Utility to manage file systems on Atari 8-bit (DOS 2) and Apple ][ (DOS 3.3) disk images.
Python command line utility to manage file systems on Atari 8-bit and Apple ][ disk images.
- Supported Formats
Starting with atrcopy 7.0, Python 3.6 is required. Python 2 support has been dropped. Python 3.7 and beyond will be supported when they are released, but 3.6 will probably remain the minimum version. From what I know now of future Python versions, I don’t plan on requiring any language features beyond 3.6.
Supported Python versions:
- Python 3.6 (and later)
If you need Python 2 support, atrcopy 6.5 and earlier supports Python 2.7, which you can install with pip install "atrcopy<7.0"
It will be automatically installed when installing atrcopy with pip as described below.
For development, pytest is used to run the test suite, but this is not required for normal installation of atrcopy.
atrcopy is available in the PyPI and installable using pip:
pip install atrcopy
Linux and macOS note: if numpy needs to be installed on your system, it may be compiled from source which can take several minutes.
- list contents of disk images
- copy files to and from disk images
- delete files from disk images
- create new disk images
- concatenate binary data together into a file on the disk image
- compile assembly source into binary files if pyatasm is installed
Note: The command line argument structure was changed starting with atrcopy 4.0 – it is now based on subcommands, much like git uses git pull, git clone, git branch, etc. Upgrading from a version prior to 4.0 will require modification of scripts that use atrcopy 3.x-style command line arguments.
- XFD: XFormer images, basically raw disk dumps
- ATR: Nick Kennedy’s disk image format; includes 16 byte header
- DSK: Apple ][ DOS 3.3 disk image; raw sector dump
|DOS 2 (90K)||Atari 8-bit||Yes||Yes||Fully supported|
|DOS 2 (180K)||Atari 8-bit||Yes||Yes||Fully supported|
|DOS 2.5 (130K)||Atari 8-bit||Yes||Yes||Fully supported|
|DOS 3 (130K)||Atari 8-bit||No||No||Unimplemented|
|SpartaDOS||Atari 8-bit||No||No||Under development|
|MyDOS||Atari 8-bit||Partial||No||Under development|
|DOS 3.3||Apple ][||Yes||Yes||Fully supported|
|ProDOS 8||Apple ][||No||No||Unimplemented|
|.xex||Atari 8-bit executable files||Yes||Yes||Fully supported|
|KBoot||Atari 8-bit xex in boot disk||Yes||Yes||Fully supported|
|.car||Atari 8-bit cartridge images||Yes||No||Read only|
|BSAVE||Apple ][ BSAVE data||Yes||Yes||Fully supported|
|.zip||MAME ROM zipfiles||Partial||No||Experimental|
Note: Atari ROM cartridges are supported in both both plain binary and atari800 .car format
Starting with atrcopy 8.0, compressed disk images are supported transparently, so any type of disk image compressed with one of the supported container formats can be used directly, without first decompressing it before running atrcopy.
|Disk Communicator||.dcm||No||No||Recognized but unimplemented|
atrcopy DISK_IMAGE <global options> COMMAND <command options>
where the available commands include:
- list: list files on the disk image. This is the default if no command is specified
- create: create a new disk image
- add: add files to a disk image
- extract: copy files from the disk image to the local file system
- assemble: create a binary file from ATasm source, optionally including segments containing raw binary data
- boot: create a boot disk using various binary data as input
- delete: delete files from the disk image
- vtoc: show and manipulate the VTOC for images that support it
Except when using the --help option, the DISK_IMAGE is always required which points to the path on your local file system of the disk image. COMMAND is one of the commands listed above, and the commands may be abbreviated as shown here:
$ atrcopy --help usage: atrcopy DISK_IMAGE [-h] [-v] [--dry-run] COMMAND ... Manipulate files on several types of 8-bit computer disk images. Type 'atrcopy DISK_IMAGE COMMAND --help' for list of options available for each command. positional arguments: COMMAND list (t,ls,dir,catalog) List files on the disk image. This is the default if no command is specified crc List files on the disk image and the CRC32 value in format suitable for parsing extract (x) Copy files from the disk image to the local filesystem add (a) Add files to the disk image create (c) Create a new disk image assemble (s,asm) Create a new binary file in the disk image boot (b) Create a bootable disk image delete (rm,del) Delete files from the disk image vtoc (v) Show a formatted display of sectors free in the disk image segments Show the list of parsed segments in the disk image optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -v, --verbose --dry-run don't perform operation, just show what would have happened
Help for available options for each command is available without specifying a disk image, using a command line like:
atrcopy COMMAND --help
so for example, the help for assembling a binary file is:
$ atrcopy asm --help usage: atrcopy DISK_IMAGE assemble [-h] [-f] [-s [ASM [ASM ...]]] [-d [DATA [DATA ...]]] [-r RUN_ADDR] -o OUTPUT optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -f, --force allow file overwrites in the disk image -s [ASM [ASM ...]], --asm [ASM [ASM ...]] source file(s) to assemble using pyatasm -d [DATA [DATA ...]], -b [DATA [DATA ...]], --data [DATA [DATA ...]] binary data file(s) to add to assembly, specify as file@addr. Only a portion of the file may be included; specify the subset using standard python slice notation: file[subset]@addr -r RUN_ADDR, --run-addr RUN_ADDR, --brun RUN_ADDR run address of binary file if not the first byte of the first segment -o OUTPUT, --output OUTPUT output file name in disk image
List all files on a disk image:
$ atrcopy DOS_25.ATR DOS_25.ATR: ATR Disk Image (size=133120 (1040x128B), crc=0 flags=0 unused=0) Atari DOS Format: 1010 usable sectors (739 free), 6 files File #0 (.2.u.*) 004 DOS SYS 037 File #1 (.2.u.*) 041 DUP SYS 042 File #2 (.2.u.*) 083 RAMDISK COM 009 File #3 (.2.u.*) 092 SETUP COM 070 File #4 (.2.u.*) 162 COPY32 COM 056 File #5 (.2.u.*) 218 DISKFIX COM 057
Extract a file:
$ atrcopy DOS_25.ATR extract SETUP.COM DOS_25.ATR: ATR Disk Image (size=133120 (1040x128B), crc=0 flags=0 unused=0) Atari DOS Format: 1010 usable sectors (739 free), 6 files extracting SETUP.COM -> SETUP.COM
Extract all files:
$ atrcopy DOS_25.ATR extract --all DOS_25.ATR: ATR Disk Image (size=133120 (1040x128B), crc=0 flags=0 unused=0) Atari DOS Format: 1010 usable sectors (739 free), 6 files extracting File #0 (.2.u.*) 004 DOS SYS 037 -> DOS.SYS extracting File #1 (.2.u.*) 041 DUP SYS 042 -> DUP.SYS extracting File #2 (.2.u.*) 083 RAMDISK COM 009 -> RAMDISK.COM extracting File #3 (.2.u.*) 092 SETUP COM 070 -> SETUP.COM extracting File #4 (.2.u.*) 162 COPY32 COM 056 -> COPY32.COM extracting File #5 (.2.u.*) 218 DISKFIX COM 057 -> DISKFIX.COM
Extract all, using the abbreviated command and converting to lower case on the host file system:
$ atrcopy DOS_25.ATR x --all -l DOS_25.ATR: ATR Disk Image (size=133120 (1040x128B), crc=0 flags=0 unused=0) Atari DOS Format: 1010 usable sectors (739 free), 6 files extracting File #0 (.2.u.*) 004 DOS SYS 037 -> dos.sys extracting File #1 (.2.u.*) 041 DUP SYS 042 -> dup.sys extracting File #2 (.2.u.*) 083 RAMDISK COM 009 -> ramdisk.com extracting File #3 (.2.u.*) 092 SETUP COM 070 -> setup.com extracting File #4 (.2.u.*) 162 COPY32 COM 056 -> copy32.com extracting File #5 (.2.u.*) 218 DISKFIX COM 057 -> diskfix.com
Several template disk images are included in the distribution, and these can be used to create blank disk images that subsequent uses of atrcopy can reference.
The available disk images can be viewed using atrcopy create --help:
$ atrcopy create --help usage: atrcopy DISK_IMAGE create [-h] [-f] TEMPLATE positional arguments: TEMPLATE template to use to create new disk image; see below for list of available built-in templates optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -f, --force replace disk image file if it exists available templates: dos2dd Atari 8-bit DOS 2 double density (180K), empty VTOC dos2ed Atari 8-bit DOS 2 enhanced density (130K), empty VTOC dos2ed+2.5 Atari 8-bit DOS 2 enhanced density (130K) DOS 2.5 system disk dos2sd Atari 8-bit DOS 2 single density (90K), empty VTOC dos2sd+2.0s Atari 8-bit DOS 2 single density (90K) DOS 2.0S system disk dos33 Apple ][ DOS 3.3 (140K) standard RWTS, empty VTOC dos33autobrun Apple ][ DOS 3.3 (140K) disk image for binary program development: HELLO sets fullscreen HGR and calls BRUN on user-supplied AUTOBRUN binary file
To create a new image, use:
$ atrcopy game.dsk create dos33autobrun
which will create a new file called game.dsk based on the dos33autobrun image.
dos33autobrun is a special image that can be used to create autoloading binary programs. It contains an Applesoft Basic file called HELLO which will autoload on boot. It sets the graphics mode to fullscreen hi-res graphics (the first screen at $2000) and executes a BRUN command to start a binary file named AUTOBRUN. AUTOBRUN doesn’t exist in the image, it’s for you to supply.
Blocks of binary data can be combined into a boot disk in either ATR format for Atari or DSK format for Apple:
$ atrcopy boot --help usage: atrcopy DISK_IMAGE boot [-h] [-f] [-s [ASM [ASM ...]]] [-d [DATA [DATA ...]]] [-b [OBJ [OBJ ...]]] [-r RUN_ADDR] optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -f, --force allow file overwrites in the disk image -s [ASM [ASM ...]], --asm [ASM [ASM ...]] source file(s) to assemble using pyatasm -d [DATA [DATA ...]], --data [DATA [DATA ...]] binary data file(s) to add to assembly, specify as file@addr. Only a portion of the file may be included; specify the subset using standard python slice notation: file[subset]@addr -b [OBJ [OBJ ...]], --obj [OBJ [OBJ ...]], --bload [OBJ [OBJ ...]] binary file(s) to add to assembly, either executables or labeled memory dumps (e.g. BSAVE on Apple ][), parsing each file's binary segments to add to the resulting disk image at the load address for each segment -r RUN_ADDR, --run-addr RUN_ADDR, --brun RUN_ADDR run address of binary file if not the first byte of the first segment
One of -s, -d, or -b must be speficied to provide the source for the boot disk. The -b argument can take an Atari binary in XEX format, and will properly handle multiple segments within that file. If no starting address is supplied (or, if using an XEX, to override the start address normally contained within the XEX), use the -r option. Otherwise, the run address will point to the first byte of the first binary segment.
The simple assembler included in atrcopy can create binary programs by connecting binary data together in a single file and specifying a start address so it can be executed by the system’s binary run command.
It is also possible to assemble text files that use the MAC/65 syntax, because support for pyatasm is built-in (but optional). MAC/65 is a macro assembler originally designed for the Atari 8-bit machines but since it produces 6502 code it can be used to compile for any machine that uses the 6502: Apple, Commodore, etc.
Atari 8-bit object files include a small header and an arbitrary number of segments. Each segment defines a contiguous block of data with a start and end address. If the file has multiple segments, they will be processed in the order they appear in the file, not by segment start address.
This example creates a new xex on a disk that combines the segments of an already existing executable with some new assembly code.
After creating the test image with:
$ atrcopy test.atr create dos2sd using dos2sd template: Atari 8-bit DOS 2 single density (90K), empty VTOC created test.atr: ATR Disk Image (size=92160 (720x128B), crc=0 flags=0 unused=0) Atari DOS Format: 707 usable sectors (707 free), 0 files
this command compiles the file test_header.s and prefixes it to the existing executable:
$ atrcopy test.atr asm -s test_header.s -b air_defense_v18.xex -o test.xex -f test.atr: ATR Disk Image (size=92160 (720x128B), crc=0 flags=0 unused=0) Atari DOS Format: 707 usable sectors (707 free), 0 files fname: test_header.s Pass 1: Success. (0 warnings) Pass 2: adding 0600 - 0653, size=0053 ($53 bytes @ 0600) from test_header.s assembly adding 02e2 - 02e4, size=0002 ($2 bytes @ 02e2) from test_header.s assembly adding $02e0-$02e2 ($0002 @ $0006) from air_defense_v18.xex adding $6000-$6bd4 ($0bd4 @ $000c) from air_defense_v18.xex total file size: $c3d (3133) bytes copying test.xex to test.atr
For this example, the goal is to produce a single binary file that combines a hi-res image title.bin loaded at 2000 hex (the first hi-res screen) and code at 6000 hex from the binary file game, with a start address of 6000 hex.
The binary file game was assembled using the assembler from the cc65 project, using the command:
cl65 -t apple2 --cpu 6502 --start-addr 0x6000 -o game game.s
Because the Apple ][ binary format is limited to a single contiguous block of data with a start address of the first byte of data loaded, atrcopy will fill the gaps between any segments that aren’t contiguous with zeros. If the start address is not the first byte of the first specified segment, a small segment will be included at the beginning that jumps to the specified brun address (shown here as the segment from 1ffd - 2000). Note the gap between 4000 and 6000 hex will be filled with zeros:
$ atrcopy game.dsk create dos33autobrun using dos33autobrun template: Apple ][ DOS 3.3 (140K) disk image for binary program development: HELLO sets fullscreen HGR and calls BRUN on user-supplied AUTOBRUN binary file created game.dsk: DOS 3.3 Disk Image (size=143360 (560x256b) File #0 ( A) 002 HELLO 003 001 $ atrcopy game.dsk asm -d title.bin@2000 -b game --brun 6000 -f -o AUTOBRUN game.dsk: DOS 3.3 Disk Image (size=143360 (560x256b) adding BSAVE data $6000-$6ef3 ($0ef3 @ $0004) from game setting data for $1ffd - $2000 at index $0004 setting data for $2000 - $4000 at index $0007 setting data for $6000 - $6ef3 at index $4007 total file size: $4efa (20218) bytes copying AUTOBRUN to game.dsk
macOS supplies python with the operating system so you shouldn’t need to install a framework version from python.org.
To prevent overwriting important system files, it’s best to create a working folder: a new empty folder somewhere and do all your testing in that folder. For this example, create a folder called atrtest in your Documents folder. Put a few disk images in this directory to use for testing.
Since this is a command line program, you must get to a command line prompt. Start a Terminal by double clicking on Terminal.app in the Applications/Utilities folder in the Finder. When Terminal opens, it will put you in your home folder automatically. Go to the atrtest folder by typing:
You can see the ATR images you placed in this directory by using the command:
For example, you might see:
mac:~/Documents/atrtest $ ls -l -rw-r--r-- 1 rob staff 92176 May 18 21:57 GAMES1.ATR
Now, run the program by typing atrcopy GAMES1.ATR and you should see the contents of the ATR image in the familiar Atari DOS format:
mac:~/Documents/atrtest $ atrcopy GAMES1.ATR GAMES1.ATR: ATR Disk Image (size=92160 (720x128B), crc=0 flags=0 unused=0) Atari DOS Format: 707 usable sectors (17 free), 9 files File #0 (.2.u.*) 004 DOS SYS 039 File #1 (.2.u.*) 043 MINER2 138 File #2 (.2.u.*) 085 DEFENDER 132 File #3 (.2.u.*) 217 CENTIPEDE 045 File #4 (.2.u.*) 262 GALAXIAN 066 File #5 (.2.u.*) 328 AUTORUN SYS 005 File #6 (.2.u.*) 439 DIGDUG 133 File #7 (.2.u.*) 531 ANTEATER 066 File #8 (.2.u.*) 647 ASTEROIDS 066
See other examples as above.
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