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A framework/backend for multi-layer and multi-time domain controller.

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Framework for Multi Layer Control in Python

This package is developed to serve as a framework for control applications (microgrid control, building automation, energy management, electric vehicle fleet aggregation, etc.). In particular, this framework is built to handle the parallelization, timing/triggering, data logging, and error handling of multiple controller modules.


This package is developed as a framework/backend for multi-layer and multi-time domain controller. One example application are advanced controller based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) where different sub-modules (e.g., weather forecast, energy management, real-time control), with different time constants, have to be coordinated. This framework allows parallelization using the multiprocessing module in Python.

Please note that the FMLC package and especially the examples are still under development. Please open an issue for specific questions

Getting Started

The following link permits users to clone the source directory containing the FMLC package.

The package depends on external modules which can be installed from pypi with pip install -r requirements.txt.

This file contains a detailed documentation of how to use to create controller objects.
The is a Python script to handle the parallelization, timing/triggering, data logging, and error handling of multiple controller modules. Its detailed documentation can be found here.
A complete example can be found here.


To illustrate and test its functionality, each module executes some tests, when called as main.

The python command provides an example of the interal triggering of modules, while the python command provides a simple example of a single controller.

Further, and example Jupyter notebook can be found here where a full controller stack, with different time constants, is illustrated. Please note that in order to work properly on Windows, the notebook must be exported to Python code.

Another application example can be found here where FMLC is used to coordiante MPC controls on three differernt time domains:

  • Day-ahead control: invoked once per day; complex model
  • Supervisory energy management: invoked every 5 minutes with a 24 hour horizon
  • Fast-acting control: invoked every second with an hourly horizon


Framework for Multi Layer Control in Python (FMLC) Copyright (c) 2019, The Regents of the University of California, through Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (subject to receipt of any required approvals from the U.S. Dept. of Energy). All rights reserved.

If you have questions about your rights to use or distribute this software, please contact Berkeley Lab's Intellectual Property Office at

NOTICE. This Software was developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Government consequently retains certain rights. As such, the U.S. Government has been granted for itself and others acting on its behalf a paid-up, nonexclusive, irrevocable, worldwide license in the Software to reproduce, distribute copies to the public, prepare derivative works, and perform publicly and display publicly, and to permit other to do so.


To cite the FMLC package, please use:

Gehbauer, Christoph, Müller, J., Swenson, T. and Vrettos, E. 2019. Photovoltaic and Behind-the-Meter Battery Storage: Advanced Smart Inverter Controls and Field Demonstration. California Energy Commission.

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