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Build Python wheels on CI with minimal configuration.

Project description


PyPI Documentation Status Actions Status Travis Status Appveyor status CircleCI Status Azure Status Cirrus CI Status


Python wheels are great. Building them across Mac, Linux, Windows, on multiple versions of Python, is not.

cibuildwheel is here to help. cibuildwheel runs on your CI server - currently it supports GitHub Actions, Azure Pipelines, Travis CI, AppVeyor, CircleCI, and GitLab CI - and it builds and tests your wheels across all of your platforms.

What does it do?

macOS Intel macOS Apple Silicon Windows 64bit Windows 32bit Windows Arm64 manylinux
musllinux x86_64
musllinux i686
musllinux aarch64
musllinux ppc64le
musllinux s390x
CPython 3.6 N/A N/A
CPython 3.7 N/A N/A
CPython 3.8 N/A
CPython 3.9 ✅² ✅³
CPython 3.10 ✅²
CPython 3.11 ✅²
CPython 3.12⁵ ✅²
PyPy 3.7 v7.3 N/A N/A N/A ✅¹ ✅¹ ✅¹ N/A N/A
PyPy 3.8 v7.3 ✅⁴ N/A N/A ✅¹ ✅¹ ✅¹ N/A N/A
PyPy 3.9 v7.3 ✅⁴ N/A N/A ✅¹ ✅¹ ✅¹ N/A N/A
PyPy 3.10 v7.3 ✅⁴ N/A N/A ✅¹ ✅¹ ✅¹ N/A N/A

¹ PyPy is only supported for manylinux wheels.
² Windows arm64 support is experimental.
³ Alpine 3.14 and very briefly 3.15's default python3 was not able to load musllinux wheels. This has been fixed; please upgrade the python package if using Alpine from before the fix.
⁴ Cross-compilation not supported with PyPy - to build these wheels you need to run cibuildwheel on an Apple Silicon machine.
⁵ CPython 3.12 is built by default using Python RCs, starting with cibuildwheel 2.15.

  • Builds manylinux, musllinux, macOS 10.9+, and Windows wheels for CPython and PyPy
  • Works on GitHub Actions, Azure Pipelines, Travis CI, AppVeyor, CircleCI, GitLab CI, and Cirrus CI
  • Bundles shared library dependencies on Linux and macOS through auditwheel and delocate
  • Runs your library's tests against the wheel-installed version of your library

See the cibuildwheel 1 documentation if you need to build unsupported versions of Python, such as Python 2.


cibuildwheel runs inside a CI service. Supported platforms depend on which service you're using:

Linux macOS Windows Linux ARM macOS ARM Windows ARM
GitHub Actions ✅¹ ✅² ✅⁴
Azure Pipelines ✅² ✅⁴
Travis CI
AppVeyor ✅² ✅⁴
CircleCI ✅²
Gitlab CI ✅¹
Cirrus CI ✅³

¹ Requires emulation, distributed separately. Other services may also support Linux ARM through emulation or third-party build hosts, but these are not tested in our CI.
² Uses cross-compilation. It is not possible to test arm64 and the arm64 part of a universal2 wheel on this CI platform.
³ Uses cross-compilation. Thanks to Rosetta 2 emulation, it is possible to test x86_64 and both parts of a universal2 wheel on this CI platform.
Uses cross-compilation. It is not possible to test arm64 on this CI platform.

Example setup

To build manylinux, musllinux, macOS, and Windows wheels on GitHub Actions, you could use this .github/workflows/wheels.yml:

name: Build

on: [push, pull_request]

    name: Build wheels on ${{ matrix.os }}
    runs-on: ${{ matrix.os }}
        os: [ubuntu-20.04, windows-2019, macOS-11]

      - uses: actions/checkout@v4

      # Used to host cibuildwheel
      - uses: actions/setup-python@v3

      - name: Install cibuildwheel
        run: python -m pip install cibuildwheel==2.16.1

      - name: Build wheels
        run: python -m cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse
        # to supply options, put them in 'env', like:
        # env:
        #   CIBW_SOME_OPTION: value

      - uses: actions/upload-artifact@v3
          path: ./wheelhouse/*.whl

For more information, including PyPI deployment, and the use of other CI services or the dedicated GitHub Action, check out the documentation and the examples.

How it works

The following diagram summarises the steps that cibuildwheel takes on each platform.

Explore an interactive version of this diagram in the docs.


Option Description
Build selection CIBW_PLATFORM Override the auto-detected target platform
Choose the Python versions to build
CIBW_ARCHS Change the architectures built on your machine by default.
CIBW_PROJECT_REQUIRES_PYTHON Manually set the Python compatibility of your project
CIBW_PRERELEASE_PYTHONS Enable building with pre-release versions of Python if available
Build customization CIBW_BUILD_FRONTEND Set the tool to use to build, either "pip" (default for now) or "build"
CIBW_ENVIRONMENT Set environment variables needed during the build
CIBW_ENVIRONMENT_PASS_LINUX Set environment variables on the host to pass-through to the container during the build.
CIBW_BEFORE_ALL Execute a shell command on the build system before any wheels are built.
CIBW_BEFORE_BUILD Execute a shell command preparing each wheel's build
CIBW_REPAIR_WHEEL_COMMAND Execute a shell command to repair each built wheel
Specify alternative manylinux / musllinux Docker images
CIBW_CONTAINER_ENGINE Specify which container engine to use when building Linux wheels
CIBW_DEPENDENCY_VERSIONS Specify how cibuildwheel controls the versions of the tools it uses
Testing CIBW_TEST_COMMAND Execute a shell command to test each built wheel
CIBW_BEFORE_TEST Execute a shell command before testing each wheel
CIBW_TEST_REQUIRES Install Python dependencies before running the tests
CIBW_TEST_EXTRAS Install your wheel for testing using extras_require
CIBW_TEST_SKIP Skip running tests on some builds
Other CIBW_BUILD_VERBOSITY Increase/decrease the output of pip wheel

These options can be specified in a pyproject.toml file, as well; see configuration.

Working examples

Here are some repos that use cibuildwheel.

Name CI OS Notes
scikit-learn github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon The machine learning library. A complex but clean config using many of cibuildwheel's features to build a large project with Cython and C++ extensions.
pytorch-fairseq github icon apple icon linux icon Facebook AI Research Sequence-to-Sequence Toolkit written in Python.
NumPy github icon travisci icon windows icon apple icon linux icon The fundamental package for scientific computing with Python.
Tornado github icon linux icon apple icon windows icon Tornado is a Python web framework and asynchronous networking library. Uses stable ABI for a small C extension.
Matplotlib github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon The venerable Matplotlib, a Python library with C++ portions
NCNN github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon ncnn is a high-performance neural network inference framework optimized for the mobile platform
MyPy github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon The compiled version of MyPy using MyPyC.
Prophet github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Tool for producing high quality forecasts for time series data that has multiple seasonality with linear or non-linear growth.
Kivy github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Open source UI framework written in Python, running on Windows, Linux, macOS, Android and iOS
duckdb github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon DuckDB is an in-process SQL OLAP Database Management System

ℹ️ That's just a handful, there are many more! Check out the Working Examples page in the docs.

Legal note

Since cibuildwheel repairs the wheel with delocate or auditwheel, it might automatically bundle dynamically linked libraries from the build machine.

It helps ensure that the library can run without any dependencies outside of the pip toolchain.

This is similar to static linking, so it might have some license implications. Check the license for any code you're pulling in to make sure that's allowed.



26 September 2023

  • 🛠 Updates the prerelease CPython 3.12 version to 3.12.0rc3 (#1625)
  • 🛠 Only calls linux32 in containers when necessary (#1599)


18 September 2023

  • ✨ Add the ability to pass additional flags to a build frontend through the CIBW_BUILD_FRONTEND option (#1588).
  • ✨ The environment variable SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH is now automatically passed through to container Linux builds (useful for reproducible builds!) (#1589)
  • 🛠 Updates the prerelease CPython 3.12 version to 3.12.0rc2 (#1604)
  • 🐛 Fix requires_python auto-detection from when the call to setup() is within an `if name == "main" block (#1613)
  • 🐛 Fix a bug that prevented building Linux wheels in Docker on a Windows host (#1573)
  • 🐛 --only can now select prerelease-pythons (#1564)
  • 📚 Docs & examples updates (#1582, #1593, #1598, #1615)


8 August 2023

  • 🌟 CPython 3.12 wheels are now built by default - without the CIBW_PRERELEASE_PYTHONS flag. It's time to build and upload these wheels to PyPI! This release includes CPython 3.12.0rc1, which is guaranteed to be ABI compatible with the final release. (#1565)
  • ✨ Adds musllinux_1_2 support - this allows packagers to build for musl-based Linux distributions on a more recent Alpine image, and a newer musl libc. (#1561)


15 July 2023

  • 🛠 Updates the prerelease CPython 3.12 version to 3.12.0b4 (#1550)


10 July 2023

  • ✨ Adds support for building PyPy 3.10 wheels. (#1525)
  • 🛠 Updates the prerelease CPython 3.12 version to 3.12.0b3.
  • ✨ Allow the use of the {wheel} placeholder in CIBW_TEST_COMMAND (#1533)
  • 📚 Docs & examples updates (#1532, #1416)
  • ⚠️ Removed support for running cibuildwheel in Python 3.7. Python 3.7 is EOL. However, cibuildwheel continues to build Python 3.7 wheels for the moment. (#1175)

That's the last few versions.

ℹ️ Want more changelog? Head over to the changelog page in the docs.


For more info on how to contribute to cibuildwheel, see the docs.

Everyone interacting with the cibuildwheel project via codebase, issue tracker, chat rooms, or otherwise is expected to follow the PSF Code of Conduct.



cibuildwheel stands on the shoulders of giants.

Massive props also to-

  • @zfrenchee for help debugging many issues
  • @lelit for some great bug reports and contributions
  • @mayeut for a phenomenal PR patching Python itself for better compatibility!
  • @czaki for being a super-contributor over many PRs and helping out with countless issues!
  • @mattip for his help with adding PyPy support to cibuildwheel

See also

Another very similar tool to consider is matthew-brett/multibuild. multibuild is a shell script toolbox for building a wheel on various platforms. It is used as a basis to build some of the big data science tools, like SciPy.

If you are building Rust wheels, you can get by without some of the tricks required to make GLIBC work via manylinux; this is especially relevant for cross-compiling, which is easy with Rust. See maturin-action for a tool that is optimized for building Rust wheels and cross-compiling.

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