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Atila Framework

Project description


Atila is life-cycle hook based web framework which is run on Skitai WSGI App Engine.

# myservice/
def __app__ ():
    from atila import Atila
    return Atila (__name__)

def __mount__ (context, app):
    @app.route ("/")
    def index (context):
        return "Hello, World"
import skitai
import myservice

skitai.mount ("/", myservice) ()

And run,


Now, http://localhost:5000/ is working.

Life-Cycle Hook Based Implementation

Users can use some special hook functions like __app__ (), __mount__ () and so on.

This hooks can be integrated your existing source codes without any side effects. You just add routed controllers and then it could work as API backend.

Important Notice

CAUTION: Atila is base on WSGI but can be run only with Skitai App Engine because it crosses the border of WSGI for async router.

This means if you make your Atila app, you have no choice but Skitai as WSGI app server. And Atila's unique and unconventional style may become very hard work to port to other framework.

Async/Await Support

Atila almost fully support async/await manner.

Briefly Atila has 2 event loops for:

  • handling requests with asyncore as main loop
  • running async functions with asyncio as executor

I still recommend use sync funtions mainly unless massive I/O related tasks or have no choice.

Table of Content

  • Atila
  • Life-Cycle Hook Based Implementation
  • Important Notice
  • Async/Await Support
  • Installation
  • Before You Start
    • Getting IDE Suggestions
  • Quick Start
    • Dumb Seek
    • Unit Testing
    • Write Atila App Hooks
    • Add Launch Script
    • Add Analyzing API Endpoint
    • Add Indexing and Searching API Endpoints
    • Testing API
    • Final Source Codes
    • Conclusion
  • Connecting Database
    • Option I: Database Management Not Required
    • Option II: Database Management Required: Django As ORM
      • Initialize Django Project
      • Auto Reloading For Development
      • Add Django App
      • Django Rest Framework
      • Working With Atila App
    • Conclusion
  • App Life Cycle and Hooks
    • App Life Cycle and Hooks
      • Runtine Preference and Bootstrapping
    • Request Life Cycle and Hooks
  • Context
    • Global Context
      • Proto Context
      • Thread Context
    • Request Context
      • Request Context
      • Cloned Context
    • Registering Context Scope Objects and Methods
  • Routing
    • Routing
    • URL Parameter Types
      • String (Default)
      • Integer
      • Float
      • Path
    • Request Parameters
    • Async Routing
  • Request Parameters
    • URL / Body Parameter
    • Parameter Validation
      • Inline Validation
      • Class Validation
      • Django Model Based Validation
      • Functional Validation
      • More Validators
      • Validation Operators
    • Getting Argument Specifications
  • Processing Request
    • Request Object
      • Basic Members
      • Basic Methods
      • Route Options
    • Environment Variables
      • In The Template Engine
    • App & Request Gloabal
    • File Upload
    • Cookie
    • Session
      • Namespaced Session
    • Message Box
    • Route Name Based Call
    • Helpers
      • Conditional Prework
      • Checking Dependencies
  • Making Response
    • Cache Control
    • HTTP Error
    • Primitive
      • String
      • API Response
      • Rendered Template
      • render_or_API
      • File
      • Static
      • Generator
      • Redirecting
      • RPC Response
      • Threaded Data Streaming
    • Building URL
  • Websocket
    • Specifications
      • WS_STREAM
      • WS_SESSION
        • Opening/Closing Hooks
    • WebSocket Piped Process
  • gRPC
    • Unary RPC
      • Async version
    • Async Streaming RPC
      • Response Streaming
      • Request Streaming
      • Bidirectional Streaming
  • Access Control and Authentication
    • CORS (Cross Origin Resource Sharing) and Preflight
    • Custom Authentication
    • WWW-Authentication
      • Authentication On Specific Methods
      • Password Provider
      • Authentication On Entire App
    • Bearer Authentication
    • Test Passing
  • Security and Token
    • Cross Site Request Forgery Token (CSRF Token)
    • JWT Token
    • One-Time Password
    • One-Time Token
  • Event Bus
    • Request Life Cycle Events
  • Interval Base App Maintenancing
  • Multiple GPUs Allocation To Workers
  • Using Task
    • Thread / Process / Subrocess
    • Tasks
  • HTTP/2,3 Server Pushing
  • Logging and Traceback
  • Template Engine
    • Customizing Jinja2
    • Custom Error Templates
  • Using Requests
  • Allied App
    • Conclusion
  • Working With Multiple Apps
    • Event Subscription
    • Data Exchanging
    • Accesing Other App Directly
  • Test Client
    • Integrating pytest and API Documentation
  • Debugging
    • VS Code
  • Deployment
    • Using Systemctl
    • Using AWS ECS (Elastic Container Service)
  • Change Log



Python 3.7+


Atila and other core base dependent libraries is developing on single milestone, install/upgrade all at once. Otherwise it is highly possible to meet some errors.

With pip

pip3 install -U atila skitai rs4

Optional required as you need,

pip3 install protobuf # for GRPC

<< Back To README

Before You Start

Getting IDE Suggestions

Type hinting enables IDE suggestions.

from atila import Atila, Context

def __mount__ (context: Context, app: Atila):

    @app.route ("/ping")
    def ping (context: Context):
        return 'pong'

In this document, type hinting is not used for code readability.

Quick Start

For exmaple, you make local dumb search engine named as dumbseek.

Dumb Seek

Your package structure is like this.


File dumbseek/

__version__ = "1.0"

NAME = "Dumb Seek"

File dumbseek/

def analyze (query):
    return query.lower ().split ()

File dumbseek/index/ is empty.

File dumbseek/index/


File dumbseek/index/

from .. import analyzer
from . import db

def index (doc):
    doc_ids = list (db.DOCUMENTS.keys ())
    if not doc_ids:
        doc_id = 0
        doc_id = max (doc_ids) + 1

    db.DOCUMENTS [doc_id] = doc
    for token in analyzer.analyze (doc):
        if token not in db.INVERTED_INDEX:
            db.INVERTED_INDEX [token] = set ()
        db.INVERTED_INDEX [token].add (doc_id)
    return doc_id

File dumbseek/index/

from .. import analyzer
from . import db

def search (query):
    results = None
    for token in analyzer.analyze (query):
        if token not in db.INVERTED_INDEX:
            return []
        doc_ids = db.INVERTED_INDEX.get (token, set ())
        if results is None:
            results = doc_ids
        results = results.intersection (doc_ids)
    return [db.DOCUMENTS [doc_id] for doc_id in sorted (list (results))]

Unit Testing

For more clarify, pytest example is:

import os
import sys; sys.path.insert (0, '../examples/dumbseek')
import dumbseek
from dumbseek import analyzer
from dumbseek.index import indexer, searcher, db

def test_analyze ():
    assert analyzer.analyze ('Detective Holmes') == ['detective', 'holmes']

def test_index ():
    assert indexer.index ('Detective Holmes') == 0
    assert db.DOCUMENTS [0] == 'Detective Holmes'
    assert db.INVERTED_INDEX ['detective'] == {0}
    assert indexer.index ('Detective Monk') == 1
    assert db.INVERTED_INDEX ['monk'] == {1}
    assert ('detective holmes') == ['Detective Holmes']

Write Atila App Hooks

Now, you find dumbseek is useful than you think, you have plan to serve with RESTful API.

Add __app__ and __mount__ hooks into dumbseek/

__version__ = "1.0"

NAME = "Dumb Seek"

# atila hooks ------------------------
def __app__ ():
    from atila import Atila
    return Atila (__name__)

def __mount__ (context, app):
    @app.route ("/")
    def index (context):
        return context.API (app = NAME)

Add Launch Script

For testing, you have to create launch script.

import skitai
import dumbseek

if __name__ == '__main__':
    with skitai.preference () as pref:
        skitai.mount ('/', dumbseek, pref) (port = 5000, name = 'dumbseek')
python3 --devel

Now, http://localhost:5000/ is working.

Add Analyzing API Endpoint

We have to create endpoint POST /api/tokens. Add __mount__ hook to dumbseek/

def analyze (query):
    return query.lower ().split ()

# atila hooks ------------------------
def __mount__ (context, app):
    @app.route ("/tokens", methods = ["POST", "OPTIONS"])
    def tokens (context, query):
        return context.API (result = analyze (query))

And for mounting to app, add __setup__ hook to dumbseek/

def __setup__ (context, app):
    from . import analyzer
    app.mount ("/api", analyzer)

def __mount__ (context, app):

http://localhost:5000/api/tokens is working.

Add Indexing and Searching API Endpoints

We have to create 3 endpoints:

  • POST /api/documents for indexing document
  • GET /api/documents for searching document
  • GET /api/documents/<int:doc_id> for geting document

Add __mount__ to dumbseek/index/

# atila hooks ------------------------
def __mount__ (context, app):
    from . import indexer
    from . import searcher

    @app.route ("/documents", methods = ["POST", "OPTIONS"])
    def index_document (context, document):
        doc_id = indexer.index (document)
        return context.API (
            "201 Created",
            url = context.urlfor (get_document, doc_id)

    @app.route ("/documents", methods = ["GET"])
    def search_document (context, q):
        return context.API (
            result = (q)

    @app.route ("/documents/<int:doc_id>", methods = ["GET"])
    def get_document (context, doc_id):
            return context.API (
                document = db.DOCUMENTS [doc_id]
        except KeyError:
            raise context.HttpError ("404 Not Found")

And mount to app, add __setup__ hook to dumbseek/

def __setup__ (context, app):
    from . import analyzer
    from . import index
    app.mount ("/api", analyzer)
    app.mount ("/api", index)

def __mount__ (context, app):

http://localhost:5000/api/documents is working.

Testing API

import pytest
from functools import partial
import skitai
from atila.pytest_hooks import *

def launch ():
    return partial (skitai.test_client, port = 30371, silent = False)

def test_api (launch):
    with launch ('../examples/dumbseek/') as engine:
        r = engine.get ('/')
        assert r.json () ['app'] == 'Dumb Seek'

        r = ('/api/tokens', data = {'query': 'Detective Holmes'})
        assert r.json () ['result'] == ['detective', 'holmes']

        r = ('/api/documents', data = {'document': 'Detective Holmes'})
        assert r.status_code == 201
        assert r.json () ['url'] == '/api/documents/0'

        r = engine.get ('/api/documents', params = {'q': 'Detective Holmes'})
        assert r.json () ['result'] == ['Detective Holmes']

        r = engine.get ('/api/documents/0')
        assert r.json ()['document'] == 'Detective Holmes'

        r = ('/api/documents', data = {'document': 'Detective Monk'})

        r = engine.get ('/api/documents', params = {'q': 'detective'})
        assert r.json () ['result'] == ['Detective Holmes', 'Detective Monk']

Final Source Codes



  • We add REST API to our existing source codes without any side effects
  • We can still use dumbseek as local library
  • Just add, we can serve as RESTful API online

<< Back To README

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