         \             |
              /           \            |
         'donald'*    'old_donald'  'catherine'
       <Demo u'd2'>   <Demo u'd1'>  <Demo u'c1'>
                                       |
                                       |
                                     'anna'
                                    <Demo ...>

If you try to move part of the hierarchy to someplace within itself, you will also receive a ValueError.

>>> i.contents('fred').moveTo(i.contents('fred')('catherine')('anna'))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: May not move item to within itself

It is for this reason that the contents does not support the moveTo operation.

>>> hasattr(i.contents, 'moveTo')
False

If you move an object to the same folder it is a silent noop, unless you are using the move as a rename operation and the new name conflicts.

>>> i.contents('abe')('old_donald').moveTo(i.contents('abe'))
>>> i.contents('abe').items()
[('donald', <Demo u'd2'>), ('old_donald', <Demo u'd1'>)]
>>> i.contents('abe')('old_donald').moveTo(i.contents('abe'), 'donald')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Object with same name already exists in new location
>>> i.contents('abe').items()
[('donald', <Demo u'd2'>), ('old_donald', <Demo u'd1'>)]
>>> i.contents('abe')('donald').moveTo(i.contents('abe'),
...                                    'new_donald')
>>> i.contents('abe').items()
[('old_donald', <Demo u'd1'>), ('new_donald', <Demo u'd2'>)]

Notice in the last part of the example above that the move within the folder also changed the order.

It’s also interesting to note that, with all these changes, we only have two additional changed items: the addition of new_donald, and the changed containment of the contents. old_donald, for instance, is not considered to be changed; only its containers were.

>>> changes = dict((getattr(item, 'name', None), item)
...                for item in i.iterChangedItems())
>>> len(changes)
4
>>> changes['fred'].items()
[('catherine', <Demo u'c1'>)]
>>> changes['abe'].items()
[('old_donald', <Demo u'd1'>), ('new_donald', <Demo u'd2'>)]
>>> changes['new_donald'].object
<Demo u'd2'>
>>> list(changes[None].keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'fred']

Now that we have moved some objects that existed in previous inventories– catherine (containing anna) was moved from abe to fred, and donald was moved from the root contents to abe and renamed to ‘old_donald’–we can examine the previous and previous_version pointers.

>>> i.contents('abe')('old_donald').previous.parent == i.previous.contents
True
>>> i.contents('abe')('old_donald').previous_version # None

The previous_version is None because, as seen in the iterChangedItems example, donald didn’t actually change–only its containers did. previous_version does work for both local changes and changes in earlier inventories, though.

>>> list(i.contents('abe').keys())
['old_donald', 'new_donald']
>>> list(i.contents('abe').previous.keys())
['catherine']
>>> (i.contents('fred')('catherine')('anna').previous.inventory ==
...  v.inventory)
True
>>> (i.contents('fred')('catherine')('anna').previous_version.inventory ==
...  v.getInventory(0))
True

The previous_version of anna is the first one that was committed in the initial inventory–it didn’t change in this version, but in the most recently committed inventory, so the previous version is the very first one committed.

By the way, notice that, while previous and previous_version point to the inventories from which the given item came, the historical, versioned inventories in the vault don’t point to this working inventory in next or next_version because this inventory has not been committed yet.

>>> v.inventory.contents('abe').next # None
>>> v.inventory.contents('abe').next_version # None

As mentioned above, only inventory items support moveTo, not the top-node inventory contents. Both contents and inventory items support a copyTo method. This is similar to moveTo but it creates new additional locations in the inventory for the same objects; the new locations don’t maintain any history. It is largely a short hand for doing “location1[‘foo’] = location2[‘foo’]” for all objects in a part of the inventory. The only difference is when copying between inventories, as we will see below.

The basic copyTo machinery is very similar to moveTo. We’ll first copy catherine and anna to within the contents.

>>> i.contents('fred')('catherine').copyTo(i.contents)
>>> list(i.contents.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'fred', 'catherine']
>>> list(i.contents('catherine').keys())
['anna']
>>> i.contents['catherine'] is i.contents('fred')['catherine']
True
>>> (i.contents('catherine')('anna').object is
...  i.contents('fred')('catherine')('anna').object)
True

Now our hierarchy looks like this (“*” indicates a changed or new node):

                        (top node)*
               --------/  /   \   \-----------
              /          /     \              \
             /          /       \              \
    'barbara'      'abe'*        'fred'*        'catherine'*
<Demo u'b1'>   <Demo u'a1'>     <Demo u'f1'>   <Demo u'c1'>
               /         \             |             |
              /           \            |             |
      'new_donald'*   'old_donald'  'catherine'    'anna'*
       <Demo u'd2'>   <Demo u'd1'>  <Demo u'c1'>   <Demo ...>
                                       |
                                       |
                                     'anna'
                                    <Demo ...>

Now we have copied objects from one location to another. The copies are unlike the originals because they do not have any history.

>>> i.contents('fred')('catherine')('anna').previous is None
False
>>> i.contents('catherine')('anna').previous is None
True

However, they do know their copy source.

>>> (i.contents('catherine')('anna').copy_source ==
...  i.contents('fred')('catherine')('anna'))
True

As with moveTo, you may not override a name, but you may explicitly provide one.

>>> i.contents['anna'] = Demo()
>>> i.contents('catherine')('anna').copyTo(i.contents)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Object with same name already exists in new location
>>> i.contents('catherine')('anna').copyTo(i.contents, 'old_anna')
>>> list(i.contents.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'fred', 'catherine', 'anna', 'old_anna']
>>> del i.contents['anna']
>>> del i.contents['old_anna']

Unlike with moveTo, if you try to copy a part of the hierarchy on top of itself (same location, same name), the inventory will raise an error.

>>> i.contents('catherine')('anna').copyTo(i.contents('catherine'))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Object with same name already exists in new location

You can actually copyTo a location in a completely different inventory, even from a separate vault.

>>> another = app['another'] = Vault()
>>> another_i = app['another_i'] = Inventory(vault=another)
>>> len(another_i.contents)
0
>>> i.contents('abe').copyTo(another_i.contents)
>>> another_i.contents['abe']
<Demo u'a1'>
>>> another_i.contents('abe')['new_donald']
<Demo u'd2'>
>>> another_i.contents('abe')['old_donald']
<Demo u'd1'>

We haven’t committed for awhile, so let’s commit this third revision. We did a lot of deletes, so let’s just accept all of the orphan conflicts.

>>> for item in i.iterOrphanConflicts():
...     item.resolveOrphanConflict()
...
>>> v.commit(i)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)

In a future revision of the zc.vault package, it may be possible to move and copy between inventories. At the time of writing, this use case is unnecessary, and doing so will have unspecified behavior.

A test for a subtle bug in revision <= 78553

One important case, at least for the regression testing is an attempt to rename an item after the vault has been frozen. Since we have just committed, this is the right time to try that. Let’s create a local copy of an inventory and try to rename some items on it.

>>> v.manifest._z_frozen
True
>>> l = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> l.manifest._z_frozen
False
>>> l.contents('abe').items()
[('old_donald', <Demo u'd1'>), ('new_donald', <Demo u'Demo-2'>)]
>>> l.contents('abe')('old_donald').moveTo(l.contents('abe'), 'bob')
>>> l.contents('abe')('new_donald').moveTo(l.contents('abe'), 'donald')
>>> l.contents('abe').items()
[('bob', <Demo u'd1'>), ('donald', <Demo u'Demo-2'>)]

We have now discussed the core API for the vault system for basic use. A number of other use cases are important, however:

  • revert to an older inventory;
  • merge concurrent changes;
  • track an object in a vault; and
  • traverse through a vault using URL or TALES paths.

Reverting to an older inventory is fairly simple: use the ‘commitFrom’ method to copy and commit an older version into a new copy. The same works with manifests.

>>> v.commitFrom(v[0])

The data is now as it was in the old version.

>>> list(v.inventory.contents.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald']

Now our hierarchy looks like this again:

             (top node)
             /    |    \
            /     |     \
    'barbara'   'abe'    'donald'
<Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd1'>
                  |
                  |
             'catherine'
             <Demo u'c1'>
                  |
                  |
               'anna'
             <Demo u'a1'>

The commitFrom method will take any committed manifest from a vault that shares the same intids utility. It creates a new manifest that duplicates the provided one.

>>> v.inventory.contents('abe')('catherine').previous.parent.name
'fred'
>>> v.manifest.previous is v[-2]
True
>>> v.manifest.base_source is v[-2]
True
>>> v.manifest.base_source is v[0]
False
>>> v[-2].base_source is v[-3]
True

Note that this approach will cause an error:

>>> v.commit(Manifest(v[0])) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
OutOfDateError: <zc.vault.core.Manifest object at ...>

Again, use commitFrom to revert.

Now we come to the most complex vault use case: concurrent changes to a vault, merging inventories. The vault design supports a number of features for these sorts of use cases.

The basic merge story is that if one or more commits happen to a vault while an inventory from the vault is being worked on, so that the base of a working inventory is no longer the most recent committed inventory, and thus cannot be committed normally…

>>> long_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> short_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> long_running.manifest.base_source is v.manifest
True
>>> short_running.contents['donald'] = app['d2']
>>> short_running.contents.items()
[('barbara', <Demo u'b1'>), ('abe', <Demo u'a1'>), ('donald', <Demo u'd2'>)]
>>> v.commit(short_running)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)
>>> short_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> short_running.contents('barbara')['fred'] = app['f1']
>>> v.commit(short_running)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)
>>> long_running.manifest.base_source is v.manifest
False
>>> long_running.manifest.base_source is v.manifest.previous.previous
True
>>> long_running.contents['edna'] = app['e1']
>>> long_running.contents.items() # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[('barbara', <Demo u'b1'>), ('abe', <Demo u'a1'>),
 ('donald', <Demo u'd1'>), ('edna', <Demo u'e1'>)]
>>> v.commit(long_running) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
OutOfDateError: <zc.vault.core.Manifest object at ...>

…then the inventory can be updated; and, if there are no problems with the update, then the inventory can be committed.

short_running, and the head of the vault, looks like this now (“*” indicates a change from the previous version):

               (top node)
               /    |    \
              /     |     \
      'barbara'*  'abe'    'donald'*
  <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd2'>
      |             |
      |             |
   'fred'*      'catherine'
<Demo u'f1'>    <Demo u'c1'>
                    |
                    |
                 'anna'
               <Demo u'a1'>

long_running looks like this:

                    (top node)*
             ------/  /   \  \----------
            /        /     \            \
    'barbara'   'abe'    'donald'       'edna'*
<Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd1'>  <Demo u'e1'>
                  |
                  |
             'catherine'
             <Demo u'c1'>
                  |
                  |
               'anna'
             <Demo u'a1'>

The contents node changed and ‘edna’ was added.

By default, an update is to the current inventory of the inventory base’s vault.

Here’s the update. It will produce no conflicts, because the node changes do not overlap (review diagrams above).

>>> long_running.beginUpdate()
>>> long_running.updating
True

Post-merge, long_running looks like this (‘M’ indicates a merged node):

                     (top node)*
              ------/  /   \  \----------
             /        /     \            \
    'barbara'M   'abe'    'donald'M      'edna'*
 <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd2'>  <Demo u'e1'>
      |            |
      |            |
   'fred'M    'catherine'
<Demo u'f1'>  <Demo u'c1'>
                   |
                   |
                'anna'
              <Demo u'a1'>

(ADVANCED)

During an update, the local relationships may not be changed, even though they are not versioned.

>>> long_running.contents('edna').type
'local'
>>> long_running.contents('edna').relationship.object = Demo()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
UpdateError: cannot change local relationships while updating
>>> long_running.contents('edna').relationship.object
<Demo u'e1'>
>>> long_running.contents('edna').relationship._z_frozen
False
>>> long_running.manifest.getType(long_running.contents.relationship)
'local'
>>> long_running.contents.relationship.containment.updateOrder(
...     ('abe', 'barbara', 'edna', 'donald'))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
UpdateError: cannot change local relationships while updating
>>> long_running.contents.relationship.containment.keys()
('barbara', 'abe', 'donald', 'edna')

When you change an item or contents, this is hidden by switching to a MODIFIED relationship, as seen below.

(end ADVANCED)

Now that we have updated, our update_source on the inventory shows the inventory used to do the update.

>>> long_running.manifest.base_source is v[-3]
True
>>> long_running.manifest.update_source is short_running.manifest
True

What changes should the update reflect? iterChangedItems takes an optional argument which can use an alternate base to calculate changes, so we can use that with the long_running.base to see the effective merges.

>>> changed = dict((getattr(item, 'name', None), item) for item in
...                short_running.iterChangedItems(
...                     long_running.manifest.base_source))
>>> changed['donald'].object.source_name
u'd2'
>>> changed['fred'].object.source_name
u'f1'
>>> list(changed['barbara'].keys())
['fred']

Our contents show these merged results.

>>> list(long_running.contents.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald', 'edna']
>>> long_running.contents['donald'].source_name
u'd2'
>>> long_running.contents('barbara')['fred'].source_name
u'f1'

You cannot update to another inventory until you abortUpdate or completeUpdate, as we discuss far below.

>>> long_running.beginUpdate(v[-2])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
UpdateError: cannot begin another update while updating

We’ll show abortUpdate, then redo the update. A characteristic of abortUpdate is that it should revert all changes you made while updating. For instance, we’ll select another version of the contents and even add an item. The changes will all go away when we abort.

>>> len(list(long_running.iterChangedItems()))
5
>>> long_running.contents['fred'] = app['f1']
>>> list(long_running.contents.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald', 'edna', 'fred']
>>> len(list(long_running.iterChangedItems()))
6
>>> long_running.abortUpdate()
>>> long_running.manifest.update_source # None
>>> long_running.contents.items() # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[('barbara', <Demo u'b1'>), ('abe', <Demo u'a1'>),
 ('donald', <Demo u'd1'>), ('edna', <Demo u'e1'>)]
>>> len(list(long_running.iterChangedItems()))
2
>>> long_running.beginUpdate()
>>> list(long_running.contents.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald', 'edna']
>>> long_running.contents['donald'].source_name
u'd2'
>>> long_running.contents('barbara')['fred'].source_name
u'f1'

Now we’ll look around more at the state of things. We can use iterChangedItems to get a list of all changed and updated. As already seen in the examples, update_source on the inventory shows the inventory used to do the update.

>>> updated = {}
>>> changed = {}
>>> for item in long_running.iterChangedItems():
...     name = getattr(item, 'name', None)
...     if item.type == interfaces.LOCAL:
...         changed[name] = item
...     else:
...         assert item.type == interfaces.UPDATED
...         updated[name] = item
...
>>> len(updated)
3
>>> updated['donald'].object.source_name
u'd2'
>>> updated['fred'].object.source_name
u'f1'
>>> list(updated['barbara'].keys())
['fred']
>>> len(changed)
2
>>> list(changed[None].keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald', 'edna']
>>> changed['edna'].object
<Demo u'e1'>

The has_updated and updated_item attributes, which only come into effect when an inventory is in the middle of an update, let you examine the changes from a more local perspective.

>>> long_running.contents('donald').has_local
False
>>> long_running.contents('donald').has_updated
True
>>> (long_running.contents('donald').updated_item.relationship is
...  long_running.contents('donald').relationship)
True

There are three kinds of problems that can prevent a post-merge commit: item conflicts, orphans, and parent conflicts. Item conflicts are item updates that conflicted with local changes and that the system could not merge (more on that below). Orphans are accepted item changes (local or updated) that are not accessible from the top contents, and so will be lost. Parent conflicts are items that were moved to one location in the source and another location in the local changes, and so now have two parents: an illegal state because it makes future merges and sane historical analysis difficult.

These three kinds of problem can be analyzed with iterUpdateConflicts, iterOrphanConflicts, and iterParentConflicts, respectively. We have already seen iterOrphanConflicts. In our current merge, we have none of these problems, and we can commit (or completeUpdate) successfully.

>>> list(long_running.iterUpdateConflicts())
[]
>>> list(long_running.iterOrphanConflicts())
[]
>>> list(long_running.iterParentConflicts())
[]
>>> v.commit(long_running)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)

We had a lot of discussion between the most important points here, so to review, all we had to do in the simple case was this:

long_running.beginUpdate()
v.commit(long_running)

We could have rejected some of the updates and local changes, which might have made things more interesting; and the two steps let you analyze the update changes to tweak things as desired. But the simplest case allows a simple spelling.

Now let’s explore the possible merging problems. The first, and arguably most complex, is item conflict. An item conflict is easy to provoke. We can do it by manipulating the containment or the object of an item. Here we’ll manipulate the containment order of the root.

>>> list(v.inventory.contents.keys())
['barbara', 'abe', 'donald', 'edna']
>>> short_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> long_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> short_running.contents.updateOrder(
...     ('abe', 'barbara', 'edna', 'donald'))
>>> long_running.contents.updateOrder(
...     ('abe', 'barbara', 'donald', 'edna'))
>>> v.commit(short_running)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)
>>> long_running.beginUpdate()
>>> v.commit(long_running)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
UpdateError: cannot complete update with conflicts
>>> conflicts = list(long_running.iterUpdateConflicts())
>>> len(conflicts)
1
>>> conflict = conflicts[0]
>>> conflict.type
'local'
>>> list(conflict.keys())
['abe', 'barbara', 'donald', 'edna']
>>> conflict.is_update_conflict
True
>>> conflict.selected
True
>>> conflict.has_updated
True
>>> list(conflict.updated_item.keys())
['abe', 'barbara', 'edna', 'donald']

As you can see, we have the tools to find out the conflicts and examine them. To resolve this conflict, we merely need to use the resolveUpdateConflict method. We can select the desired one we want, or even create a new one and modify it, before or after marking it resolved.

Let’s create a new one. All you have to do is start changing the item, and a new one is created. You are not allowed to directly modify local changes when you are updating, so that the system can revert to them; but you may create ‘modified’ versions (that will be discarded if the update is aborted).

>>> len(list(conflict.iterModifiedItems()))
0
>>> conflict.has_modified
False
>>> conflict.selected
True
>>> conflict.type
'local'
>>> list(conflict.keys())
['abe', 'barbara', 'donald', 'edna']
>>> conflict.updateOrder(['abe', 'donald', 'barbara', 'edna'])
>>> len(list(conflict.iterModifiedItems()))
1
>>> conflict.has_modified
True
>>> conflict.selected
True
>>> conflict.type
'modified'
>>> conflict.copy_source.type
'local'
>>> conflict.copy_source == conflict.local_item
True
>>> conflict == list(conflict.iterModifiedItems())[0]
True
>>> list(conflict.local_item.keys())
['abe', 'barbara', 'donald', 'edna']
>>> list(conflict.keys())
['abe', 'donald', 'barbara', 'edna']
>>> list(conflict.updated_item.keys())
['abe', 'barbara', 'edna', 'donald']

Now we’re going to resolve it.

>>> conflict.resolveUpdateConflict()
>>> conflict.is_update_conflict
False
>>> len(list(long_running.iterUpdateConflicts()))
0
>>> resolved = list(long_running.iterUpdateResolutions())
>>> len(resolved)
1
>>> resolved[0] == conflict
True

Now if we called abortUpdate, the local_item would look the way it did before the update, because we modified a separate object. Let’s commit, though.

>>> v.commit(long_running)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)

Our hierarchy looks like this now:

                     (top node)*
          ----------/  /   \  \----------
         /            /     \            \
    'abe'     'donald'M      'barbara'M   'edna'*
 <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd2'>  <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'e1'>
      |                          |
      |                          |
 'catherine'                 'fred'M
<Demo u'c1'>                 <Demo u'f1'>
      |
      |
    'anna'
 <Demo u'a1'>

The vault code allows for adapters to try and suggest merges. For instance, a simple merge might have a policy that one version with an object change and another version with a containment change can be merged simply. This uses some APIs we haven’t talked about yet: if there is a core.txt in this directory, you’re in luck; otherwise, hope for help in interfaces.py and bother Gary for docs (sorry).

>>> from zc.vault.core import Relationship
>>> @component.adapter(interfaces.IVault)
... @interface.implementer(interfaces.IConflictResolver)
... def factory(vault):
...     def resolver(manifest, local, updated, base):
...         if local.object is not base.object:
...             if updated.object is base.object:
...                 object = local.object
...             else:
...                 return
...         else:
...             object = updated.object
...         if local.containment != base.containment:
...             if updated.containment != base.containment:
...                 return
...             else:
...                 containment = local.containment
...         else:
...             containment = updated.containment
...         suggested = Relationship(local.token, object, containment)
...         manifest.addSuggested(suggested)
...         manifest.select(suggested)
...         manifest.resolveUpdateConflict(local.token)
...     return resolver
...
>>> component.provideAdapter(factory)

Now if we merge changes that this policy can handle, we’ll have smooth updates.

>>> short_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> long_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> app['c2'] = Demo()
>>> short_running.contents('abe')['catherine'] = app['c2']
>>> v.commit(short_running)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)
>>> long_running.contents('abe')('catherine')['fred'] = app['f1']
>>> long_running.beginUpdate()
>>> cath = long_running.contents('abe')('catherine')
>>> cath.has_suggested
True
>>> cath.type
'suggested'
>>> cath.has_updated
True
>>> cath.selected
True
>>> cath.has_local
True
>>> suggestedItems = list(cath.iterSuggestedItems())
>>> len(suggestedItems)
1
>>> suggestedItems[0] == cath
True
>>> cath.object.source_name
u'c2'
>>> list(cath.keys())
['anna', 'fred']
>>> cath.local_item.object
<Demo u'c1'>
>>> v.commit(long_running)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)

This means we automatically merged this…

                     (top node)
          ----------/  /   \  \----------
         /            /     \            \
    'abe'     'donald'       'barbara'    'edna'
 <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd2'>  <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'e1'>
      |                          |
      |                          |
 'catherine'*                 'fred'
<Demo u'c2'>                 <Demo u'f1'>
      |
      |
    'anna'
 <Demo u'a1'>

…with this (that would normally produce a conflict with the ‘catherine’ node)…

                           (top node)
                ----------/  /   \  \----------
               /            /     \            \
          'abe'     'donald'       'barbara'    'edna'
       <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd2'>  <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'e1'>
            |                          |
            |                          |
       'catherine'*                'fred'
      <Demo u'c1'>                 <Demo u'f1'>
       /        \
      /          \
   'anna'        'fred'*
<Demo u'a1'>    <Demo u'f1'>

…to produce this:

                           (top node)
                ----------/  /   \  \----------
               /            /     \            \
          'abe'     'donald'       'barbara'    'edna'
       <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd2'>  <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'e1'>
            |                          |
            |                          |
       'catherine'*                'fred'
      <Demo u'c2'>                 <Demo u'f1'>
       /        \
      /          \
   'anna'        'fred'*
<Demo u'a1'>    <Demo u'f1'>

This concludes our tour of item conflicts. We are left with orphans and parent conflicts.

As mentioned above, orphans are accepted, changed items, typically from the update or local changes, that are inaccessible from the root of the inventory. For example, consider the following.

>>> short_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> long_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> list(short_running.contents('abe').keys())
['catherine']
>>> list(short_running.contents('abe')('catherine').keys())
['anna', 'fred']
>>> del short_running.contents('abe')['catherine']
>>> v.commit(short_running)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)
>>> long_running.contents('abe')('catherine')['anna'] = Demo()
>>> long_running.beginUpdate()
>>> v.commit(long_running)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
UpdateError: cannot complete update with conflicts
>>> orphans =list(long_running.iterOrphanConflicts())
>>> len(orphans)
1
>>> orphan = orphans[0]
>>> orphan.parent.name
'catherine'
>>> orphan.selected
True
>>> orphan.type
'local'
>>> orphan.parent.selected
True
>>> orphan.parent.type
'base'
>>> orphan.parent.parent.type
'base'
>>> orphan.parent.parent.selected
False
>>> orphan.parent.parent.selected_item.type
'updated'

To reiterate in a diagram, the short_running inventory deleted the ‘catherine’ branch:

                    (top node)
         ----------/  /   \  \----------
        /            /     \            \
   'abe'     'donald'       'barbara'    'edna'
<Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd2'>  <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'e1'>
                                |
                                |
                             'fred'
                          <Demo u'f1'>

However, the long running branch made a change to an object that had been removed (‘anna’):

                           (top node)
                ----------/  /   \  \----------
               /            /     \            \
          'abe'     'donald'       'barbara'    'edna'
       <Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd2'>  <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'e1'>
            |                          |
            |                          |
       'catherine'                 'fred'
      <Demo u'c2'>                 <Demo u'f1'>
       /        \
      /          \
   'anna'*       'fred'
<Demo ...>     <Demo u'f1'>

So, given the orphan, you can discover the old version of the node that let the change occur, and thus the change that hid the orphan.

To resolve an orphan, as seen before, you can resolveOrphanConflict, or somehow change the tree so that the orphan is within the tree again (using moveTo). We’ll just resolve it. Note that resolving keeps it selected: it just stops the complaining.

>>> orphan.selected
True
>>> orphan.resolveOrphanConflict()
>>> orphan.selected
True
>>> len(list(long_running.iterOrphanConflicts()))
0
>>> v.commit(long_running)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)

The same happens if the change occurs because of a reversal–the long_running inventory performs the delete.

It also can happen if the user explicitly selects a choice that eliminates an accepted change, even outside of a merge, as we have seen above.

Parent conflicts are the last sort of conflict.

Our hierarchy now looks like this:

                    (top node)
         ----------/  /   \  \----------
        /            /     \            \
   'abe'     'donald'       'barbara'    'edna'
<Demo u'a1'> <Demo u'd2'>  <Demo u'b1'> <Demo u'e1'>
                                |
                                |
                             'fred'
                          <Demo u'f1'>

The short_running version will be changed to look like this:

               (top node)
         ------/   |    \-------
        /          |            \
   'abe'        'barbara'*      'edna'
<Demo u'a1'>   <Demo u'b1'>  <Demo u'e1'>
                /      \
               /        \
            'fred'     'donald'
       <Demo u'f1'>   <Demo u'd2'>

The long_running version will look like this.

               (top node)
         ------/   |    \-------
        /          |            \
   'abe'        'barbara'      'edna'
<Demo u'a1'>   <Demo u'b1'>  <Demo u'e1'>
                   |
                   |
                 'fred'*
               <Demo u'f1'>
                   |
                   |
                'donald'
              <Demo u'd2'>

Post-merge the tree looks like this:

               (top node)
         ------/   |    \-------
        /          |            \
   'abe'        'barbara'*      'edna'
<Demo u'a1'>   <Demo u'b1'>  <Demo u'e1'>
                /      \
               /        \
            'fred'*    'donald'
       <Demo u'f1'>   <Demo u'd2'>
            |
            |
         'donald'
       <Demo u'd2'>

The problem is Donald. It is one token in two or more places: a parent conflict.

>>> short_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> long_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> short_running.contents('donald').moveTo(
...     short_running.contents('barbara'))
>>> v.commit(short_running)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)
>>> long_running.contents('donald').moveTo(
...     long_running.contents('barbara')('fred'))
>>> long_running.beginUpdate()
>>> conflicts = list(long_running.iterParentConflicts())
>>> v.commit(long_running)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
UpdateError: cannot complete update with conflicts
>>> conflicts = list(long_running.iterParentConflicts())
>>> len(conflicts)
1
>>> conflict = conflicts[0]
>>> conflict.name
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ParentConflictError
>>> conflict.parent
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ParentConflictError
>>> selected = list(conflict.iterSelectedParents())
>>> len(selected)
2
>>> sorted((s.type, s.name) for s in selected)
[('local', 'fred'), ('updated', 'barbara')]
>>> all = dict((s.type, s) for s in conflict.iterParents())
>>> len(all)
3
>>> sorted(all)
['base', 'local', 'updated']

You can provoke these just by accepting a previous version, outside of merges. For instance, we can now make a three-way parent conflict by selecting the root node.

>>> all['base'].select()
>>> selected = list(conflict.iterSelectedParents())
>>> len(selected)
3

Now if we resolve the original problem by rejecting the local change, we’ll still have a problem, because of accepting the baseParent.

>>> all['local'].base_item.select()
>>> selected = list(conflict.iterSelectedParents())
>>> len(selected)
2
>>> v.commit(long_running)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
UpdateError: cannot complete update with conflicts
>>> all['base'].local_item.select()
>>> len(list(long_running.iterParentConflicts()))
0

Now our hierarchy looks like short_running again:

               (top node)
         ------/   |    \-------
        /          |            \
   'abe'        'barbara'      'edna'
<Demo u'a1'>   <Demo u'b1'>  <Demo u'e1'>
                /      \
               /        \
            'fred'     'donald'
       <Demo u'f1'>   <Demo u'd2'>

We can’t check this in because there are no effective changes between this and the last checkin.

>>> v.commit(long_running) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NoChangesError: <zc.vault.core.Manifest object at ...>

So actually, we’ll reinstate the local change, reject the short_running change (the placement within barbara), and commit.

>>> all['local'].select()
>>> all['updated'].base_item.select()
>>> v.commit(long_running)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)

Note that even though we selected the base_item, the relationship generated by completing the update is actually local because it is a change from the previous updated source.

>>> v.inventory.contents('barbara').type
'local'

There is actually a fourth kind of error: having child nodes in selected relationships for which there are no selected relationships. The code tries to disallow this, so it should not be encountered.

Next, we will talk about using vaults to create and manage branches. The simple basics of this are that you can commit an inventory based on one vault into a fresh vault, and you can then update across the two vaults. To create a vault that can have merged manifests, you must share the internal ‘intids’ attribute. The createBranch method is sugar for doing that and then (by default) committing the most recent manifest of the current vault as the first revision of the branch.

>>> branch = app['branch'] = v.createBranch()
>>> bi = Inventory(Manifest(branch.manifest))
>>> branch_start_inventory = v.inventory
>>> bi.contents['george'] = Demo()
>>> branch.commit(bi)
>>> checkManifest(branch.manifest)
>>> i = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> i.contents['barbara'] = app['b2'] = Demo()
>>> v.commit(i)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)
>>> i.contents['barbara'].source_name
u'b2'
>>> bi = Inventory(Manifest(branch.manifest))
>>> bi.contents('barbara')['henry'] = app['h1'] = Demo()
>>> branch.commit(bi)
>>> checkManifest(branch.manifest)

Now we want to merge the mainline changes with the branch.

>>> bi = Inventory(Manifest(branch.manifest))
>>> (bi.manifest.base_source is bi.manifest.getBaseSource(branch) is
...  branch.manifest)
True
>>> (bi.manifest.getBaseSource(v) is branch_start_inventory.manifest is
...  v[-2])
True
>>> bi.beginUpdate(v.inventory)
>>> bi.contents['barbara'].source_name
u'b2'
>>> bi.contents('barbara')['henry'].source_name
u'h1'

A smooth update. But what happens if meanwhile someone changes the branch, before this is committed? We use completeUpdate, and then update again on the branch. completeUpdate moves all selected changes to be local, whatever the source, the same way commit does (in fact, commit uses completeUpdate).

>>> bi2 = Inventory(Manifest(branch.manifest))
>>> bi2.contents['edna'] = app['e2'] = Demo()
>>> branch.commit(bi2)
>>> checkManifest(branch.manifest)
>>> branch.commit(bi) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
OutOfDateError: <zc.vault.core.Manifest object at ...>
>>> bi.completeUpdate()
>>> bi.beginUpdate()
>>> branch.commit(bi)
>>> checkManifest(branch.manifest)

Once we have done this, the head of the branch is based on the head of the original vault, so we can immediately check in a branch inventory in the trunk inventory.

>>> v.commit(Inventory(Manifest(branch.manifest)))
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)

Finally, cherry-picking changes is possible as well, though it can cause normal updates to be confused. beginCollectionUpdate takes an iterable of items (such as is produced by iterChangedItems) and applies the update with the usual conflict and examination approaches we’ve seen above. completeUpdate can then accept the changes for additional updates.

>>> long_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> discarded = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> discarded.contents['ignatius'] = app['i1'] = Demo()
>>> discarded.contents['jacobus'] = app['j1'] = Demo()
>>> long_running.beginCollectionUpdate((discarded.contents('ignatius'),))
>>> len(list(long_running.iterOrphanConflicts()))
1
>>> o = iter(long_running.iterOrphanConflicts()).next()
>>> o.selected
True
>>> o.name # None
>>> o.parent # None
>>> o.object
<Demo u'i1'>
>>> o.moveTo(long_running.contents, 'ignatius')
>>> len(list(long_running.iterOrphanConflicts()))
0
>>> long_running.contents['ignatius']
<Demo u'i1'>
>>> long_running.contents('ignatius')['jacobus'] = app['j1']
>>> list(long_running.contents('ignatius').keys())
['jacobus']
>>> long_running.contents('ignatius')('jacobus').selected
True
>>> list(discarded.contents('ignatius').keys())
[]
>>> v.commit(long_running)
>>> checkManifest(v.manifest)

The code will stop you if you try to add a set of relationships that result in the manifest having keys that don’t map to values–or more precisely, child tokens that don’t have matching selected relationships. For instance, consider this.

>>> long_running = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> discarded = Inventory(Manifest(v.manifest))
>>> discarded.contents['katrina'] = app['k1'] = Demo()
>>> discarded.contents('katrina')['loyola'] = app['l1'] = Demo()
>>> long_running.beginCollectionUpdate((discarded.contents('katrina'),))
... # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: cannot update from a set that includes children tokens...

It is disallowed because the katrina node includes the ‘loyola’ node, but we didn’t include the matching ‘loyola’ item.

If you include both, the merge will proceed as usual.

>>> long_running.beginCollectionUpdate(
...     (discarded.contents('katrina'),
...      discarded.contents('katrina')('loyola')))
>>> long_running.updating
True
>>> len(list((long_running.iterOrphanConflicts())))
2
>>> orphans = dict((o.name, o) for o in long_running.iterOrphanConflicts())
>>> orphans[None].moveTo(long_running.contents, 'katrina')
>>> long_running.contents['katrina']
<Demo u'k1'>
>>> long_running.contents('katrina')['loyola']
<Demo u'l1'>

The combination of beginCollectionUpdate and iterChangedItems can provide a powerful way to apply arbitrary changesets to a revision.

Storing None

Sometimes you want to just make an empty node for organizational purposes. While normally stored objects must be versionable and adaptable to IKeyReference, None is a special case. We can store None in any node. Let’s make a quick example.

>>> v = app['v'] = Vault()
>>> i = Inventory(vault=v)
>>> i.contents['foo'] = None
>>> i.contents('foo')['bar'] = None
>>> i.contents('foo')('bar')['baz'] = app['d1']
>>> i.contents['foo'] # None
>>> i.contents('foo')['bar'] # None
>>> i.contents('foo')('bar')['baz'] is app['d1']
True
>>> i.contents['bing'] = app['a1']
>>> i.contents['bing'] is app['a1']
True
>>> v.commit(i)
>>> i = Inventory(vault=v, mutable=True)
>>> i.contents['bing'] = None
>>> del i.contents('foo')['bar']
>>> i.contents['foo'] = app['d1']
>>> v.commit(i)
>>> v.inventory.contents.previous['bing'] is app['a1']
True
>>> v.inventory.contents.previous['foo'] is None
True

Special “held” Containers

It is sometimes useful to specify a “held” container for all objects stored in a vault, overriding the “held” containers for each manifest as described above. Vaults can be instantiated with specifying a held container.

>>> from zc.vault.core import HeldContainer
>>> held = app['held'] = HeldContainer()
>>> v = app['vault_held'] = Vault(held=held)
>>> i = Inventory(vault=v)
>>> o = i.contents['foo'] = Demo()
>>> o.__parent__ is held
True
>>> held[o.__name__] is o
True

If you create a branch, by default it will use the same held container.

>>> v.commit(i)
>>> v2 = app['vault_held2'] = v.createBranch()
>>> i2 = Inventory(vault=v2, mutable=True)
>>> o2 = i2.contents['bar'] = Demo()
>>> o2.__parent__ is held
True
>>> held[o2.__name__] is o2
True

You can also specify another held container when you create a branch.

>>> another_held = app['another_held'] = HeldContainer()
>>> v3 = app['vault_held3'] = v.createBranch(held=another_held)
>>> i3 = Inventory(vault=v3, mutable=True)
>>> o3 = i3.contents['baz'] = Demo()
>>> o3.__parent__ is another_held
True
>>> another_held[o3.__name__] is o3
True

Committing the transaction

We’ll make sure that all these changes can in fact be committed to the ZODB.

>>> import transaction
>>> transaction.commit()

CHANGES

0.11 (2011-04-08)

  • Use eggs instead of zope3 checkout.
  • Use Python’s doctest module instead of the deprecated zope.testing.doctest.
  • Update tests to run with ZTK 1.0.

0.10 (2008-03-04)

  • Add a dependency on rwproperty instead of using a copy of it.
  • Add zc.vault.versions.Traversable.
  • Fix a bug for rename after freeze in r <= 78553.

0.9 (2006-12-03)

Initial egg release.

Release History

Release History

This version
History Node

0.11

History Node

0.10

History Node

0.9

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