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Build Python wheels on CI with minimal configuration.

Project description


PyPI Documentation Status Actions Status Travis Status Appveyor status CircleCI Status Azure Status


Python wheels are great. Building them across Mac, Linux, Windows, on multiple versions of Python, is not.

cibuildwheel is here to help. cibuildwheel runs on your CI server - currently it supports GitHub Actions, Azure Pipelines, Travis CI, AppVeyor, CircleCI, and GitLab CI - and it builds and tests your wheels across all of your platforms.

What does it do?

macOS Intel macOS Apple Silicon Windows 64bit Windows 32bit manylinux x86_64 manylinux i686 manylinux aarch64 manylinux ppc64le manylinux s390x
CPython 3.6 N/A
CPython 3.7 N/A
CPython 3.8
CPython 3.9
CPython 3.10¹
PyPy 3.7 v7.3 N/A N/A N/A N/A

¹ Available as a prerelease under a flag

  • Builds manylinux, macOS 10.9+, and Windows wheels for CPython and PyPy
  • Works on GitHub Actions, Azure Pipelines, Travis CI, AppVeyor, CircleCI, and GitLab CI
  • Bundles shared library dependencies on Linux and macOS through auditwheel and delocate
  • Runs your library's tests against the wheel-installed version of your library

See the cibuildwheel 1 documentation if you need to build unsupported versions of Python, such as Python 2.


cibuildwheel runs inside a CI service. Supported platforms depend on which service you're using:

Linux macOS Windows Linux ARM
GitHub Actions ✅¹
Azure Pipelines
Travis CI
Gitlab CI

¹ Requires emulation, distributed separately. Other services may also support Linux ARM through emulation or third-party build hosts, but these are not tested in our CI.

cibuildwheel is not intended to run on your development machine. Because it uses system Python from on macOS and Windows, it will try to install packages globally - not what you expect from a build tool! Instead, isolated CI services like those mentioned above are ideal. For Linux builds, it uses manylinux docker images, so those can be done locally for testing in a pinch.

Example setup

To build manylinux, macOS, and Windows wheels on GitHub Actions, you could use this .github/workflows/wheels.yml:

name: Build

on: [push, pull_request]

    name: Build wheels on ${{ matrix.os }}
    runs-on: ${{ matrix.os }}
        os: [ubuntu-20.04, windows-2019, macOS-10.15]

      - uses: actions/checkout@v2

      # Used to host cibuildwheel
      - uses: actions/setup-python@v2

      - name: Install cibuildwheel
        run: python -m pip install cibuildwheel==2.0.0

      - name: Build wheels
        run: python -m cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse
        # to supply options, put them in 'env', like:
        # env:
        #   CIBW_SOME_OPTION: value

      - uses: actions/upload-artifact@v2
          path: ./wheelhouse/*.whl

For more information, including PyPI deployment, and the use of other CI services or the dedicated GitHub Action, check out the documentation and the examples.


Option Description
Build selection CIBW_PLATFORM Override the auto-detected target platform
Choose the Python versions to build
CIBW_ARCHS Change the architectures built on your machine by default.
CIBW_PROJECT_REQUIRES_PYTHON Manually set the Python compatibility of your project
CIBW_PRERELEASE_PYTHONS Enable building with pre-release versions of Python
Build customization CIBW_BUILD_FRONTEND Set the tool to use to build, either "pip" (default for now) or "build"
CIBW_ENVIRONMENT Set environment variables needed during the build
CIBW_BEFORE_ALL Execute a shell command on the build system before any wheels are built.
CIBW_BEFORE_BUILD Execute a shell command preparing each wheel's build
CIBW_REPAIR_WHEEL_COMMAND Execute a shell command to repair each (non-pure Python) built wheel
CIBW_MANYLINUX_*_IMAGE Specify alternative manylinux Docker images
CIBW_DEPENDENCY_VERSIONS Specify how cibuildwheel controls the versions of the tools it uses
Testing CIBW_TEST_COMMAND Execute a shell command to test each built wheel
CIBW_BEFORE_TEST Execute a shell command before testing each wheel
CIBW_TEST_REQUIRES Install Python dependencies before running the tests
CIBW_TEST_EXTRAS Install your wheel for testing using extras_require
CIBW_TEST_SKIP Skip running tests on some builds
Other CIBW_BUILD_VERBOSITY Increase/decrease the output of pip wheel

These options can be specified in a pyproject.toml file, as well; see configuration.

Working examples

Here are some repos that use cibuildwheel.

Name CI OS Notes
scikit-learn github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon The machine learning library. A complex but clean config using many of cibuildwheel's features to build a large project with Cython and C++ extensions.
Matplotlib github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon The venerable Matplotlib, a Python library with C++ portions
MyPy github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon MyPyC, the compiled component of MyPy.
psutil github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Cross-platform lib for process and system monitoring in Python
scikit-image github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Image processing library. Uses cibuildwheel to build and test a project that uses Cython with platform-native code.
twisted-iocpsupport github icon windows icon A submodule of Twisted that hooks into native C APIs using Cython.
cmake github icon travisci icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Multitagged binary builds for all supported platforms, using cibw 2 config configuration.
websockets travisci icon apple icon linux icon Library for building WebSocket servers and clients. Mostly written in Python, with a small C 'speedups' extension module.
pyzmq github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Python bindings for zeromq, the networking library. Uses Cython and CFFI.
aiortc github icon apple icon linux icon WebRTC and ORTC implementation for Python using asyncio.
River github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon 🌊 Online machine learning in Python github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon The coverage tool for Python
numexpr github icon travisci icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Fast numerical array expression evaluator for Python, NumPy, PyTables, pandas, bcolz and more
h5py azurepipelines icon windows icon apple icon linux icon HDF5 for Python -- The h5py package is a Pythonic interface to the HDF5 binary data format.
Dependency Injector travisci icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Dependency injection framework for Python, uses Windows TravisCI
PyAV github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Pythonic bindings for FFmpeg's libraries.
PyTables github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon A Python package to manage extremely large amounts of data
ruptures github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Extensive Cython + NumPy pyproject.toml example.
aioquic github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon QUIC and HTTP/3 implementation in Python
pikepdf azurepipelines icon windows icon apple icon linux icon A Python library for reading and writing PDF, powered by qpdf
google neuroglancer github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon WebGL-based viewer for volumetric data
DeepForest github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon An Efficient, Scalable and Optimized Python Framework for Deep Forest (2021.2.1)
AutoPy travisci icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Includes a Windows Travis build.
Parselmouth github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon A Python interface to the Praat software package, using pybind11, C++17 and CMake, with the core Praat static library built only once and shared between wheels.
python-rapidjson travisci icon gitlab icon appveyor icon windows icon linux icon Python wrapper around rapidjson
Rtree github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Rtree: spatial index for Python GIS ¶
python-snappy github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Python bindings for the snappy google library
markupsafe github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Safely add untrusted strings to HTML/XML markup.
H3-py github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Python bindings for H3, a hierarchical hexagonal geospatial indexing system
pybind11 cmake_example github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Example pybind11 module built with a CMake-based build system
KDEpy github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Kernel Density Estimation in Python
cyvcf2 github icon apple icon linux icon cython + htslib == fast VCF and BCF processing
pybind11 python_example github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Example pybind11 module built with a Python-based build system
dd-trace-py github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Uses custom alternate arch emulation on GitHub
sourmash github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Quickly search, compare, and analyze genomic and metagenomic data sets.
time-machine github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Time mocking library using only the CPython C API.
iminuit github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Jupyter-friendly Python interface for C++ MINUIT2
CTranslate2 github icon apple icon linux icon Includes libraries from the Intel oneAPI toolkit. The Linux wheels also include CUDA libraries for GPU execution.
matrixprofile travisci icon windows icon apple icon linux icon A Python 3 library making time series data mining tasks, utilizing matrix profile algorithms, accessible to everyone. travisci icon apple icon linux icon Python bindings for jq
Tokenizer github icon travisci icon apple icon linux icon Fast and customizable text tokenization library with BPE and SentencePiece support
PyGLM github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Fast OpenGL Mathematics (GLM) for Python
bx-python travisci icon apple icon linux icon A library that includes Cython extensions.
boost-histogram github icon travisci icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Supports full range of wheels, including PyPy and alternate archs.
iDynTree github icon linux icon Uses manylinux_2_24
pybase64 github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Fast Base64 encoding/decoding in Python
TgCrypto travisci icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Includes a Windows Travis build.
etebase-py travisci icon linux icon Python bindings to a Rust library using setuptools-rust, and sccache for improved speed.
fathon travisci icon apple icon linux icon python package for DFA (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis) and related algorithms
pyjet github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon The interface between FastJet and NumPy
numpythia github icon apple icon linux icon The interface between PYTHIA and NumPy
polaroid github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Full range of wheels for setuptools rust, with auto release and PyPI deploy.
ninja github icon travisci icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Multitagged binary builds for all supported platforms, using cibw 2 config configuration.
GSD github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Cython and NumPy project with 64-bit wheels.
pybind11 scikit_build_example github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon An example combining scikit-build and pybind11
Imagecodecs (fork) azurepipelines icon apple icon linux icon Over 20 external dependencies in compiled libraries, custom docker image, libomp, openblas and install_name_tool for macOS.
pyinstrument_cext travisci icon appveyor icon windows icon apple icon linux icon A simple C extension, without external dependencies
xmlstarlet github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Python 3.6+ CFFI bindings with true MSVC build.
CorrectionLib github icon apple icon linux icon Structured JSON powered correction library for HEP, designed for the CMS experiment at CERN.
SiPM github icon apple icon linux icon High performance library for SiPM detectors simulation using C++17, OpenMP and AVX2 intrinsics.

Add your repo here! Let us know on GitHub Discussions, or send a PR, adding your information to docs/data/projects.yml.

I'd like to include notes here to indicate why an example might be interesting to cibuildwheel users - the styles/technologies/techniques used in each. Please include that in future additions!

Legal note

Since cibuildwheel repairs the wheel with delocate or auditwheel, it might automatically bundle dynamically linked libraries from the build machine.

It helps ensure that the library can run without any dependencies outside of the pip toolchain.

This is similar to static linking, so it might have some licence implications. Check the license for any code you're pulling in to make sure that's allowed.


v2.0.0 🎉

  • 🌟 You can now configure cibuildwheel options inside your project's pyproject.toml! Environment variables still work of course. Check out the documentation for more info.
  • 🌟 Added support for building wheels with build, as well as pip. This feature is controlled with the CIBW_BUILD_FRONTEND option.
  • 🌟 Added the ability to test building wheels on CPython 3.10! Because CPython 3.10 is in beta, these wheels should not be distributed, because they might not be compatible with the final release, but it's available to build for testing purposes. Use the flag --prerelease-pythons or CIBW_PRERELEASE_PYTHONS to test. (#675) This version of cibuildwheel includes CPython 3.10.0b4.
  • ⚠️ Removed support for building Python 2.7 and Python 3.5 wheels, for both CPython and PyPy. If you still need to build on these versions, please use the latest v1.x version. (#596)
  • ✨ Added the ability to build CPython 3.8 wheels for Apple Silicon. (#704)
  • 🛠 Update to the latest build dependencies, including Auditwheel 4. (#633)
  • 🛠 Use the unified pypa/manylinux images to build PyPy (#671)
  • 🐛 Numerous bug fixes & docs improvements


22 June 2021

  • ✨ Adds support building macOS universal2/arm64 wheels on Python 3.8.


28 May 2021

  • ✨ cibuildwheel is now part of the PyPA!
  • 📚 Minor docs changes, fixing links related to the above transition
  • 🛠 Update manylinux pins to the last version containing Python 2.7 and 3.5. (#674)


1 May 2021

  • 📚 Lots of docs improvements! (#650, #623, #616, #609, #606)
  • 🐛 Fix nuget "Package is not found" error on Windows. (#653)
  • ⚠️ cibuildwheel will no longer build Windows 2.7 wheels, unless you specify a custom toolchain using DISTUTILS_USE_SDK=1 and MSSdk=1. This is because Microsoft have stopped distributing Visual C++ Compiler for Python 2.7. See this FAQ entry for more details. (#649)
  • 🐛 Fix crash on Windows due to missing which command (#641).


22 Feb 2021

  • ✨ Added manylinux_2_24 support. To use these new Debian-based manylinux images, set your manylinux image options to manylinux_2_24.
  • 🛠 On macOS, we now set MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET in before running CIBW_BEFORE_ALL. This is useful when using CIBW_BEFORE_ALL to build a shared library.
  • 🛠 An empty CIBW_BUILD option is now the same as being unset i.e, *. This makes some build matrix configuration easier. (#588)
  • 📚 Neatened up documentation - added tabs to a few places (#576), fixed some formatting issues.


5 February 2021

  • 🌟 Added support for Apple Silicon wheels on macOS! You can now cross-compile universal2 and arm64 wheels on your existing macOS Intel runners, by setting CIBW_ARCHS_MACOS. Xcode 12.2 or later is required, but you don't need macOS 11.0 - you can still build on macOS 10.15. See this FAQ entry for more information. (#484)

  • 🌟 Added auto-detection of your package's Python compatibility, via declared requires-python in your pyproject.toml, or python_requires in setup.cfg or If your project has these set, cibuildwheel will automatically skip builds on versions of Python that your package doesn't support. Hopefully this makes the first-run experience of cibuildwheel a bit easier. If you need to override this for any reason, look at CIBW_PROJECT_REQUIRES_PYTHON. (#536)

  • 🌟 cibuildwheel can now be invoked as a native GitHub Action! You can now invoke cibuildwheel in a GHA build step like:

    - name: Build wheels
      uses: pypa/cibuildwheel@version # e.g. v1.9.0
        output-dir: wheelhouse
      # env:
      #   CIBW_SOME_OPTION: value

    This saves a bit of boilerplate, and you can use Dependabot to keep the pinned version up-to-date.

  • ✨ Added auto64 and auto32 shortcuts to the CIBW_ARCHS option. (#553)

  • ✨ cibuildwheel now prints a list of the wheels built at the end of each run. (#570)

  • 📚 Lots of minor docs improvements.


22 January 2021

  • 🌟 Added support for emulated builds! You can now build manylinux wheels on ARM64aarch64, as well as ppc64le and 's390x'. To build under emulation, register QEMU via binfmt_misc and set the CIBW_ARCHS_LINUX option to the architectures you want to run. See this FAQ entry for more information. (#482)
  • ✨ Added CIBW_TEST_SKIP option. This allows you to choose certain builds whose tests you'd like to skip. This might be useful when running a slow test suite under emulation, for example. (#537)
  • ✨ Added curly-{brace,bracket,paren} style globbing to CIBW_BUILD and CIBW_SKIP. This gives more expressivity, letting you do things like CIBW_BUILD=cp39-manylinux_{aarch64,ppc64le}. (#527)
  • 🛠 cibuildwheel will now exit with an error if it's called with options that skip all builds on a platform. This feature can be disabled by adding --allow-empty on the command line. (#545)


2 January 2021

  • 🐛 Fix the PyPy virtualenv patch to work on macOS 10.14 (#506)


1 January 2021

  • 🛠 Added a patch for Pypy to ensure header files are available for building in a virtualenv. (#502)
  • 🛠 Some preparatory work towards using cibuildwheel as a GitHub Action. Check out the FAQ for information on how to use it. We'll be fully updating the docs to this approach in a subsequent release (#494)


21 December 2020

  • 🛠 Update dependencies, notably wheel==0.36.2 and pip==20.3.3, and CPython to their latest bugfix releases (#489)
  • 📚 Switch to a GitHub example in the README (#479)
  • 📚 Create Working Examples table, with many projects that use cibuildwheel (#474)
  • 📚 Import Working Examples table and Changelog to docs


3 December 2020

  • 🛠 Update manylinux2010 image to resolve issues with 'yum' repositories (#472)


26 November 2020

  • ✨ New logging format, that uses 'fold groups' in CI services that support it. (#458)
  • 🛠 Update PyPy to 7.3.3 (#460)
  • 🐛 Fix a bug where CIBW_BEFORE_ALL runs with a very old version of Python on Linux. (#464)


31 October 2020

  • 🐛 Fix crash on Appveyor during nuget install due to old system CA certificates. We now use certifi's CA certs to download files. (#455)


12 October 2020

  • 🐛 Fix missing SSL certificates on macOS (#447)
  • 🛠 Update OpenSSL Python 3.5 patch to 1.1.1h on macOS (#449)


9 October 2020

  • ✨ Python 3.9 updated to the final release version - v3.9.0 (#440)
  • 🛠 Pypy updated to v7.3.2, adding alpha support for Python 3.7 (#430)


20 September 2020

  • 🛠 Add PPC64LE manylinux image supporting Python 3.9. (#436)
  • 📚 Add project URLs to PyPI listing (#428)


9 September 2020

  • 🌟 Add Python 3.9 support! This initial support uses release candidate builds. You can start publishing wheels for Python 3.9 now, ahead of the official release. (#382)

    Minor note - if you're building PPC64LE wheels, the manylinux image pinned by this version is still on Python 3.9b3, not a release candidate. We'd advise holding off on distributing 3.9 ppc64le wheels until a subsequent version of cibuildwheel.

  • 🌟 Add Gitlab CI support. Gitlab CI can now build Linux wheels, using cibuildwheel. (#419)

  • 🐛 Fix a bug that causes pyproject.toml dependencies to fail to install on Windows (#420)

  • 📚 Added some information about Windows VC++ runtimes and how they relate to wheels.


22 July 2020

  • 🐛 Fix a bug that would cause command substitutions in CIBW_ENVIRONMENT to produce no output on Linux (#411)
  • 🐛 Fix regression (introduced in 1.5.3) which caused BEFORE_BUILD and BEFORE_ALL to be executed in the wrong directory (#410)


19 June 2020

  • 🐛 Fix a bug that would cause command substitutions in CIBW_ENVIRONMENT variables to not interpret quotes in commands correctly (#406, #408)


19 July 2020

  • 🛠 Update CPython 3.8 to 3.8.3 (#405)
  • 🛠 Internal refactoring of Linux build, to move control flow into Python (#386)


8 July 2020

  • 🐛 Fix an issue on Windows where pyproject.toml would cause an error when some requirements formats were used. (#401)
  • 🛠 Update CPython 3.7 to 3.7.8 (#394)


25 June 2020

  • 🐛 Fix "OSError: [WinError 17] The system cannot move the file to a different disk drive" on GitHub Actions (#388, #389)


24 June 2020

  • 🌟 Add CIBW_BEFORE_ALL option, which lets you run a command on the build machine before any wheels are built. This is especially useful when building on Linux, to make something external to Python, or to yum install a dependency. (#342)
  • ✨ Added support for projects using pyproject.toml instead of (#360, #358)
  • ✨ Added workaround to allow Python 3.5 on Windows to pull dependencies from pyproject.toml. (#358)
  • 📚 Improved GitHub Actions examples and docs (#354, #362)
  • 🐛 Ensure pip wheel uses the specified package, and doesn't build a wheel from PyPI (#369)
  • 🛠 Internal changes: using pathlib.Path, precommit hooks, testing improvements.


25 May 2020

  • 🛠 Dependency updates, including CPython 3.8.3 & manylinux images.
  • 🛠 Lots of internal updates - type annotations and checking using mypy, and a new integration testing system.
  • ⚠️ Removed support for running cibuildwheel using Python 3.5. cibuildwheel will continue to build Python 3.5 wheels until EOL.


4 May 2020

  • 🐛 Fix a bug causing programs running inside the i686 manylinux images to think they were running x86_64 and target the wrong architecture. (#336, #338)


2 May 2020

  • 🌟 Deterministic builds. cibuildwheel now locks the versions of the tools it uses. This means that pinning your version of cibuildwheel pins the versions of pip, setuptools, manylinux etc. that are used under the hood. This should make things more reliable. But note that we don't control the entire build environment on macOS and Windows, where the version of Xcode and Visual Studio can still effect things.

    This can be controlled using the CIBW_DEPENDENCY_VERSIONS and manylinux image options - if you always want to use the latest toolchain, you can still do that, or you can specify your own pip constraints file and manylinux image. (#256)

  • ✨ Added package_dir command line option, meaning we now support building a package that lives in a subdirectory and pulls in files from the wider project. See the package_dir option help for more information.

    Note that this change makes the working directory (where you call cibuildwheel from) relevant on Linux, as it's considered the 'project' and will be copied into the Docker container. If your builds are slower on this version, that's likely the reason. cd to your project and then call cibuildwheel from there. (#319, #295)

  • 🛠 On macOS, we make MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET default to 10.9 if it's not set. This should make things more consistent between Python versions.

  • 🛠 Dependency updates - CPython 3.7.7, CPython 2.7.18, Pypy 7.3.1.


12 March 2020

  • 🌟 Add support for building on GitHub Actions! Check out the docs for information on how to set it up. (#194)
  • ✨ Add the CIBW_BEFORE_TEST option, which lets you run a command to prepare the environment before your tests are run. (#242)


8 March 2020

  • 🌟 Add support for building PyPy wheels, across Manylinux, macOS, and Windows. (#185)
  • 🌟 Added the ability to build ARM64 (aarch64), ppc64le, and s390x wheels, using manylinux2014 and Travis CI. (#273)
  • ✨ You can now build macOS wheels on Appveyor. (#230)
  • 🛠 Changed default macOS minimum target to 10.9, from 10.6. This allows the use of more modern C++ libraries, among other things. (#156)
  • 🛠 Stop building universal binaries on macOS. We now only build x86_64 wheels on macOS. (#220)
  • ✨ Allow chaining of commands using && and || on Windows inside CIBW_BEFORE_BUILD and CIBW_TEST_COMMAND. (#293)
  • 🛠 Improved error reporting for failed Cython builds due to stale .so files (#263)
  • 🛠 Update CPython from 3.7.5 to 3.7.6 and from 3.8.0 to 3.8.2 on Mac/Windows
  • 🛠 Improved error messages when a bad config breaks cibuildwheel's PATH variable. (#264)
  • ⚠️ Removed support for running cibuildwheel on Python 2.7. cibuildwheel will continue to build Python 2.7 wheels for a little while. (#265)


7 December 2019

  • 🌟 Add support for building manylinux2014 wheels. To use, set CIBW_MANYLINUX_X86_64_IMAGE and CIBW_MANYLINUX_I686_IMAGE to manylinux2014.
  • ✨ Add support for Linux on Appveyor (#204, #207)
  • ✨ Add CIBW_REPAIR_WHEEL_COMMAND env variable, for changing how auditwheel or delocate are invoked, or testing an equivalent on Windows. (#211)
  • 📚 Added some travis example configs - these are available in /examples. (#228)


10 November 2019

  • 🌟 Add support for building Python 3.8 wheels! (#180)
  • 🌟 Add support for building manylinux2010 wheels. cibuildwheel will now build using the manylinux2010 images by default. If your project is still manylinux1 compatible, you should get both manylinux1 and manylinux2010 wheels - you can upload both to PyPI. If you always require manylinux1 wheels, you can build using the old manylinux1 image using the manylinux image option. (#155)
  • 📚 Documentation is now on its own mini-site, rather than on the README (#169)
  • ✨ Add support for building Windows wheels on Travis CI. (#160)
  • 🛠 If you set CIBW_TEST_COMMAND, your tests now run in a virtualenv. (#164)
  • 🛠 Windows now uses Python as installed by nuget, rather than the versions installed by the various CI providers. (#180)
  • 🛠 Update Python from 2.7.16 to 2.7.17 and 3.7.4 to 3.7.5 on macOS (#171)
  • ⚠️ Removed support for Python 3.4 (#168)


29 September 2019

  • ✨ Add CIBW_TEST_EXTRAS option, to allow testing using extra_require options. For example, set CIBW_TEST_EXTRAS=test,qt to make the wheel installed with pip install <wheel_file>[test,qt]
  • 🛠 Update Python from 3.7.2 to 3.7.4 on macOS
  • 🛠 Update OpenSSL patch to 1.0.2t on macOS


28 May 2019

  • 🐛 Fix missing file in the release tarball, that was causing problems with Windows builds (#141)


26 May 2019

  • 🌟 Add support for building on Azure pipelines! This lets you build all Linux, Mac and Windows wheels on one service, so it promises to be the easiest to set up! Check out the quickstart in the docs, or cibuildwheel-azure-example for an example project. (#126, #132)
  • 🛠 Internal change - the end-to-end test projects format was updated, so we can more precisely assert what should be produced for each one. (#136, #137).


10 March 2019

  • 🛠 Revert temporary fix in macOS, that was working around a bug in pip 19 (#129)
  • 🛠 Update Python to 2.7.16 on macOS
  • 🛠 Update OpenSSL patch to 1.0.2r on macOS


3 February 2019

  • 🐛 Fix build stalling on macOS (that was introduced in pip 19) (#122)
  • 🐛 Fix "AttributeError: 'Popen' object has no attribute 'args'" on Python 2.7 for Linux builds (#108)
  • 🛠 Update Python from 3.6.7, 3.7.1 to 3.6.8, 3.7.2 on macOS
  • 🛠 Update openssl patch from 1.0.2p to 1.0.2q on macOS
  • 🛠 Sorting build options dict items when printing preamble (#114)


23 September 2018

  • 🌟 Add CIBW_BUILD option, for specifying which specific builds to perform (#101)
  • 🌟 Add support for building Mac and Linux on CircleCI (#91, #97)
  • 🛠 Improved support for building universal wheels (#95)
  • 🛠 Ensure log output is unbuffered and therefore in the correct order (#92)
  • 🛠 Improved error reporting for errors that occur inside a package's (#88)
  • ⚠️ Removed support for Python 3.3 on Windows.


29 July 2018

  • 🛠 CIBW_TEST_COMMAND now runs in a shell on Mac (as well as Linux) (#81)


10 July 2018

  • 🛠 Update to Python 3.6.6 on macOS (#82)
  • ✨ Add support for building Python 3.7 wheels on Windows (#76)
  • ⚠️ Deprecated support for Python 3.3 on Windows.


1 July 2018

  • 🛠 Update Python 3.7.0rc1 to 3.7.0 on macOS (#79)


18 June 2018

  • 🛠 Removed the need to use {python} and {pip} in CIBW_BEFORE_BUILD statements, by ensuring the correct version is always on the path at python and pip instead. (#60)
  • 🛠 We now patch the _ssl module on Python 3.4 and 3.5 so these versions can still make SSL web requests using TLS 1.2 while building. (#71)


18 June 2018

  • ✨ Add support for Python 3.7 (#73)


4 May 2018

  • ⚠️ Drop support for Python 3.3 on Linux (#67)
  • 🐛 Fix TLS by updating setuptools (#69)


2 April 2017

  • 🐛 macOS: Fix Pip bugs resulting from PyPI TLS 1.2 enforcement
  • 🐛 macOS: Fix brew Python3 version problems in the CI


7 January 2018

  • ✨ You can now specify a custom docker image using the CIBW_MANYLINUX1_X86_64_IMAGE and CIBW_MANYLINUX1_I686_IMAGE options. (#46)
  • 🐛 Fixed a bug where cibuildwheel would download and build a package from PyPI(!) instead of building the package on the local machine. (#51)


9 October 2017

  • ✨ On the Linux build, the host filesystem is now accessible via /host (#36)
  • 🐛 Fixed a bug where scripts would run the wrong version of Python when running subprocesses on Linux (#35)


10 September 2017

  • 🐛 Fixed a couple of bugs on Python 3.
  • ✨ Added experimental support for Mac builds on


7 September 2017

  • CIBW_ENVIRONMENT added. You can now set environment variables for each build, even within the Docker container on Linux. This is a big one! (#21)
  • CIBW_BEFORE_BUILD now runs in a system shell on all platforms. You can now do things like CIBW_BEFORE_BUILD="cmd1 && cmd2". (#32)


14 August 2017

  • 🐛 Fixed a bug on Windows where subprocess' output was hidden (#23)
  • 🐛 Fixed a bug on AppVeyor where logs would appear in the wrong order due to output buffering (#24, thanks @YannickJadoul!)


23 July 2017

  • 🐛 Fixed a bug that was increasing the build time by building the wheel twice. This was a problem for large projects that have a long build time. If you're upgrading and you need the old behaviour, use CIBW_BEFORE_BUILD={pip} install ., or install exactly the dependencies you need in CIBW_BEFORE_BUILD. See #18.


27 June 2017

  • ⚠️ Removed Python 2.6 support on Linux (#12)


11 June 2017

  • 🛠 Changed the build process to install the package before building the wheel - this allows direct dependencies to be installed first (#9, thanks @tgarc!)
  • ✨ Added Python 3 support for the main process, for systems where Python 3 is the default (#8, thanks @tgarc).


13 April 2017

  • ✨ Added CIBW_SKIP option, letting users explicitly skip a build
  • ✨ Added CIBW_BEFORE_BUILD option, letting users run a shell command before the build starts


31 March 2017

  • 🌟 First public release!


For more info on how to contribute to cibuildwheel, see the docs.

Everyone interacting with the cibuildwheel project via codebase, issue tracker, chat rooms, or otherwise is expected to follow the PSF Code of Conduct.



cibuildwheel stands on the shoulders of giants.

Massive props also to-

  • @zfrenchee for help debugging many issues
  • @lelit for some great bug reports and contributions
  • @mayeut for a phenomenal PR patching Python itself for better compatibility!
  • @czaki for being a super-contributor over many PRs and helping out with countless issues!
  • @mattip for his help with adding PyPy support to cibuildwheel

See also

If you'd like to keep wheel building separate from the package itself, check out astrofrog/autowheel. It builds packages using cibuildwheel from source distributions on PyPI.

Another very similar tool to consider is matthew-brett/multibuild. multibuild is a shell script toolbox for building a wheel on various platforms. It is used as a basis to build some of the big data science tools, like SciPy.

Project details

Download files

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Files for cibuildwheel, version 2.0.0
Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes
Filename, size cibuildwheel-2.0.0-py3-none-any.whl (1.5 MB) File type Wheel Python version py3 Upload date Hashes View
Filename, size cibuildwheel-2.0.0.tar.gz (91.4 kB) File type Source Python version None Upload date Hashes View

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