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Simple integration of Starlette and WTForms.

Project description

Starlette-WTF

Starlette-WTF is a simple tool for integrating Starlette and WTForms. It is modeled on the excellent Flask-WTF library.

Table of Contents

Installation

Installing Starlette-WTF is simple with pip:

$ pip install starlette-wtf

Quickstart

The following code implements a simple form handler with CSRF protection. The form has a required string field and validation errors are handled by the html template. Note that CSRF protection requires SessionMiddleware, CSRFProtectMiddleware, @csrf_protect and the csrf_token field to be added to the HTML form.

First, install the dependencies for this quickstart:

$ pip install starlette starlette-wtf jinja2 uvicorn 

Next, create a Python file (app.py) with the following code:

from jinja2 import Template
from starlette.applications import Starlette
from starlette.middleware import Middleware
from starlette.middleware.sessions import SessionMiddleware
from starlette.responses import PlainTextResponse, HTMLResponse
from starlette_wtf import StarletteForm, CSRFProtectMiddleware, csrf_protect
from wtforms import StringField
from wtforms.validators	import DataRequired


class MyForm(StarletteForm):
    name = StringField('name', validators=[DataRequired()])


template = Template('''
<html>
  <body>
    <form method="post" novalidate>
      {{ form.csrf_token }}
      <div>
        {{ form.name(placeholder='Name') }}
        {% if form.name.errors -%}
        <span>{{ form.name.errors[0] }}</span>
        {%- endif %}
      </div>
      <button type="submit">Submit</button>
    </form>
  </body>
</html>
''')


app = Starlette(middleware=[
    Middleware(SessionMiddleware, secret_key='***REPLACEME1***'),
    Middleware(CSRFProtectMiddleware, csrf_secret='***REPLACEME2***')
])


@app.route('/', methods=['GET', 'POST'])
@csrf_protect
async def index(request):
    """GET|POST /: form handler
    """
    form = await MyForm.from_formdata(request)
    
    if await form.validate_on_submit():
        return PlainTextResponse('SUCCESS')

    html = template.render(form=form)
    return HTMLResponse(html)

Finally, run the app using the following command:

$ uvicorn app:app

Creating Forms

The StarletteForm Class

Starlette-WTF provides a form class that makes it easy to add form validation and CSRF protection to Starlette apps. To make a form, subclass the StarletteForm class and use WTForms fields, validators and widgets to define the inputs. The StarletteForm class inherits from the WTForms Form class so you can use WTForms features and methods to add more advanced functionality to your app:

from starlette_wtf import StarletteForm
from wtforms import TextField, PasswordField
from wtforms.validators import DataRequired, Email, EqualTo
from wtforms.widgets import PasswordInput


class CreateAccountForm(StarletteForm):
    email = TextField(
        'Email address',
        validators=[
            DataRequired('Please enter your email address'),
            Email()
        ]
    )

    password = PasswordField(
        'Password',
        widget=PasswordInput(hide_value=False),
        validators=[
            DataRequired('Please enter your password'),
            EqualTo('password_confirm', message='Passwords must match')
        ]
    )

    password_confirm = PasswordField(
        'Confirm Password',
        widget=PasswordInput(hide_value=False),
        validators=[
            DataRequired('Please confirm your password')
        ]
    )

Often you will want to initialize form objects using default values on GET requests and from submitted formdata on POST requests. To make this easier you can use the .from_formdata() async class method which does this for you automatically:

@app.route('/create-account', methods=['GET', 'POST'])
async def create_account(request):
    """GET|POST /create-account: Create account form handler
    """
    form = await CreateAccountForm.from_formdata(request)
    return PlainTextResponse()

Validation

The StarletteForm class has a useful .validate_on_submit() method that performs input validation for POST, PUT, PATCH and DELETE requests and returns a boolean indicating whether or not there were any errors. After validation, errors are available via the .errors attribute attached to each input field instance. Note that validation is asynchronous to handle async field validators (see below):

from jinja2 import Template
from starlette.applications import Starlette
from starlette.responses import (PlainTextResponse, RedirectResponse,
                                 HTMLResponse)


template = Template('''
<html>
  <body>
    <h1>Create Account</h1>
    <form method="post" novalidate>
      <div>
        {{ form.email(placeholder='Email address',
                      autofocus='true',
                      type='email',
                      spellcheck='false') }}
        {% if form.email.errors -%}
        <span>{{ form.email.errors[0] }}</span>
        {%- endif %}
      </div>
      <div>
        {{ form.password(placeholder="Password") }}
        {% if form.password.errors -%}
        <span>{{ form.password.errors[0] }}</span>
        {%- endif %}
      </div>
      <div>
        {{ form.password_confirm(placeholder="Confirm password") }}
        {% if form.password_confirm.errors -%}
        <span>{{ form.password_confirm.errors[0] }}</span>
        {%- endif %}
      </div>
      <button type="submit">Create account</button>
    </form>
  </body>
</html>
''')


app = Starlette()


@app.route('/', methods=['GET'])
async def index(request):
    """GET /: Return home page
    """
    return PlainTextResponse()


@app.route('/create-account', methods=['GET', 'POST'])
async def create_account(request):
    """GET|POST /create-account: Create account form handler
    """
    # initialize form
    form = await CreateAccountForm.from_formdata(request)

    # validate form
    if await form.validate_on_submit():
        # TODO: Save account credentials before returning redirect response
        return RedirectResponse(url='/', status_code=303)

    # generate html
    html = template.render(form=form)

    # return response
    status_code = 422 if form.errors else 200
    return HTMLResponse(html, status_code=status_code)

Async Custom Validators

The StarletteForm class allows you to implement asynchronous WTForms-like custom validators by adding async_validate_{fieldname} methods to your form classes:

from starlette_wtf import StarletteForm
from wtforms import TextField, PasswordField, ValidationError
from wtforms.validators import DataRequired, Email, EqualTo


class CreateAccountForm(StarletteForm):
    email = TextField(
        'Email address',
        validators=[
            DataRequired('Please enter your email address'),
            Email()
        ]
    )

    password = PasswordField(
        'Password',
        widget=PasswordInput(hide_value=False),
        validators=[
            DataRequired('Please enter your password'),
            EqualTo('password_confirm', message='Passwords must match')
        ]
    )

    password_confirm = PasswordField(
        'Confirm Password',
        widget=PasswordInput(hide_value=False),
        validators=[
            DataRequired('Please confirm your password')
        ]
    )

    async def async_validate_email(self, field):
        """Asynchronous validator to check if email is already in-use
        """
        # replace this with your own code
        if await make_database_request_here():
            raise ValidationError('Email is already in use')

CSRF Protection

In order to add CSRF protection to your app, first you must ensure that Starlette's SessionMiddleware is enabled, second you must configure Starlette-WTF using CSRFProtectMiddleware, third you must use the @csrf_protect decorator to protect individual endpoints, and fourth you must add the CSRF token to your HTML forms or JavaScript requests.

Setup

To enable CSRF protection for your app, first you must ensure that Starlette's SessionMiddleware is enabled, and second you must configure Starlette-WTF using CSRFProtectMiddleware.

from starlette.applications import Starlette
from starlette.middleware import Middleware
from starlette.middleware.sessions import SessionMiddleware
from starlette_wtf import CSRFProtectMiddleware


app = Starlette(middleware=[
    Middleware(SessionMiddleware, secret_key='***REPLACEME1***'),
    Middleware(CSRFProtectMiddleware, csrf_secret='***REPLACEME2***')
])

Protect Views

Once Starlette-WTF has been configured using CSRFProtectMiddleware you can enable CSRF protection for individual endpoints using the @csrf_protect decorator. The @csrf_protect decorator will automatically look for csrf_token in the form data or in the request headers (X-CSRFToken) and it will raise an HTTPException if the token is missing or invalid. CSRF token validation will only be performed on submission requests (POST, PUT, PATCH, DELETE). Note that the @csrf_protect must run after @app.route():

from starlette.responses import PlainTextResponse
from starlette_wtf import csrf_protect


@app.route('/form-handler', methods=['GET', 'POST'])
@csrf_protect
async def form_handler(request):
    """GET|POST /form-handler: Form handler
    """
    # this code won't run unless the CSRF token has been validated
    return PlainTextResponse()

The @csrf_protect decorator can also be used with class-based views (e.g. HTTPEndpoint):

from starlette.endpoints import HTTPEndpoint
from starlette.responses import PlainTextResponse
from starlette_wtf import csrf_protect


@csrf_protect
class Endpoint(HTTPEndpoint):
    async def get(self, request):
        # this code will run without a CSRF check
        return PlainTextResponse()

    async def post(self, request):
        # this code won't run unless the CSRF token has been validated
        return PlainTextResponse()

The @csrf_protect decorator can also be used with bound methods attached to class-based views:

from starlette.endpoints import HTTPEndpoint
from starlette.responses import PlainTextResponse
from starlette_wtf import csrf_protect


class Endpoint(HTTPEndpoint):
    async def get(self, request):
        # this code will run without a CSRF check
        return PlainTextResponse()

    @csrf_protect
    async def post(self, request):
        # this code won't run unless the CSRF token has been validated
        return PlainTextResponse()

HTML Forms

When using StarletteForm you can render the form's CSRF token field like this:

<form method="post">
  {{ form.csrf_token }}
</form>

JavaScript Requests

When sending an AJAX request, add the X-CSRFToken header to allow Starlette-WTF to perform CSRF validation. For example, in jQuery you can configure all requests to send the token:

<script type="text/javascript">
  var csrf_token = "{{ csrf_token(request) }}";

  $.ajaxSetup({
    beforeSend: function(xhr, settings) {
      if (!/^(GET|HEAD|OPTIONS|TRACE)$/i.test(settings.type) && !this.crossDomain) {
        xhr.setRequestHeader("X-CSRFToken", csrf_token);
      }
    }
  });
</script>

Disable in Unit Tests

To disable CSRF protection in unit tests you can toggle the enabled attribute in CSRFProtectionMiddleware:

from starlette.applications import Starlette
from starlette.config import environ
from starlette.middleware import Middleware
from starlette.middleware.sessions import SessionMiddleware
from starlette_wtf import CSRFProtectMiddleware


app = Starlette(middleware=[
    Middleware(SessionMiddleware, secret_key='***REPLACEME1***'),
    Middleware(CSRFProtectMiddleware,
               enable=!environ.get('TESTING', False),
               csrf_secret='***REPLACEME2***')
])

Configuration

CSRFProtectMiddleware accepts the following options:

Argument Description
enabled If true, enables CSRF protection. Default to True.
csrf_secret The CSRF token signing key.
csrf_field_name The CSRF token's field name in the session. Defaults to "csrf_token"
csrf_time_limit The time limit for each signed token in seconds. Defaults to 3600.
csrf_headers List of CSRF HTTP header field names. Defaults to ["X-CSRFToken", "X-CSRF-Token"]
csrf_ssl_strict If enabled, ensures same origin policy on https requests. Defaults to True.

Development

Get the code

Starlette-WTF is actively developed on GitHub. You can clone the repository using git:

$ git clone git@github.com:muicss/starlette-wtf.git

Once you have a copy of the source, you can install it into your site-packages in development mode so you can modify and execute the code:

$ python setup.py develop

Run unit tests

To install unit test dependencies:

$ pip install -e .[test]

To run unit tests:

$ pytest

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