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A BTree based implementation for Zope's OFS.

Project description


BTreeFolder2 is a Zope product that acts like a Zope 2 OFS folder but can store many more items.

When you fill a Zope folder with too many items, both Zope and your browser get overwhelmed. Zope has to load and store a large folder object, and the browser has to render large HTML tables repeatedly. Zope can store a lot of objects, but it has trouble storing a lot of objects in a single standard folder.

Zope Corporation once had an extensive discussion on the subject. It was decided that we would expand standard folders to handle large numbers of objects gracefully. Unfortunately, Zope folders are used and extended in so many ways today that it would be difficult to modify standard folders in a way that would be compatible with all Zope products.

So the BTreeFolder product was born. It stored all subobjects in a ZODB BTree, a structure designed to allow many items without loading them all into memory. It also rendered the contents of the folder as a simple select list rather than a table. Most browsers have no trouble rendering large select lists.

But there was still one issue remaining. BTreeFolders still stored the ID of all subobjects in a single database record. If you put tens of thousands of items in a single BTreeFolder, you would still be loading and storing a multi-megabyte folder object. Zope can do this, but not quickly, and not without bloating the database.

BTreeFolder2 solves this issue. It stores not only the subobjects but also the IDs of the subobjects in a BTree. It also batches the list of items in the UI, showing only 1000 items at a time. So if you write your application carefully, you can use a BTreeFolder2 to store as many items as will fit in physical storage.

There are products that depend on the internal structure of the original BTreeFolder, however. So rather than risk breaking those products, the product has been renamed. You can have both products installed at the same time. If you’re developing new applications, you should use BTreeFolder2.


The BTreeFolder2 user interface shows a list of items rather than a series of checkboxes. To visit an item, select it in the list and click the “edit” button.

BTreeFolder2 objects provide Python dictionary-like methods to make them easier to use in Python code than standard folders:

get(key, default=None)

keys(), values(), and items() return sequences, but not necessarily tuples or lists. Use len(folder) to call the __len__() method. The objects returned by values() and items() have acquisition wrappers.

BTreeFolder2 also provides a method for generating unique, non-overlapping IDs:

generateId(prefix='item', suffix='', rand_ceiling=999999999)

The ID returned by this method is guaranteed to not clash with any other ID in the folder. Use the returned value as the ID for new objects. The generated IDs tend to be sequential so that objects that are likely related in some way get loaded together.

BTreeFolder2 implements the full Folder interface, with the exception that the superValues() method does not return any items. To implement the method in the way the Zope codebase expects would undermine the performance benefits gained by using BTreeFolder2.


5.1 (2023-05-02)

  • Depend on Zope instead of Zope2.

  • Add a confirmation prompt on Delete All Objects button. (see #9)

5.0 (2023-02-01)

  • Drop support for Python 2.7, 3.5, 3.6.

4.4 (2022-12-16)

  • Fix Python 2 incompatibility.

  • Fix insidious buildout configuration bug for tests against Zope 4.

  • Add support for Python 3.10 and 3.11.

4.3 (2021-04-26)

  • Add support for Python 3.9

  • Modernize the ZMI template to match the Zope 4 styles (#10)

  • Add Delete All Objects button to the manage screen. (#9)

4.2 (2019-03-08)

  • Specify supported Python versions using python_requires in (Zope#481)

  • Drop support for Python 3.4 since Zope itself does not support it.

  • Add support for Python 3.8

4.1 (2018-10-05)

  • More PEP8 compliance.

  • Add icon for Bootstrap ZMI.

  • Avoid deprecation warnings by using current API.

  • Add support for Python 3.7.

4.0.0 (2017-05-23)

  • added tox configuration

  • Python 3 compatibility

  • Update to require and be compatible with Zope 4.

3.0 (2016-07-18)

  • Update Dependencies (no ZODB, but BTrees)

2.14.0 (2015-06-18)

  • Require ExtensionClass >= 4.1a1 (Compatible w/ Zope 4).

2.13.5 (2015-06-18)

  • Added case for clean-up routine where the meta type index contains keys that are not in the tree.

2.13.4 (2011-12-12)

  • Provide security declaration for BTreeFolder2Base.hasObject method.

  • Add some tests for correct getattr behavior.

  • Minor __getattr__ and _getOb optimizations.

2.13.3 (2011-03-15)

  • keys, values and items methods are now exactly the same as objectIds, objectValues and objectItems. They did the same before already but duplicated the code.

2.13.2 (2011-03-08)

  • objectValues and objectItems no longer do a special handling when no special spec is requested as objectIds already does the correct handling.

2.13.1 (2010-08-04)

  • Make sure that methods returning objects return them Acquisition wrapped.

  • Be more careful in calling our own keys, values and items methods, as sub-classes might have overridden some of them.

2.13.0 (2010-07-11)

  • Changed the objectIds, objectItems and objectValues methods to use the internal OOBTree methods directly if no spec argument is passed.

  • Change implementation of keys, items and values method to access the self._tree OOBTree methods directly. This avoids lookups in the meta_types structures.

  • Implement the full dictionary protocol including __getitem__, __delitem__, __setitem__, __nonzero__, __iter__ and __contains__.

  • Released as separate package.

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