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Flask-API-Utils helps you to create APIs.

Project description

https://travis-ci.org/marselester/flask-api-utils.png

Flask-API-Utils helps you to create APIs. It makes responses in appropriate formats, for instance, JSON. All you need to do is to return dictionary from your views. Another useful feature is an authentication. The library supports Hawk HTTP authentication scheme and Flask-Login extension. To sum up, there is an API example project.

“Accept” Header based Response

ResponsiveFlask tends to make responses based on Accept request-header (RFC 2616). If a view function does not return a dictionary, then response will be processed as usual. Here is an example.

from api_utils import ResponsiveFlask

app = ResponsiveFlask(__name__)


@app.route('/')
def hello_world():
    return {'hello': 'world'}


def dummy_xml_formatter(*args, **kwargs):
    return '<hello>world</hello>'

xml_mimetype = 'application/vnd.company+xml'
app.response_formatters[xml_mimetype] = dummy_xml_formatter

if __name__ == '__main__':
    app.run()

It’s assumed that file was saved as api.py:

$ python api.py
 * Running on http://127.0.0.1:5000/

Here are curl examples with different Accept headers:

$ curl http://127.0.0.1:5000/ -i
HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 22
Server: Werkzeug/0.9.4 Python/2.7.5
Date: Sat, 07 Dec 2013 14:01:14 GMT

{
  "hello": "world"
}
$ curl http://127.0.0.1:5000/ -H 'Accept: application/vnd.company+xml' -i
HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Content-Type: application/vnd.company+xml; charset=utf-8
Content-Length: 20
Server: Werkzeug/0.9.4 Python/2.7.5
Date: Sat, 07 Dec 2013 14:01:50 GMT

<hello>world</hello>
$ curl http://127.0.0.1:5000/ -H 'Accept: blah/*' -i
HTTP/1.0 406 NOT ACCEPTABLE
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 83
Server: Werkzeug/0.9.4 Python/2.7.5
Date: Sat, 07 Dec 2013 14:02:23 GMT

{
  "mimetypes": [
    "application/json",
    "application/vnd.company+xml"
  ]
}

HTTP Error Handling

You can set HTTP error handler by using @app.default_errorhandler decorator. Note that it might override already defined error handlers, so you should declare it before them.

from flask import request
from api_utils import ResponsiveFlask

app = ResponsiveFlask(__name__)


@app.default_errorhandler
def werkzeug_default_exceptions_handler(error):
    error_info_url = (
        'http://developer.example.com/errors.html#error-code-{}'
    ).format(error.code)

    response = {
        'code': error.code,
        'message': str(error),
        'info_url': error_info_url,
    }
    return response, error.code


@app.errorhandler(404)
def page_not_found(error):
    return {'error': 'This page does not exist'}, 404


class MyException(Exception):
    pass


@app.errorhandler(MyException)
def special_exception_handler(error):
    return {'error': str(error)}


@app.route('/my-exc')
def hello_my_exception():
    raise MyException('Krivens!')


@app.route('/yarr')
def hello_bad_request():
    request.args['bad-key']

if __name__ == '__main__':
    app.run()

Let’s try to curl this example. First response shows that we redefined default {'code': 400, 'message': '400: Bad Request'} error format. Next ones show that you can handle specific errors as usual.

$ curl http://127.0.0.1:5000/yarr -i
HTTP/1.0 400 BAD REQUEST
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 125
Server: Werkzeug/0.9.4 Python/2.7.5
Date: Sun, 29 Dec 2013 14:26:30 GMT

{
  "code": 400,
  "info_url": "http://developer.example.com/errors.html#error-code-400",
  "message": "400: Bad Request"
}
$ curl http://127.0.0.1:5000/ -i
HTTP/1.0 404 NOT FOUND
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 41
Server: Werkzeug/0.9.4 Python/2.7.5
Date: Sun, 29 Dec 2013 14:28:46 GMT

{
  "error": "This page does not exist"
}
$ curl http://127.0.0.1:5000/my-exc -i
HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 25
Server: Werkzeug/0.9.4 Python/2.7.5
Date: Sun, 29 Dec 2013 14:27:33 GMT

{
  "error": "Krivens!"
}

Authentication

Hawk extension provides API authentication for Flask.

Hawk is an HTTP authentication scheme using a message authentication code (MAC) algorithm to provide partial HTTP request cryptographic verification.

The extension is based on Mohawk, so make sure you have installed it.

$ pip install mohawk

Usage example:

from flask import Flask
from api_utils import Hawk

app = Flask(__name__)
hawk = Hawk(app)


@hawk.client_key_loader
def get_client_key(client_id):
    # In a real project you will likely use some storage.
    if client_id == 'Alice':
        return 'werxhqb98rpaxn39848xrunpaw3489ruxnpa98w4rxn'
    else:
        raise LookupError()


@app.route('/')
@hawk.auth_required
def index():
    return 'hello world'

if __name__ == '__main__':
    app.run()
$ curl http://127.0.0.1:5000/ -i
HTTP/1.0 401 UNAUTHORIZED
...

Cookie based authentication is disabled by default. Set HAWK_ALLOW_COOKIE_AUTH = True to enable it. Also Hawk supports response signing, enable it HAWK_SIGN_RESPONSE = True if you need it.

Following configuration keys are used by Mohawk library.

HAWK_ALGORITHM = 'sha256'
HAWK_ACCEPT_UNTRUSTED_CONTENT = False
HAWK_LOCALTIME_OFFSET_IN_SECONDS = 0
HAWK_TIMESTAMP_SKEW_IN_SECONDS = 60

Check Mohawk documentation for more information.

It can be convenient to globally turn off authentication when unit testing by setting HAWK_ENABLED = False.

Tests

Tests are run by:

$ pip install -r requirements.txt
$ tox

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