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Python bindings for the PDF toolkit and renderer MuPDF

Project description

PyMuPDF 1.19.6


Release date: March 3, 2022

On PyPI since August 2016: Downloads


Jorj X. McKie, based on original code by Ruikai Liu.


PyMuPDF (current version 1.19.6) is a Python binding with support for MuPDF (current version 1.19.*), a lightweight PDF, XPS, and E-book viewer, renderer, and toolkit, which is maintained and developed by Artifex Software, Inc.

MuPDF can access files in PDF, XPS, OpenXPS, CBZ, EPUB and FB2 (e-books) formats, and it is known for its top performance and high rendering quality.

With PyMuPDF you can access files with extensions like ".pdf", ".xps", ".oxps", ".cbz", ".fb2" or ".epub". In addition, about 10 popular image formats can also be handled like documents: ".png", ".jpg", ".bmp", ".tiff", etc..

In partnership with Artifex, PyMuPDF is now also available for commercial licensing. This agreement has no impact on use cases, that are compliant with the open-source license AGPL. Please see the "License and Copyright" section below for additional information.


For all supported document types (i.e. including images) you can

  • decrypt the document
  • access meta information, links and bookmarks
  • render pages in raster formats (PNG and some others), or the vector format SVG
  • search for text
  • extract text and images
  • convert to other formats: PDF, (X)HTML, XML, JSON, text
  • do OCR (Optical Character Recognition) if Tesseract is installed

To some degree, PyMuPDF can also be used as an image converter: it can read a range of input formats and can produce Portable Network Graphics (PNG), Portable Anymaps (PNM, etc.), Portable Arbitrary Maps (PAM), Adobe Postscript and Adobe Photoshop documents, making the use of other graphics packages obselete in these cases. But interfacing with e.g. PIL/Pillow for image input and output is easy as well.

For PDF documents, there exists a plethora of additional features: they can be created, joined or split up. Pages can be inserted, deleted, re-arranged or modified in many ways (including annotations and form fields).

  • Images and fonts can be extracted or inserted.

    You may want to have a look at this cool GUI example script, which lets you insert, delete, replace or re-position images under your visual control.

    If fontTools is installed, subsets can be built for eligible fonts based on their usage in the document. Especially for new PDFs, this can lead to significant file size reductions.

  • Embedded files are fully supported.

  • PDFs can be reformatted to support double-sided printing, posterizing, applying logos or watermarks

  • Password protection is fully supported: decryption, encryption, encryption method selection, permission level and user / owner password setting.

  • Support of the PDF Optional Content concept for images, text and drawings.

  • Low-level PDF structures can be accessed and modified.

  • Command line module "python -m fitz ...". A versatile utility with the following features

    • encryption / decryption / optimization
    • creation of sub-documents
    • document joining
    • image / font extraction
    • full support of embedded files
    • layout-preserving text extraction (all documents)

Have a look at the basic demos, the examples (which contain complete, working programs), and notebooks.


Documentation is written using Sphinx and is available in various formats from the following sources. It currently is a combination of reference guide and user manual. For a quick start look at the tutorial and the recipes chapters.

The latest changelog can be viewed here.


PyMuPDF requires Python 3.6 or later.

For versions 3.7 and up, Python wheels exist for Windows (32bit and 64bit), Linux (64bit, Intel and ARM) and Mac OSX (64bit, Intel only), so it can be installed from PyPI in the usual way. To ensure pip support for the latest wheel platform tags, we strongly recommend to always upgrade pip first.

python -m pip install --upgrade pip
python -m pip install --upgrade pymupdf

There are no mandatory external dependencies. However, some optional features become available only if additional packages are installed:

  • Pillow for using pillow image output directly from PyMuPDF
  • fontTools for creating font subsets.
  • pymupdf-fonts contains some nice fonts for your text output.
  • Tesseract-OCR for optical character recognition in images and document pages. Tesseract is separate software, not a Python package. To enable OCR functions in PyMuPDF, the system environment variable "TESSDATA_PREFIX" must be defined and contain the tessdata folder name of the Tesseract installation location.

Older wheels - also with support for older Python versions - can be found here and on PyPI.

Other platforms require installation from sources, follow these instructions in the documentation.

Note: If pip cannot find a wheel that is compatible with your platform, it will automatically try an installation from sources - which will fail if MuPDF (including its sources) is not installed on your system.

This repo's folder installation contains several platform-specific source installation scripts contributed by users. You may also find the following Wiki pages useful:

License and Copyright

In order to comply with MuPDF’s dual licensing model, PyMuPDF has entered into an agreement with Artifex who has the right to sublicense PyMuPDF to third parties.

PyMuPDF and MuPDF are now available under both, open-source AGPL and commercial license agreements.

Please read the full text of the AGPL license agreement (which is also included here in file COPYING) to ensure that your use case complies with the guidelines of this license. If you determine you cannot meet the requirements of the AGPL, please contact Artifex for more information regarding a commercial license.

Artifex is the exclusive commercial licensing agent for MuPDF.

Artifex, the Artifex logo, MuPDF, and the MuPDF logo are registered trademarks of Artifex Software Inc. © 2021 Artifex Software, Inc. All rights reserved.


Please use the Discussions menu for questions, comments, or asking for help, and submit issues here. If you wish, you can also contact me directly via

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