Skip to main content
Join the official 2019 Python Developers SurveyStart the survey!

Braid Generator

Project description

Braid Generator

Braid Generator is a project from the Department of Mathematics in the University of California, Davis. Braid Generator implements a Markov chain algorithm to generate an ensemble of braid representatives (``braidreps") from a given braid representative of a fixed knot or link type. The project was born when we attempted to use Machine Learning techniques to study braids but found the existing data sets of braid representatives to be too small. The hope is that this program will help others generate data to help better understand braids, knot invariants, and the topology of the space of knots. For more information on mathematical braid groups, please refer to this resource.

Getting Started

These instructions will get you a copy of the project up and running on your local machine for development and testing purposes.

Prerequisites

Due to the formatting styles used in this package, braidgenerator is compatible with Python 3.6 or 3.7.

The only required dependency for this package is pandas. If installing with a local clone, make sure to have pandas installed in the desired environment.

.
├── CONTRIBUTING.md
├── LICENSE.md
├── README.md
├── ThirdPartyLicenses
│   └── Pandas
│       └── LICENSE.md
├── braidgenerator
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── braidword.py
│   ├── decorators
│   │   ├── __init__.py
│   │   ├── braidword.py
│   │   └── markovchain.py
│   └── markovchain.py
├── docs
│   ├── braidword.html
│   ├── contact.html
│   ├── index.html
│   ├── markovchain.html
│   ├── style.css
│   └── van.js
├── setup.py
└── tests
    ├── test_braidword.py
    └── test_markovchain.py

The tree represents the hierarchy of the github repository.

Installation

Install BraidGenerator from PyPI

To install via pip, use the following

$ python3 -m pip install --index-url https://test.pypi.org/simple/ --no-deps moore_braidgenerator

Please note the actual project has not been put up on PyPi yet. Please follow installation by repository. Package will be uploaded to PyPi in the coming few days.

Install BraidGenerator from the GitHub source

First, clone the Knots repository onto your local machine using git. For more information on git cloning, visit this resource.

git clone https://github.com/Algebra8/Knots

Then, cd to the Knots folder and run the install command:

cd Knots
python setup.py install

Setup and Examples

A quick example for the impatient user

Within Python try the following example snippet, which takes as its input a braid representative for the trefoil knot ([1, 1, 1]), and returns three randomized braid representatives.

from braidgenerator import MarkovChain
import pandas as pd

# Create markov chain
mc = MarkovChain(braidword=[1, 1, 1], maxgen=9, maxlen=10)

# Model markov chain
mc.model(num_braidreps=3, msteps=500)

# Get braid representatives as words (i.e. as lists)
braidreps = mc.braidreps(as_word = True)

Explanations and definitions are given in detail in the sections below.

Setting up the Braid Generator

To create a Markov Chain, simply call MarkovChain with at least the braidword argument given. The MarkovChain initializor has default values of nine and ten for the maxgen and maxlen parameters, respectively. The speficied argument of braidword is the initial state of the Markov process; the state space consists of other braid words representating the same knot as the (closed) initial braid.

from braidgenerator import MarkovChain
import pandas as pd

mc = MarkovChain(braidword=[1, 2, 3], maxgen=9, maxlen=10)

Alternatively, the Markov Chain can be initialized with a BraidWord instead of a list. The BraidWord is wrapped around a list (the word).

from braidgenerator import MarkovChain
from braidgenerator import BraidWord
import pandas as pd

mc = MarkovChain(braidword=BraidWord([1, 2, 3]), maxgen=9, maxlen=10)

Note that if the Markov Chain is initialized with a list instead of a BraidWord, it will be processed into a BraidWord behind the scenes.

To create new braidreps it suffices to call the model method. The method model takes two parameters, num_braidreps and msteps, where num_braidreps is the number of braidreps that are to be generated and msteps is the number of Markov steps taken in each random walk that produces such a braidrep. Default values are one and 100, respectively. Markov chain steps are comprised of braid relations and ``Markov moves" (in the sense of moves on closed braids).

mc.model(num_braidreps=10, msteps=50)

Once the modelling is complete, the braidreps and/or logs can be accessed via the following getter methods:

  • MarkovChain.aggregate
  • MarkovChain.logs
  • MarkovChain.braidreps
  • MarkovChain.topandas
  • MarkovChain.tocsv
  • MarkovChain.totxt

MarkovChain.aggregate

The aggregate method will return a dictionary with two keys: braidreps and logs, whereby braidreps is a list that contains the generated braidreps and logs is a list that contains the relevant Markov steps per iteration and if they were successful or not.

This aggregate dictionary is mainly a container for the relevant data and while this getter method is available, it is not recommended for retrieving the data. Better alternative methods exist for this.

agg = mc.aggregate()

agg

> {'braidreps': [], 'logs': []}

MarkovChain.logs

The logs method returns only the logs in the list format. Each element of the log is itself a dictionary that represents all the Markov steps for each braidrep created. Thus, the size of braidreps and logs will be the same, but each entry will contain a larger set of logs. The example below shows a MarkovChain's logs with num_braidreps=1 and msteps=5

logs = mc.logs()

logs[0]

> {0: 'MoveType: 5, Attempted stabilize: stabilize Succeeded.',
1: 'MoveType: 0, Attempted conjugate: conjugate Succeeded.',
2: 'MoveType: 6, Attempted destabilize: destabilize Failed.',
3: 'MoveType: 3, Attempted transpose: transpose Failed.',
4: 'MoveType: 4, Attempted flip: flip Failed.'}

MarkovChain.braidreps

The braidreps method will return the list with the generated braidreps. This method takes an optional parameter as_word which is set to False by default. If left as False then it will return a list of BraidWords, otherwise it will return a list of words (i.e. of type list).

# As BraidWords with as_word set to False (default)

mc = MarkovChain(braidword=BraidWord([1, 2, 3]), maxgen=9, maxlen=10)

mc.model(num_braidreps=3, msteps=5)

braidreps_asBraidWord = mc.braidreps()

braidreps_asBraidWord

> [<braidword.BraidWord at 0x114dbe7b8>,
 <braidword.BraidWord at 0x114dbe7f0>,
 <braidword.BraidWord at 0x114dbe588>]
# As words with as_word set to True

mc = MarkovChain(braidword=BraidWord([1, 2, 3]), maxgen=9, maxlen=10)

mc.model(num_braidreps=3, msteps=5)

braidreps_asword = mc.braidreps(as_word=True)

braidreps_asword

> [[1, 2, 3], [2, 3, 1], [1, 2]]

Note that the braid that was fed into the model is not included. The first word of the second example above is a coincidence resulting from one successful destabilize and one successful stabilize.

MarkovChain.topandas

The logs and braidreps can be most easily accessed via the topandas method. To use it, simply import pandas into the script and call the topandas method. The method takes one optional argument, only_braidreps, which is set to False by defualt. If set to True then the resulting dataframe will only include the braidreps in word form. Otherwise, each entry will comprise of both the braidrep and the logs associated with it.

# only_braidreps set to False (default)
import pandas as pd

mc = MarkovChain(braidword=BraidWord([1, 2, 3]), maxgen=9, maxlen=10)

mc.model(num_braidreps=3, msteps=5)

df = mc.topandas()
df.columns

> Index(['braidreps', 'Logs'], dtype='object')
# only_braidreps set to True
import pandas as pd

mc = MarkovChain(braidword=BraidWord([1, 2, 3]), maxgen=9, maxlen=10)

mc.model(num_braidreps=3, msteps=5)

df = mc.topandas(only_braidreps=True)
df.columns

> Index(['braidreps'], dtype='object')

MarkovChain.tocsv

The tocsv method exports the dataframe to a .csv file. The parameters include path_or_filename and only_braidreps, respectively. Similar to the topandas method, only_braidreps is set to False by default. The path_or_filename parameter is more interesting. If a path is not specified, the method will export the requested information to the current directory with either the name braidreps.csv or braidreps_and_Logs.csv, which it will implicitly interpret from the argument passed to only_braidreps.

mc = MarkovChain(braidword=BraidWord([1, 2, 3]), maxgen=9, maxlen=10)

mc.model(num_braidreps=3, msteps=5)

path = 'some/path/onyourpc.csv'
mc.tocsv(path_or_filename=path, only_braidreps=False)

MarkovChain.totxt

The totxt method is similar to the topandas and tocsv difference being that it exports the data to a .txt file in the following format:

braidrep[1]
.
.
.
braidrep[n]

log[1]
.
.
.
log[n]

As is with to tocsv, the totxt has the two parameters path_or_filename and only_braidreps, respectively.

Clearing the model and setting a new BraidWord

If it is desired to use the same model to create a new set of isomoprhs, the clear_model method is required. This method clears the braidagg container.

mc = MarkovChain(braidword=BraidWord([1, 2, 3]), maxgen=9, maxlen=10)

mc.model(num_braidreps=3, msteps=5)

mc.clear_model()

mc.aggregate()

> {'braidreps': [], 'logs': []}

Note that if not changed, the subsequent BraidWord will have been mutated. This functionality is left in as it may seem desirable for some situations and is simple enough to undo (i.e. replace the BraidWord with the new_braidword method).

In the event that it is desirable to set a new BraidWord into an already existing method, the new_braidword method can be used. A list or BraidWord object can be passed as an argument.

mc.new_braidword([1, 1, 2])
mc.new_braidword(BraidWord([1, 2, 3]))

As is the case with the initializor, if a list is passed in as an argument it will be converted to a BraidWord behind the scenes.

Bonus BraidWord functionality

crossing_change

The crossing_change method performs a crossing change on a BraidWord. That is, it returns a new BraidWord whereby the generator at a specified index is inverted.

The resulting index can be set randomly with random_index set to True, or it can be set manually by setting random_index=False and assigning index with an integer value between zero and the length of the word of the BraidWord.

from braidgenerator import BraidWord

braidword = BraidWord([1, 2, 3])

# Randomly set generator to be inverted
random_newbraidword = braidword.crossing_change(random_index=True)

# Manually set generator to be inverted
manual_newbraidword = braidword.crossing_change(random_index=False, index=1)

random_newbraidword.word
>>> [1, 2, -3]

manual_newbraidword.word
>>> [1, -2, 3]

resolution

The resolution method performs a resolution on a BraidWord. That is, it returns a new BraidWord whereby the generator at a specified index is removed and the new BraidWord's length is decreased by one.

The resulting index can be set randomly with random_index set to True, or it can be set manually by setting random_index=False and assigning index with an integer value between zero and the length of the word of the BraidWord.

from braidgenerator import BraidWord

braidword = BraidWord([1, 2, 3])

# Randomly set generator to be removed
random_newbraidword = braidword.resolution(random_index=True)

# Manually set generator to be removed
manual_newbraidword = braidword.resolution(random_index=False, index=1)

random_newbraidword.word
>>> [2, 3]

manual_newbraidword.word
>>> [1, 3]

Running the tests

Tests for these scripts are included in the github repository under the paths shown below.

.
|
└───tests
        test_braidword.py
        test_markovchain.py

Breakdown of tests

The given tests use Pythons UnitTest package for testing. test_braidword.py contains over 350 lines of tests with 30+ test cases (at the time of writting this readme). The test cases contain suites that test for initialization, boolean helper functions (such as canDestabilize, canFlip, etc...), and the BraidWord methods (such as Destabilize, Flip, etc...). Examples of test_braidword.py include:

def test_init_pathfail_0(self):
    '''
    Should raise TypeError if initword
    is not a list (args)
    '''
    with self.assertRaises(TypeError) as te:
        bw = BraidWord(1)
def test_canCancel_pathfail(self):
    """Should return False when adjacent
    generators are not inverses of one other"""
    bw = BraidWord([1, 2, 3, -3])
    # Execution path False
    self.assertFalse(bw.canCancel(0))
def test_cancel_pathsuccess(self):
    """Should successfully cancel gen @idx 3
    and should modify word"""
    bw = BraidWord([-1, 2, 3, 1])
    # Execution path True
    self.assertTrue(bw.cancel(3))
    # Word modification
    self.assertEqual(bw.word, [2, 3])

test_markovchain.py contains roughly 200 lines of tests with 18+ test cases (at the time of writing this readme). The test cases contain suites that test mainly for initialization and that containers, such as logs, braidrepisms, and braidagg, vis-a-vis the aggregate, logs, and braidreps methods, as well as exporting methods, such as tocsv, topandas, and totxt, are valid (i.e. not empty). The lack of automated tests for said script is due to the probabilistic nature of the results of the model method. Results for this method may be tested by hand or an auxiliary program, such as ``KnotPlot." Examples of test_markovchain.py include:

def test_init_pathfail_0(self):
    """Should throw error if BraidWord not given"""
    with self.assertRaises(Exception) as te:
        MarkovChain()
def test_aggregate(self):
    '''
    Should return non-empty self.braidagg
    '''
    mc = MarkovChain(BraidWord([1, 2, 3]))
    mc.model(num_braidreps=1, msteps=10)
    # Check if non-empty
    self.assertTrue(mc.aggregate())
def test_logs(self):
    '''
    Should return non-empty self.braidagg.logs
    '''
    mc = MarkovChain(BraidWord([1, 2, 3]))
    mc.model(num_braidreps=1, msteps=10)
    # Check if non-empty
    self.assertTrue(mc.logs())

BraidWord's crossing_change and resolution methods follow similar formats and can be viewed in the tests\test_braidword module in the repository.

Documentation

For more information about methods and code fragments, please refer to the documentation.

Contributing

Please read CONTRIBUTING.md for details on our code of conduct, and the process for submitting pull requests to us.

Versioning

We use SemVer for versioning. For the versions available, see the tags on this repository.

Authors

License

This project is licensed under the MIT License - see the LICENSE.md file for details.

Acknowledgements

This package makes use of pandas as a requirement. Please refer to the pandas license for more information on their license.

The CONTRIBUTING.md content was adapted from PurpleBooth's Good-CONTRIBUTING.md-template.md.

Project details


Release history Release notifications

This version

1.0.0

Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Files for braidgenerator, version 1.0.0
Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes
Filename, size braidgenerator-1.0.0-py3-none-any.whl (15.9 kB) File type Wheel Python version py3 Upload date Hashes View hashes
Filename, size braidgenerator-1.0.0.tar.gz (14.2 kB) File type Source Python version None Upload date Hashes View hashes

Supported by

Elastic Elastic Search Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Google Google BigQuery Sentry Sentry Error logging AWS AWS Cloud computing DataDog DataDog Monitoring Fastly Fastly CDN SignalFx SignalFx Supporter DigiCert DigiCert EV certificate StatusPage StatusPage Status page