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Build Python wheels on CI with minimal configuration.

Project description


PyPI Documentation Status Actions Status Travis Status Appveyor status CircleCI Status Azure Status


Python wheels are great. Building them across Mac, Linux, Windows, on multiple versions of Python, is not.

cibuildwheel is here to help. cibuildwheel runs on your CI server - currently it supports GitHub Actions, Azure Pipelines, Travis CI, AppVeyor, CircleCI, and GitLab CI - and it builds and tests your wheels across all of your platforms.

What does it do?

macOS Intel macOS Apple Silicon Windows 64bit Windows 32bit manylinux x86_64 manylinux i686 manylinux aarch64 manylinux ppc64le manylinux s390x
CPython 3.6 N/A
CPython 3.7 N/A
CPython 3.8
CPython 3.9
CPython 3.10
PyPy 3.7 v7.3 N/A N/A N/A N/A
  • Builds manylinux, macOS 10.9+, and Windows wheels for CPython and PyPy
  • Works on GitHub Actions, Azure Pipelines, Travis CI, AppVeyor, CircleCI, and GitLab CI
  • Bundles shared library dependencies on Linux and macOS through auditwheel and delocate
  • Runs your library's tests against the wheel-installed version of your library

See the cibuildwheel 1 documentation if you need to build unsupported versions of Python, such as Python 2.


cibuildwheel runs inside a CI service. Supported platforms depend on which service you're using:

Linux macOS Windows Linux ARM
GitHub Actions ✅¹
Azure Pipelines
Travis CI
Gitlab CI

¹ Requires emulation, distributed separately. Other services may also support Linux ARM through emulation or third-party build hosts, but these are not tested in our CI.

cibuildwheel is not intended to run on your development machine. Because it uses system Python from on macOS and Windows, it will try to install packages globally - not what you expect from a build tool! Instead, isolated CI services like those mentioned above are ideal. For Linux builds, it uses manylinux docker images, so those can be done locally for testing in a pinch.

Example setup

To build manylinux, macOS, and Windows wheels on GitHub Actions, you could use this .github/workflows/wheels.yml:

name: Build

on: [push, pull_request]

    name: Build wheels on ${{ matrix.os }}
    runs-on: ${{ matrix.os }}
        os: [ubuntu-20.04, windows-2019, macOS-10.15]

      - uses: actions/checkout@v2

      # Used to host cibuildwheel
      - uses: actions/setup-python@v2

      - name: Install cibuildwheel
        run: python -m pip install cibuildwheel==2.1.3

      - name: Build wheels
        run: python -m cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse
        # to supply options, put them in 'env', like:
        # env:
        #   CIBW_SOME_OPTION: value

      - uses: actions/upload-artifact@v2
          path: ./wheelhouse/*.whl

For more information, including PyPI deployment, and the use of other CI services or the dedicated GitHub Action, check out the documentation and the examples.


Option Description
Build selection CIBW_PLATFORM Override the auto-detected target platform
Choose the Python versions to build
CIBW_ARCHS Change the architectures built on your machine by default.
CIBW_PROJECT_REQUIRES_PYTHON Manually set the Python compatibility of your project
CIBW_PRERELEASE_PYTHONS Enable building with pre-release versions of Python if available
Build customization CIBW_BUILD_FRONTEND Set the tool to use to build, either "pip" (default for now) or "build"
CIBW_ENVIRONMENT Set environment variables needed during the build
CIBW_BEFORE_ALL Execute a shell command on the build system before any wheels are built.
CIBW_BEFORE_BUILD Execute a shell command preparing each wheel's build
CIBW_REPAIR_WHEEL_COMMAND Execute a shell command to repair each (non-pure Python) built wheel
CIBW_MANYLINUX_*_IMAGE Specify alternative manylinux Docker images
CIBW_DEPENDENCY_VERSIONS Specify how cibuildwheel controls the versions of the tools it uses
Testing CIBW_TEST_COMMAND Execute a shell command to test each built wheel
CIBW_BEFORE_TEST Execute a shell command before testing each wheel
CIBW_TEST_REQUIRES Install Python dependencies before running the tests
CIBW_TEST_EXTRAS Install your wheel for testing using extras_require
CIBW_TEST_SKIP Skip running tests on some builds
Other CIBW_BUILD_VERBOSITY Increase/decrease the output of pip wheel

These options can be specified in a pyproject.toml file, as well; see configuration.

Working examples

Here are some repos that use cibuildwheel.

Name CI OS Notes
scikit-learn github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon The machine learning library. A complex but clean config using many of cibuildwheel's features to build a large project with Cython and C++ extensions.
Matplotlib github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon The venerable Matplotlib, a Python library with C++ portions
MyPy github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon MyPyC, the compiled component of MyPy.
psutil github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Cross-platform lib for process and system monitoring in Python
scikit-image github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Image processing library. Uses cibuildwheel to build and test a project that uses Cython with platform-native code.
twisted-iocpsupport github icon windows icon A submodule of Twisted that hooks into native C APIs using Cython.
cmake github icon travisci icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Multitagged binary builds for all supported platforms, using cibw 2 config configuration.
websockets travisci icon apple icon linux icon Library for building WebSocket servers and clients. Mostly written in Python, with a small C 'speedups' extension module.
pyzmq github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Python bindings for zeromq, the networking library. Uses Cython and CFFI.
aiortc github icon apple icon linux icon WebRTC and ORTC implementation for Python using asyncio.

ℹ️ That's just a handful, there are many more! Check out the Working Examples page in the docs.

Legal note

Since cibuildwheel repairs the wheel with delocate or auditwheel, it might automatically bundle dynamically linked libraries from the build machine.

It helps ensure that the library can run without any dependencies outside of the pip toolchain.

This is similar to static linking, so it might have some licence implications. Check the license for any code you're pulling in to make sure that's allowed.



6 October 2021

  • 🛠 Updated CPython 3.10 to the 3.10.0 final release


14 September 2021

  • 🛠 Updated CPython 3.10 to 3.10.0rc2
  • 📚 Multiple docs updates
  • 🐛 Improved warnings when built binaries are bundled into the container on Linux. (#807)


7 August 2021

  • ✨ Corresponding with the release of CPython 3.10.0rc1, which is ABI stable, cibuildwheel now builds CPython 3.10 by default - without the CIBW_PRERELEASE_PYTHONS flag.

Note: v2.1.0 was a bad release, it was yanked from PyPI.


25 July 2021

  • 📚 Docs improvements (#767)
  • 🛠 Dependency updates, including delocate 0.9.0.

v2.0.0 🎉

16 July 2021

  • 🌟 You can now configure cibuildwheel options inside your project's pyproject.toml! Environment variables still work of course. Check out the documentation for more info.
  • 🌟 Added support for building wheels with build, as well as pip. This feature is controlled with the CIBW_BUILD_FRONTEND option.
  • 🌟 Added the ability to test building wheels on CPython 3.10! Because CPython 3.10 is in beta, these wheels should not be distributed, because they might not be compatible with the final release, but it's available to build for testing purposes. Use the flag --prerelease-pythons or CIBW_PRERELEASE_PYTHONS to test. (#675) This version of cibuildwheel includes CPython 3.10.0b4.
  • ⚠️ Removed support for building Python 2.7 and Python 3.5 wheels, for both CPython and PyPy. If you still need to build on these versions, please use the latest v1.x version. (#596)
  • ✨ Added the ability to build CPython 3.8 wheels for Apple Silicon. (#704)
  • 🛠 Update to the latest build dependencies, including Auditwheel 4. (#633)
  • 🛠 Use the unified pypa/manylinux images to build PyPy (#671)
  • 🐛 Numerous bug fixes & docs improvements

That's the last few versions.

ℹ️ Want more changelog? Head over to the changelog page in the docs.


For more info on how to contribute to cibuildwheel, see the docs.

Everyone interacting with the cibuildwheel project via codebase, issue tracker, chat rooms, or otherwise is expected to follow the PSF Code of Conduct.



cibuildwheel stands on the shoulders of giants.

Massive props also to-

  • @zfrenchee for help debugging many issues
  • @lelit for some great bug reports and contributions
  • @mayeut for a phenomenal PR patching Python itself for better compatibility!
  • @czaki for being a super-contributor over many PRs and helping out with countless issues!
  • @mattip for his help with adding PyPy support to cibuildwheel

See also

If you'd like to keep wheel building separate from the package itself, check out astrofrog/autowheel. It builds packages using cibuildwheel from source distributions on PyPI.

Another very similar tool to consider is matthew-brett/multibuild. multibuild is a shell script toolbox for building a wheel on various platforms. It is used as a basis to build some of the big data science tools, like SciPy.

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Files for cibuildwheel, version 2.1.3
Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes
Filename, size cibuildwheel-2.1.3-py3-none-any.whl (1.5 MB) File type Wheel Python version py3 Upload date Hashes View
Filename, size cibuildwheel-2.1.3.tar.gz (58.2 kB) File type Source Python version None Upload date Hashes View

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