An asynchronous twitter scraper
Twitter provides a powerful REST and Streaming API. With the REST API, you can only send about 720 requests per hour and only get tweets that are less than a week old. This project tries to overcome these limitations by scraping the website instead. This directly translates to: * No rate limits, you can easily scrape 50 thousand tweets in an hour (without even using threads!) * No authentication is needed (the request header is random so you should’nt get blacklisted) * And most importantly, you are free to query tweets that are more than 7 days old
This project is similar in nature to taspinar’s twitterscraper and was heavily inspired by it. In fact, a small portion of the code was shamelessly borrowed.
The main difference between our two libraries is that this one is fully asynchronous so requests are non-blocking. This allows multiple requests to be processed in a shorter period of time, making the scraper much faster.
Unfortunately, at the moment this package is only for python 3.6+ as it relies on newer features.
To install this package simply run
(sudo) pip install Twper
Or you can clone the repository and in the folder containing setup.py run
python setup.py install
Each tweet is represented as a Tweet object and contains the following attributes: * user - the sender’s username * fullname - the sender’s full name * tweet_id - a unique id (provided by twitter) * url - a url to that specific tweet * timestamp - a datetime object of when the tweet was sent * text - the tweet’s message * replies - number of replies the tweet got * retweets - number of retweets it got * likes - number of likes the tweet received * hashtags - what hashtags are mentioned in the tweet
Note: Tweet has a from_id constructor that returns a tweet object from a tweet_id.
Warning: This feature uses requests and is blocking.
To get additional info about a specific user you can use the TwitterAccount class. Specifically TwitterAccount.from_username(user) can be used. A TwitterAccount has the following attributes: * user - the sender’s username * fullname - the sender’s full name * tweets - number of tweets the user tweeted * following - number of people the user is following * followers - number of people following the user * likes - number of likes issued by the user * lists - number of lists issued by the user * moments - number of moments the user has * bio - the user’s biography (short description) * location - the user’s geographical location * location_id - the corresponding location id twitter uses * website - the user’s website * birthday - datetime of the user’s birthday if publicly available * joined - datetime of when the user joined
Note: Some of the above info might be missing/not publicly available. In this case the default value for dates is None, from strings it’s an empty string and for ints its zero.
Warning: The from_username feature uses requests and is blocking.
A search is described by a query string (q_str) and these have the following properties:
|q_str||What it will query for|
|A B C||tweets containing A and B and C|
|“ABC”||tweets containing the exact match ABC|
|A OR C||tweets containing either A or C|
|-A -B||tweets NOT containing A and NOT B|
|#ABC||tweets containing the hashtag #ABC|
|from:A||tweets that are from account A|
|to:B||tweets that are to account B|
|@C||tweets that mention account C|
|since:2017-12-01||tweets after date|
|until:2017-12-02||tweets before date|
|place:LOCATION_ID||tweets from location with id LOCATION_ID|
Note: Ordering does not matter, and a search is case-insensitive except for keywords OR, from:, to: since:, until: and place: which should be written exactly as above. Also there should NOT be a space between the colon and search value (ex: from: A is wrong and will search for tweets containing ‘from:’ and ‘A’ instead of the intended behavior).
In this package there’s two classes used to search tweets (Query, Queries). Both these classes have a get_tweets method which returns an async generator. And therefore they need to be ran in an event loop. Do not worry if you haven’t used these before, let’s jump right into it!
async def main(): # Example 1: A simple search using Query q = Query('Some Query Goes Here', limit=20) async for tw in q.get_tweets(): # Process data print(tw) # This actually runs the main function loop = asyncio.get_event_loop() try: loop.run_until_complete(main()) loop.run_until_complete(loop.shutdown_asyncgens()) finally: loop.close()
This will print the most recent 20 tweets (from newest to oldest) containing the words ‘some’ and ‘query’ and ‘goes’ and ‘here’.
Sometimes, the q_str you want to query for is too long and it needs to be broken up into smaller pieces and ORed together. For this you can use the Queries class. The Queries class executes many different queries together and then joins them. In the following example four separate queries are executed at once and tweets are printed reverse chronological order (newest first). Please note that in the following Queries example is not faster than running those four queries sequentially, rather it merges them chronologically.
async def main(): # Example 2: Multiple searches using Queries. qs = Queries(['Some', 'Query', 'Goes', 'Here'], limit=5) async for tw in qs.get_tweets(): # Process data print(tw) # This actually runs the main function loop = asyncio.get_event_loop() try: loop.run_until_complete(main()) loop.run_until_complete(loop.shutdown_asyncgens()) finally: loop.close()
The limit key word argument simply limits the maximum number of results any generator can yield. In the second example the limit is applied to every query individually so the maximum number of tweets it can yield is 5 x 4 = 20.
For further question I encourage you to look at the source code as it is not long and well commented before asking.
This is my first open source project, so please feel free to contribute in any way and/or point out what I should improve (as well as any bugs of course). Pull requests and issues are welcomed.
If you are looking to contribute or just curious about what I plan to add/fix here is the todo list:
- Remove the requests dependency. This is a blocking library that should be replaced by aiohttp. It is only used in Tweet.from_id and TwitterAccount.from_username and therefore doesn’t affect the performance of Querying.
- Improve the TwitterAccount class. Hopefully it’s possible to scrape what accounts a user is following and what accounts are following the user if we add authentication. Currently we can only retrieve stats about a user account.
- Possibly add support for other languages. Currently, only english is fully supported even though you can set language to something other than ‘en’ in the Query constructor. Setting it to None searches everything regardless of the language.
This project is licensed under the MIT License - see the LICENSE for details
- Credit’s to Taspinar for his great library that inspired the creation of this one.
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