Cmdlet provides pipe-like mechanism to cascade functions and generators.
Cmdlet provides pipe-like mechanism to cascade functions and generators. It uses symbol(|) to convert function to Pipe object and cascade them. This sequence of commands can be executed and evaluated later. Just like pipe mechanism in Unix shell. For example:
from cmdlet.cmds import * # Create piped commands. cmds = range(10) | pipe.filter(lambda x: x > 5) | format('item#%d') # Execute commands and return the last processed data. run(cmds) # >>> 'item#9' # Execute commands and return processed data in a list. result(cmds) # >>> ['item#6', 'item#7', 'item#8', 'item#9'] # Execute commands and return iterator for processed data. for data in cmds: print data # >>> item#6 # >>> item#7 # >>> item#8 # >>> item#9
First, we created commands and used | to cascade them. Then, we can execute commands by run(), result() or iterator.
cmdlet can convert corresponding types to Pipe object automatically. In above example, range(10) is a iterator not a Pipe object. Because second item is a Pipe object(made by pipe.filter), it turns out first item to be converted to a Pipe object automatically.
There are many useful utilities in cmdlet.cmds modules. They can provide a great convenience to build up useful pipes. Here is a example:
from cmdlet.cmds import * query_topic = 'find ./mydoc -name "*.txt" -print' | readline(end=10) | match(r'^[tT]opic:\s*(?P<topic>.+)\s*', to=dict) | values('topic') for topic in query_topic: print topic
In above example, the goal is to query topic from article files. To achieve the goal, we have to:
With the utilities provided by cmdlet.cmds, we only need to write a few of code. The first string which starts with ‘find’ is a normal shell script. It is converted to sh pipe automatically and executed with system shell. The readline pipe can open files whose name passed from sh pipe. match pipe and values pipe work together to extract topic from file content.
Above example shows not only small code but also readability. It’s really easy to understand the purpose of source code.
NOTE: > When using cmdlet’s pipe mechanism, make sure one of your > first two pipe items is a valid Pipe object.
There is another advantage to use cmdlet. The pipe object is evaluated when calling result, run or iter. It implies you can reuse them. Let’s modify previous example.
from cmdlet.cmds import * # Separate from query_topic command. extract_topic = readline(end=10) | match(r'^[tT]opic:\s*(?P<topic>.+)\s*', to=dict) | values('topic') for topic in ('find ./mydoc1 -name "*.txt" -print' | extract_topic): print topic for topic in ('find ../mydoc2 -name "*.md" -print' | extract_topic): print topic
There are 3 ways to execute piped commands and get the result.
Function should not be used in pipes directly, unless using auto-type conversion. Cmdlet provides a set of basic wrappers to wrap function to Pipe object.
The most basic wrapper. In Python, generator function is a function with yield statement in it. The generator_function defined here is a Python generator function with at least one argument. The first argument is a generator object passed by previous Pipe object. generator_function can take it as input or just leave it. It looks like:
# Generator function which use prev as input. @pipe.func def my_generator(prev): for data in prev: # ... Put some code to process data ... yield new_data
# Generator function which ignore input. @pipe.func def my_generator_ignore_prev(prev): while True: # ... Generate data and break loop in some conditions. ... yield data
@pipe.func def randint_generator(prev, num): for i in range(num): yield random.randint(0, 1000) @pipe.func def power(prev, th): for n in prev: yield n ** th cmds = randint_generator(10) | power ans = result(cmds) # Equals to: # ans =  # for i in range(10): # ans.append(random.randint(0, 1000)
Wrap function to a mapper. The input is a normal function with at least one argument for data input. The returned value will be passed to next Pipe object. It looks like:
@pipe.map def my_mapper(data): # ... Put some code to process data ... return new_data
@pipe.func def randint_generator(prev, num): for i in range(num): yield random.randint(0, 1000) @pipe.map def power(n, th): return n ** th cmds = randint_generator(10) | power ans = result(cmds) # Equals to: # ans =  # for i in range(10): # ans.append(random.randint(0, 1000)
The power pipe can also be written in this way:
power = pipe.map(lambda n, th: n ** th)
Anything returned by mapper will be sent to next Pipe object. If mapper return None, next Pipe object will receive None. That is, you can’t use mapper to filter data out. That’s why we have pipe.filter.
Wrap function to a filter. Filter is a function with at least one argument as data input. Filter should return Boolean value, True or False. If True, data from previous Pipe object is allowed to pass through. If False, data is dropped. It looks like:
@pipe.filter def my_filter(data): # Handle data and check conditions. if you_should_not_pass: return False else: return True
@pipe.filter def less_than(data, thrd): return data < thrd cmds = range(10) | less_than(3) ans = result(cmds) # Equals to: # ans =  # thrd = 3 # for n in range(10): # if n < thrd: # ans.append()
You can write filter pipe in this way:
less_than = pipe.filter(lambda data, thrd: data < thrd)
Wrap function as a reducer. A reducer is a function which has at least two arguments. The first one is used as accumulated result, the second one is the data to be processed. A optional keyword argument init can be used to specify initial value to accumulated result. It looks like:
@pipe.reduce def my_reducer(accum_result, data): # Calculate new accum_result according to data. return accum_result
@pipe.reduce def count_mod(accum_result, data, mod_by): if (data % mod_by) == 0: return accum_result else: return accum_result + 1 cmds = range(1000) | count_mod(10, init=0)
Wrap function as a stopper. Stopper is used to stop the pipe execution. It returns true to stop the pipe execution. Return false to pass data to next. It looks like:
@pipe.stopper def my_stopper(data): if check_stop_criteria(data): return True return False
Here is a example to show how to use function wrapper.
from random import randint from cmdlet.cmds import * @pipe.func def random_number(prev, amount): for i in range(amount): yield randint(0, 100000) @pipe.filter def in_range(data, lower_bound, upper_bound): return data >= lower_bound and data <= upper_bound @pipe.reduce def count(accum_result, data): return accum_result + 1 @pipe.map def format_output(data, format): return format % data # Generate 1000 random number and count how many of them between 100 and 500. # Then, format the result to 'ans=%d'. cmds = random_number(1000) | in_range(100, 500) | count(init=0) | format_output('ans=%d') print cmds.run() # >>> ans=40
If wrapped code is just a expression, following code shows another way to make them:
in_range = pipe.filter(lambda data: data >= lower_bound and data <= upper_bound) count = pipe.reduce(lambda accum_result, data: accum_result + 1) format_output = pipe.reduce(lambda data, format: format % data)
NOTE: > As you might already noticed, the number of argument using in piped commands > is different from the definition of wrapped function. You should know your > function is wrapped to a Pipe object. The function is not invoked when > cascading pipes. It is called when using run(), result() or iteration. The > arguments will be stored in Pipe object and append to the argument list of > wrapped function when it is invoked.
If the operand of | operator is not a Pipe object, cmdlet will call proper creator to convert and wrap it to a Pipe object. The data type of operand must be registered in cmdlet. Otherwise, exception UnregisteredPipeType will be raised.
cmdlet.cmds has registered some basic types by default. You can use them directly.
|type||pipe.map||Convert processed data to specified type|
|function||pipe.map||Wrap function as a mapper.|
|method||pipe.map||Wrap method as a mapper.|
|tuple||seq||Wrap tuple to gernator.|
|list||seq||Wrap list to gernator.|
|str||sh||Wrap string to command line and execute it.|
|unicode||sh||Wrap string to command line and execute it.|
|file||fileobj||Wrap file object for read/write operation.|
cmdlet.cmds has predefined some commands. Here are brief descriptions.
|pack||Take N elements from pipe and group them into one element.|
|enum||Generate (index, value) pair from previous pipe.|
|counter||Count the number of data from previous pipe.|
|flatten||Flatten the data passed from previous pipe.|
|items||Extract (key, value) pair from a dict-like object.|
|seq||Extract any iterable object.|
|attr||Extract the value of given attribute from previous pipe.|
|attrs||Extract the value of given attributes from previous pipe.|
|attrdict||Extract the value of given attributes from previous pipe.|
|stdout||Output data from previous pipe to stdout.|
|stderr||Output data from previous pipe to stderr.|
|readline||Read data from file line by line.|
|fileobj||Read/write file with pipe data.|
|sh||Execute system shell script to handle the stdin/stdout.|
|upper||alias of string.upper|
|lower||alias of string.lower|
|capwords||alias of string.capwords|
|capitalize||alias of string.capitalize|
|lstrip||alias of string.lstrip|
|rstrip||alias of string.rstrip|
|strip||alias of string.strip|
|expandtabs||alias of string.expandtabs|
|strip||alias of string.strip|
|find||alias of string.find|
|format||alias of % operator of string (not string.format)|
|rfind||alias of string.rfind|
|count||alias of string.count|
|split||alias of string.split|
|rsplit||alias of string.rsplit|
|swapcase||alias of string.swapcase|
|translate||alias of string.translate|
|ljust||alias of string.ljust|
|rjust||alias of string.rjust|
|center||alias of string.center|
|zfill||alias of string.zfill|
|replace||alias of string.replace|
|join||alias of string.join|
|substitute||alias of string.Template.substitute|
|safe_substitute||alias of string.Template.safe_substitute|
|grep||Grep strings with regular expression.|
|match||Grep strings with regular expression and generate MatchObject.|
|wildcard||Grep strings with wildcard character.|
|resplit||Split strings with regular expression.|
|sub||Substitute strings with regular expression.|
|subn||Substitute strings with regular expression.|