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The Type-Approving vehicle simulator predicting NEDC CO2 emissions from WLTP

Project description

AIO-1.7.X: from 31-Oct-2017 to 15-Nov-2018
AIO-2.0.X: from 24-Sept-2018
Version: 2.0.0.post0
keywords:CO2, fuel-consumption, WLTP, NEDC, vehicle, automotive, EU, JRC, IET, STU, correlation, back-translation, policy, monitoring, M1, N1, simulator, engineering, scientific
developers:see: AUTHORS.rst
Copyright: 2015-2018 European Commission (JRC)
license:EUPL 1.1+

CO2MPAS is backward-looking longitudinal-dynamics CO2 and fuel-consumption simulator for light-duty M1 & N1 vehicles (cars and vans), specially crafted to estimate the CO2 emissions of vehicles undergoing NEDC testing based on the emissions produced WLTP testing during type-approval, according to the EU legislations 1152/EUR/2017 and 1153/EUR/2017 (see History section, below).

It is an open-source project(EUPL 1.1+) developed for Python-3.6+ using WinPython & Anaconda under Windows 7, Anaconda under MacOS, and standard python environment & Anaconda under Linux. It runs either as a console command or as a desktop GUI application, and it uses Excel-files or pure python structures (dictionary and lists) for its input & output data.

Quick Start


Installing and using ALLINONE is the official procedure for running CO2MPAS for Type Approval (TA).

The quick-start below is just for evaluating the latest release.

You may find usage Guidelines in the wiki:

IF you are familiar with Python, AND IF you already have a full-blown python-3 environment (i.e. Linux or the ALLINONE archive), AND IF you have familiarity with previous releases, THEN you can immediately start working with the following bash commands; otherwise follow the detailed instructions under sections ref: co2mpas-install and ref: co2mpas-usage.

## Install co2mpas:
$ pip uninstall co2mpas
$ pip install co2mpas

## Create a template excel-file for inputs:
$ co2mpas template vehicle_1.xlsx

## Edit generated `./input/vehicle_1.xlsx` file. ##

## Launch GUI, select the edited template as Input, and click `Run`:
$ co2gui

And the GUI pops up:

Further command-line alternatives:

## To synchronize the Dyno and OBD data with the theoretical:
$ datasync template --cycle wltp.class3b template.xlsx
$ datasync -O ./output times velocities template.xlsx#ref! dyno obd -i alternator_currents=integral -i battery_currents=integral

## Run batch simulator.
$ co2mpas batch vehicle_1.xlsx -O output -f

## Inspect generated results inside `./output/`. ##

## Run type approval command.
$ co2mpas ta vehicle_1.xlsx -O output -f

## Start using the DICE command-line tool:
$ co2dice --help


The European Commission has introduced the WLTP as test procedure for the type I test of the European type-approval of Light-duty vehicles as of September 2017. Its introduction has required the adaptation of CO2 certification and monitoring procedures set by European regulations (443/2009, 510/2011, 1152/EUR/2017 and 1153/EUR/2017). European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) has been assigned the development of this vehicle simulator to facilitate this adaptation.

The European Regulation setting the conditions for using CO2MPAS can be found in the Comitology Register after its adoption by the Climate Change Committee which took place on June 23, 2016 and its 2nd vote for modifications, on April 27, 2017.

For recent activity, check the changes.


The European Commission (JRC) compiles and distributes 2 “packages”:

  1. the CO2MPAS python package,
  2. the ALLINONE archive (AIO).

CO2MPAS’s package licensing terms

Commission is the exclusive copyright holder of the first CO2MPAS package, and have set its licensing terms to the “copylefted” as EUPL, so it will remain for ever free.

EUPL license compatibility

EUPL is “eventually” compatible with all major open-source licenses, whether “permissive”[1] or “copylefted”[2], but usually EUPL must be applied on the resulting combination (one certain exception is the GPL family of licenses, where GPL takes precedence).

The ALLINONE archive contains many python libraries installed in its standard python -folder, (co2mpas_ALLINONE-XXX\Apps\WinPython\python-YYY.amd64\Lib\) so CO2MPAS only “links dynamically” to them. plus those manually installed by JRC when installing CO2MPAS in ALLINONE. We are certain that all of them are open-source and can be freely re-distributed.

ALLINONE archive’s licensing terms

The ALLINONE is a “fat” archive (~1.4GB when inflated) containing a myriad of 3rd-party applications and python packages (e.g. see folder co2mpas_ALLINONE-XXX\Apps\WinPython\python-YYY.amd64\Lib\). These applications comprise the ecosystem needed to launch CO2MPAS for official purposes. Different licenses apply to each application in ALLINONE, but have all been checked to be free for redistribution, with “permissive”[1] or “copylefted”[2] licenses.

A non-exhaustive list of python-libraries contained is listed in WinPython site

The ALLINONE contains also the MS redistributable (Apps/vc_redist.x64.exe file) which is explicitly exempted from the usual restrictive MS Licenses.


On Windows you may install the latest ALLINONE archive and ensure it contains (or upgrade to) the latest CO2MPAS python package; alternatively, you may install the developer version.


Installing and using ALLINONE is the official procedure for running CO2MPAS for Type Approval (TA).


  • These are the minimum IT requirements for the Computer to run CO2MPAS & DICE:
  • 64-bit Intel or AMD processor (x86_64, aka x64, aka AMD64);
  • Microsoft Windows 7, or later;
  • 4 GB RAM (more recommended);
  • 2.4 GB hard disk storage for extracting the software, more space for the input/output files;
  • Execution-rights to the installation folder (but no Admin-rights).
  • An e-mail account to send & receive DICE e-mails;
  • Unhindered SMTP access to this email-server (no firewall on ports 25, 465, 587); or access through SOCKS Proxy (see diagram below);
  • Unhindered HTTP/HTTPS web-access (no firewall on ports 80, 443); or access through HTTP Proxy;
  • (optional) Excel, to view & edit simulation’s input and output files;
  • (optional) GitHub account to submit and resolve issues.

All-In-One Installation under Windows

  • Download ALLINONE archive from (it only runs on 64bit PCs).


    Search in older releases if the latest does not contain an ALLINONE archive, and remember to upgrade CO2MPAS afterwords.

  • Use the original “7z” extractor, since “plain-zip” application produces out-of-memory errors when expanding long directories.


    Prefer to extract it in a folder without any spaces in its path.

  • Run INSTALL.vbs script contained in the root of the unzipped folder. It will install links for commons CO2MPAS tasks under your Windows Start-Menu.

  • You can start CO2MPAS from Windows start-menu by pressing the [WinKey] and start typing ‘co2mpas’, or by selecting the CO2MPAS menu item from All Programs.

    Alternatively, advanced users may continue to use the Console.


If you have downloaded an all-in-one from previous version of CO2MPAS you may upgrade CO2MPAS contained within. Follow the instructions in the “Upgrade” section, below.

Upgrade CO2MPAS

Uninstall and re-install it from the CO2MPAS CONSOLE:

pip uninstall co2mpas
pip install co2mpas


Don’t forget verify that the installed version is the correct one by checking the output of this command:

co2mpas -vV

Upgrade CO2MPAS in a corporate environment


This option has been retracted - please either download ALLINONE or just the wheel from and install it, asuming that no other dependencies have changed.

File Contents

RUN_CO2MPAS.bat            ## Asks for Input & Output folders, and runs CO2MPAS for all Excel-files in Input.
CONSOLE.bat                ## Open a python+MSYS2 enabled `cmd.exe` console.

co2mpas-env.bat            ## Sets env-vars for python+MSYS2 and launches arguments as new command
                           ## !!!!! DO NOT MODIFY !!!!! used by Windows StartMenu shortcuts.
bash-console.bat           ## Open a python+MSYS2 enabled `bash` console.

CO2MPAS/                   ## User's HOME directory containing release-files and tutorial-folders.
CO2MPAS/.*                 ## Configuration-files auto-generated by various programs, starting with dot(.).

Apps/MSYS2/                ## Distribution of the MSYS2 Unix-emulation environment (i.e. bash).
Apps/WinPython/            ## Python environment (co2mpas is pre-installed inside it).
Apps/Console2/             ## A versatile console-window supporting decent copy-paste.
Apps/graphviz/             ## Graph-plotting library (needed to generate model-plots).
Apps/gpg4win-2.3.3.exe     ## GPG cryptographic suite installer for Windows.
vc_redist.x64.exe          ## Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015
                           #  (KB2977003 Windows update, prerequisite for running Python-3.5+).
CO2MPAS_logo.ico           ## The logos used by the INSTALL.bat script.

README                     ## This file, with instructions on this pre-populated folder.

Generic Tips

  • You may freely move & copy this folder around. But prefer NOT TO HAVE SPACES IN THE PATH LEADING TO IT.

  • To view & edit textual files, such as .txt, .bat or config-files starting with dot(.), you may use the “ancient” Window notepad editor, but it will save you from a lot of trouble if you download and install notepad++ from: (no admin-rights needed).

    Even better if you combine it with the “gem” file-manager of the ’90s, TotalCommander, from (no admin-rights needed). From inside this file-manager, F3 key-shortcut views files.

  • The MSYS2 POSIX-environment and its accompanying bash-shell are a much better choice to give console-commands compare to cmd.exe prompt, supporting auto-completion for various commands (with [TAB] key) and enhanced history search (with [UP]/[DOWN] cursor-keys).

    There are MANY tutorials and crash-courses for bash:

  • The console automatically copies into clipboard anything that is selected with the mouse. In case of errors, copy and paste the offending commands and their error-messages to emails sent to JRC.

  • When a new CO2MPAS version comes out it is not necessary to download the full ALLINONE archive, but you choose instead to just upgrade co2mpas.

    Please follow the upgrade procedure in the main documentation.


The sections below constitute a “reference” for CO2MPAS - a tutorial is maintained in the wiki for this project at:


From “Rally” release, CO2MPAS can be launched through a Graphical User Interface (GUI). Its core functionality is provided from within the GUI. Just ensure that the latest version of CO2MPAS is properly installed, and that its version is the latest released, by checking the “About” menu, as shown in the animation, below:

Alternatively, open the CONSOLE and type the following command:

## Check co2mpas version.
$ co2mpas -V

CO2MPAS command syntax

To get the syntax of the CO2MPAS console-command, open a console where you have installed CO2MPAS (see ref: co2mpas-install above) and type:

## co2mpas help.
$ co2mpas --help

Predict NEDC CO2 emissions from WLTP.

:Copyright:    2015-2018 European Commission, JRC <>
:License:       EUPL 1.1+ <>

Use the `batch` sub-command to simulate a vehicle contained in an excel-file.

  co2mpas ta          [-f] [-v] [-O=<output-folder>] [<input-path>]...
  co2mpas batch       [-v | -q | --logconf=<conf-file>] [-f]
                      [--use-cache] [-O=<output-folder>]
                      [-D=<key=value>]... [<input-path>]...
  co2mpas demo        [-v | -q | --logconf=<conf-file>] [-f]
                      [<output-folder>] [--download]
  co2mpas template    [-v | -q | --logconf=<conf-file>] [-f]
                      [<excel-file-path> ...]
  co2mpas ipynb       [-v | -q | --logconf=<conf-file>] [-f] [<output-folder>]
  co2mpas modelgraph  [-v | -q | --logconf=<conf-file>] [-O=<output-folder>]
                      (--list | [--graph-depth=<levels>] [<models> ...])
  co2mpas modelconf   [-v | -q | --logconf=<conf-file>] [-f]
                      [--modelconf=<yaml-file>] [-O=<output-folder>]
  co2mpas gui         [-v | -q | --logconf=<conf-file>]
  co2mpas             [-v | -q | --logconf=<conf-file>] (--version | -V)
  co2mpas             --help

Syntax tip:
  The brackets `[ ]`, parens `( )`, pipes `|` and ellipsis `...` signify
  "optional", "required", "mutually exclusive", and "repeating elements";
  for more syntax-help see:

  <input-path>                Input xlsx-file or folder. Assumes current-dir if missing.
  -O=<output-folder>          Output folder or file [default: .].
  --download                  Download latest demo files from ALLINONE GitHub project.
  <excel-file-path>           Output file [default: co2mpas_template.xlsx].
  --modelconf=<yaml-file>     Path to a YAMmodel-configuration YAML file.
  --use-cache                 Use the cached input file.
  --override, -D=<key=value>  Input data overrides (e.g., `-D fuel_type=diesel`,
                              `-D prediction.nedc_h.vehicle_mass=1000`).
  -l, --list                  List available models.
  --graph-depth=<levels>      An integer to Limit the levels of sub-models plotted.
  -f, --force                 Overwrite output/template/demo excel-file(s).

Model flags (-D, example -D flag.engineering_mode=True):
 engineering_mode=<bool>     Use all data and not only the declaration data.
 soft_validation=<bool>      Relax some Input-data validations, to facilitate experimentation.
 use_selector=<bool>         Select internally the best model to predict both NEDC H/L cycles.
 only_summary=<bool>         Do not save vehicle outputs, just the summary.
 plot_workflow=<bool>        Open workflow-plot in browser, after run finished.
 output_template=<xlsx-file> Clone the given excel-file and appends results into
                             it. By default, results are appended into an empty
                             excel-file. Use `output_template=-` to use
                             input-file as template.

  -h, --help                  Show this help message and exit.
  -V, --version               Print version of the program, with --verbose
                              list release-date and installation details.
  -v, --verbose               Print more verbosely messages - overridden by --logconf.
  -q, --quiet                 Print less verbosely messages (warnings) - overridden by --logconf.
  --logconf=<conf-file>       Path to a logging-configuration file, according to:
                              If the file-extension is '.yaml' or '.yml', it reads a dict-schema from YAML:

    gui             Launches co2mpas GUI (DEPRECATED: Use `co2gui` command).
    ta              Simulate vehicle in type approval mode for all <input-path>
                    excel-files & folder. If no <input-path> given, reads all
                    excel-files from current-dir. It reads just the declaration
                    inputs, if it finds some extra input will raise a warning
                    and will not produce any result.
                    Read this for explanations of the param names:
    batch           Simulate vehicle in scientific mode for all <input-path>
                    excel-files & folder. If no <input-path> given, reads all
                    excel-files from current-dir. By default reads just the
                    declaration inputs and skip the extra inputs. Thus, it will
                    produce always a result. To read all inputs the flag
                    `engineering_mode` have to be set to True.
                    Read this for explanations of the param names:
    demo            Generate demo input-files for co2mpas inside <output-folder>.
    template        Generate "empty" input-file for the `batch` cmd as <excel-file-path>.
    ipynb           Generate IPython notebooks inside <output-folder>; view them with cmd:
                      jupyter --notebook-dir=<output-folder>
    modelgraph      List or plot available models. If no model(s) specified, all assumed.
    modelconf       Save a copy of all model defaults in yaml format.


    # Don't enter lines starting with `#`.

    # View full version specs:
    co2mpas -vV

    # Create an empty vehicle-file inside `input` folder:
    co2mpas  template  input/vehicle_1.xlsx

    # Create work folders and then fill `input` with sample-vehicles:
    md input output
    co2mpas  demo  input

    # View a specific submodel on your browser:
    co2mpas  modelgraph  co2mpas.model.physical.wheels.wheels

    # Run co2mpas with batch cmd plotting the workflow:
    co2mpas  batch  input  -O output  -D flag.plot_workflow=True

    # Run co2mpas with ta cmd:
    co2mpas  batch  input/co2mpas_demo-0.xlsx  -O output

    # or launch the co2mpas GUI:

    # View all model defaults in yaml format:
    co2mpas modelconf -O output

Input template

The sub-commands batch (Run) and ta (Run TA) accept either a single input-excel-file or a folder with multiple input-files for each vehicle. You can download an empty input excel-file from the GUI:

Or you can create an empty vehicle template-file (e.g., vehicle_1.xlsx) inside the input-folder with the template sub-command:

$ co2mpas template input/vehicle_1.xlsx -f
Creating TEMPLATE INPUT file 'input/vehicle_1.xlsx'...

The generated file contains descriptions to help you populate it with vehicle data. For items where an array of values is required (e.g. gear-box ratios) you may reference different parts of the spreadsheet following the syntax of the “xlref” mini-language.


For an explanation of the naming of the fields, read the ref: excel-model section

Demo files

The simulator contains demo-files that are a nice starting point to try out. You can generate those demo vehicles from the GUI:

Or you can create the demo files inside the input-folder with the demo sub-command:

$ co2mpas demo input -f
17:57:43       : INFO:co2mpas_main:Creating INPUT-DEMO file 't\co2mpas_demo-1.xlsx'...
17:57:43       : INFO:co2mpas_main:Creating INPUT-DEMO file 't\co2mpas_simplan.xlsx'...
17:57:43       : INFO:co2mpas_main:Run generated demo-files with command:
    co2mpas batch t

You may find more demos inside `CO2MPAS/Demos` folder of your ALLINONE.

Demo description

The generated demos above, along with those inside the CO2MPAS/Demos AIO-folder have the following characteristics:

id AT WLTPcalib S/S BERS NEDCtarg plan NEDC-error metadata
0   X       X       X
1 X   X       X     X
2   X   X X X        
3   X   X   X        
4 X   X   X   X      
5   X     X X        
6 X X   X   X     4.0 (> 4%)  
7 X X   X X X     -5.65  
8   X X     X X      
9 X X   X X X        
simplan   X       X   X    

Synchronizing time-series

The model might fail in case your time-series signals are time-shifted and/or with different sampling rates. Even if the run succeeds, the results will not be accurate enough, because the data are not synchronized with the theoretical cycle.

As an aid tool, you may use the datasync tool to “synchronize” and “resample” your data, which have been acquired from different sources.

To get the syntax of the datasync console-command, open a console where you have installed CO2MPAS and type:

> datasync --help
Shift and resample excel-tables; see

  datasync template [-f] [--cycle <cycle>] <excel-file-path>...
  datasync          [-v | -q | --logconf=<conf-file>] [--force | -f]
                    [--interp <method>] [--no-clone] [--prefix-cols]
                    [-O <output>] <x-label> <y-label> <ref-table>
                    [<sync-table> ...] [-i=<label=interp> ...]
  datasync          [-v | -q | --logconf=<conf-file>] (--version | -V)
  datasync          (--interp-methods | -l)
  datasync          --help

  <x-label>              Column-name of the common x-axis (e.g. 'times') to be
                         re-sampled if needed.
  <y-label>              Column-name of y-axis cross-correlated between all
                         <sync-table> and <ref-table>.
  <ref-table>            The reference table, in *xl-ref* notation (usually
                         given as `file#sheet!`); synced columns will be
                         appended into this table.
                         The captured table must contain <x_label> & <y_label>
                         as column labels.
                         If hash(`#`) symbol missing, assumed as file-path and
                         the table is read from its 1st sheet .
  <sync-table>           Sheets to be synced in relation to <ref-table>, also in
                         *xl-ref* notation.
                         All tables must contain <x_label> & <y_label> as column
                         Each xlref may omit file or sheet-name parts; in that
                         case, those from the previous xlref(s) are reused.
                         If hash(`#`) symbol missing, assumed as sheet-name.
                         If none given, all non-empty sheets of <ref-table> are
                         synced against the 1st one.
  -O=<output>            Output folder or file path to write the results
                         [default: .]:

                         - Non-existent path: taken as the new file-path; fails
                           if intermediate folders do not exist, unless --force.
                         - Existent file: file-path to overwrite if --force,
                           fails otherwise.
                         - Existent folder: writes a new file
                           `<ref-file>.sync<.ext>` in that folder; --force
                           required if that file exists.

  -f, --force            Overwrite excel-file(s) and create any missing
                         intermediate folders.
  --prefix-cols          Prefix all synced column names with their source
                         sheet-names. By default, only clashing column-names are
  --no-clone             Do not clone excel-sheets contained in <ref-table>
                         workbook into output.
  --interp=<method>      Interpolation method used in the resampling for all
                         signals [default: linear]:
                         'linear', 'nearest', 'zero', 'slinear', 'quadratic',
                         'cubic' are passed to `scipy.interpolate.interp1d`.
                         'spline' and 'polynomial' require also to specify an
                         order (int), e.g. `--interp=spline3`.
                         'pchip' and 'akima' are wrappers around the scipy
                         interpolation methods of similar names.
                         'integral' is respecting the signal integral.

  -i=<label=interp>      Interpolation method used in the resampling for a
                         signal with a specific label
                         (e.g., `-i alternator_currents=integral`).
  -l, --interp-methods   List of all interpolation methods that can be used in
                         the resampling.
  --cycle=<cycle>        If set (e.g., --cycle=nedc.manual), the <ref-table> is
                         populated with the theoretical velocity profile.
                         Options: 'nedc.manual', 'nedc.automatic',
                         'wltp.class1', 'wltp.class2', 'wltp.class3a', and

  <excel-file-path>      Output file.

  -h, --help             Show this help message and exit.
  -V, --version          Print version of the program, with --verbose
                         list release-date and installation details.
  -v, --verbose          Print more verbosely messages - overridden by --logconf.
  -q, --quiet            Print less verbosely messages (warnings) - overridden by --logconf.
  --logconf=<conf-file>  Path to a logging-configuration file, according to:
                         If the file-extension is '.yaml' or '.yml', it reads a dict-schema from YAML:

* For xl-refs see:

    template             Generate "empty" input-file for the `datasync` cmd as


    ## Read the full contents from all `wbook.xlsx` sheets as tables and
    ## sync their columns using the table from the 1st sheet as reference:
    datasync times velocities folder/Book.xlsx

    ## Sync `Sheet1` using `Sheet3` as reference:
    datasync times velocities wbook.xlsx#Sheet3!  Sheet1!

    ## The same as above but with integers used to index excel-sheets.
    ## NOTE that sheet-indices are zero based!
    datasync times velocities wbook.xlsx#2! 0

    ## Complex Xlr-ref example:
    ## Read the table in sheet2 of wbook-2 starting at D5 cell
    ## or more Down 'n Right if that was empty, till Down n Right,
    ## and sync this based on 1st sheet of wbook-1:
    datasync times velocities wbook-1.xlsx  wbook-2.xlsx#0!D5(DR):..(DR)

    ## Typical usage for CO2MPAS velocity time-series from Dyno and OBD
    ## (the ref sheet contains the theoretical velocity profile):
    datasync template --cycle wltp.class3b template.xlsx
    datasync -O ./output times velocities template.xlsx#ref! dyno obd -i alternator_currents=integral -i battery_currents=integral

Datasync input template

The sub-command datasync accepts a single input-excel-file. You can download an empty input excel-file from the GUI or you can use the template sub-command:

Or you can create an empty datasync template-file (e.g., datasync.xlsx) inside the sync-folder with the template sub-command:

$ datasync template sync/datasync.xlsx --cycle wltp.class3b -f
2016-11-14 17:14:00,919: INFO:__main__:Creating INPUT-TEMPLATE file 'sync/datasync.xlsx'...

All sheets must share 2 common columns times and velocities (for datasync cmd are <x-label> and <y-label>). These describe the reference signal that is used to synchronize the data.

The ref sheet (<ref-table>) is considered to contain the “theoretical” profile, while other sheets (dyno and obd, i.e. <sync-table> for datasync cmd) contains the data to synchronize and resample.

Run datasync

Fill the dyno and obd sheet with the raw data. Then, you can synchronize the data, using the GUI as follows:

Or you can synchronize the data with the datasync command:

datasync times velocities template.xlsx#ref! dyno obd -i alternator_currents=integral -i battery_currents=integral


The synchronized signals are added to the reference sheet (e.g., ref).

  • synchronization is based on the fourier transform;
  • resampling is performed with a specific interpolation method.

All tables are read from excel-sheets using the xl-ref syntax.

Run batch

The default sub-command (batch) accepts either a single input-excel-file or a folder with multiple input-files for each vehicle, and generates a summary-excel-file aggregating the major result-values from these vehicles, and (optionally) multiple output-excel-files for each vehicle run.

To run all demo-files (note, it might take considerable time), you can use the GUI as follows:


the file co2mpas_simplan.xlsx has the flag.engineering_mode set to True, because it contains a “simulation-plan” with non declaration data.

Or you can run CO2MPAS with the batch sub-command:

$ co2mpas batch input -O output
2016-11-15 17:00:31,286: INFO:co2mpas_main:Processing ['../input'] --> '../output'...
  0%|          | 0/11 [00:00<?, ?it/s]: Processing ../input\co2mpas_demo-0.xlsx
Done! [527.420557 sec]


For demonstration purposes, some some of the actual models will fail; check the summary file.

Run Type-Approval (ta) command

The Type Approval command simulates the NEDC fuel consumption and CO2 emission of the given vehicle using just the required declaration inputs (marked as compulsory inputs in input file version >= 2.2.5) and produces an NEDC prediction. If CO2MPAS finds some extra input it will raise a warning and it will not produce any result. The type approval command is the CO2MPAS running mode that is fully aligned to the WLTP-NEDC correlation Regulation.

The sub-command ta accepts either a single input-excel-file or a folder with multiple input-files for each vehicle, and generates a summary-excel-file aggregating the major result-values from these vehicles, and multiple output-excel-files for each vehicle run.


The user can insert just the input files and the output folder.

To run the type approval command you can use the GUI as follows:

Or you can run CO2MPAS with the ta sub-command:

$ co2mpas ta input -O output
2016-11-15 17:00:31,286: INFO:co2mpas_main:Processing ['../input'] --> '../output'...
  0%|          | 0/1 [00:00<?, ?it/s]: Processing ../input\co2mpas_demo-0.xlsx
Done! [51.6874 sec]

Output files

The output-files produced on each run are the following:

  • One file per vehicle, named as <timestamp>-<inp-fname>.xls: This file contains all inputs and calculation results for each vehicle contained in the batch-run: scalar-parameters and time series for target, calibration and prediction phases, for all cycles. In addition, the file contains all the specific submodel-functions that generated the results, a comparison summary, and information on the python libraries installed on the system (for investigating reproducibility issues).
  • A Summary-file named as <timestamp>-summary.xls: Major CO2 emissions values, optimized CO2 parameters values and success/fail flags of CO2MPAS submodels for all vehicles in the batch-run.

Custom output xl-files as templates

You may have defined customized xl-files for summarizing time-series and scalar parameters. To have CO2MPAS fill those “output-template” files with its results, execute it with the -D flag.output_template=file/path.xlsx option.

To create/modify one output-template yourself, do the following:

  1. Open a typical CO2MPAS output-file for some vehicle.

  2. Add one or more sheets and specify/referring CO2MPAS result-data using named-ranges.


    Do not use simple/absolute excel references (e.g. =B2). Use excel functions (indirect, lookup, offset, etc.) and array-functions together with string references to the named ranges (e.g. =indirect("!_co2_emission_value")).

  3. (Optional) Delete the old sheets and save your file.

  4. Use that file together with the -D flag.output_template=file/path.xlsx argument.

Simulation plan

It is possible to launch CO2MPAS once, and have it run the model multiple times, with variations on the input-data, all contained in a single (or more) input file(s).

The data for base model are contained in the regular sheets, and any variations are provided in additional sheets which names starting with the plan. prefix. These sheets must contain a table where each row is a single simulation, while the columns names are the parameters that the user want to vary. The columns of these tables can contain the following special names:

  • id: Identifies the variation id.
  • base: this is a file path of a CO2MPAS excel input, this model will be used as new base vehicle.
  • run_base: this is a boolean. If true the base model results are computed and stored, otherwise the data are just loaded.

You can use the GUI as follows:


the file co2mpas_simplan.xlsx has the flag.engineering_mode set to True, because it contains a “simulation-plan” with non declaration data.

Or you can run CO2MPAS with the batch sub-command:

$ co2mpas batch input/co2mpas_simplan.xlsx -O output
2016-11-15 17:00:31,286: INFO:co2mpas_main:Processing ['../input/co2mpas_simplan.xlsx'] --> '../output'...
  0%|          | 0/4 [00:00<?, ?it/s]: Processing ../input\co2mpas_simplan.xlsx
Done! [180.4692 sec]

Launch CO2MPAS from Jupyter(aka IPython)

You may enter the data for a single vehicle and run its simulation, plot its results and experiment in your browser using IPython.

The usage pattern is similar to “demos” but requires to have ipython installed:

  1. Ensure ipython with notebook “extra” is installed:


    This step requires too many libraries to provide as standalone files, so unless you have it already installed, you will need a proper http-connectivity to the standard python-repo.

    $ pip install ipython[notebook]
    Installing collected packages: ipython[notebook]
    Successfully installed ipython-x.x.x notebook-x.x.x
  2. Then create the demo ipython-notebook(s) into some folder (i.e. assuming the same setup from above, tutorial/input):

    $ pwd                     ## Check our current folder (``cd`` alone for Windows).
    $ co2mpas ipynb ./input
  3. Start-up the server and open a browser page to run the vehicle-simulation:

    $ ipython notebook ./input
  4. A new window should open to your default browser (AVOID IEXPLORER) listing the simVehicle.ipynb notebook (and all the demo xls-files). Click on the *.ipynb file to “load” the notebook in a new tab.

    The results are of a simulation run already pre-generated for this notebook but you may run it yourself again, by clicking the menu:

    "menu" --> `Cell` --> `Run All`

    And watch it as it re-calculates cell by cell.

  5. You may edit the python code on the cells by selecting them and clicking Enter (the frame should become green), and then re-run them, with Ctrl + Enter.

    Navigate your self around by taking the tutorial at:

    "menu" --> `Help` --> `User Interface Tour`

    And study the example code and diagrams.

  6. When you have finished, return to the console and issue twice Ctrl + C to shutdown the ipython-server.

Debugging and investigating results

  • Make sure that you have installed graphviz, and when running the simulation, append also the -D flag.plot_workflow=True option.

    $ co2mpas batch bad-file.xlsx -D flag.plot_workflow=True

    A browser tab will open at the end with the nodes processed.

  • Use the modelgraph sub-command to plot the offending model (or just out of curiosity). For instance:

    $ co2mpas modelgraph co2mpas.model.physical.wheels.wheels

    code-block:: co2mpas

    code-block:: d
    alt:Flow-diagram Wheel-to-Engine speed ratio calculations.
    >>> import co2mpas
    >>> d = co2mpas.model.physical.wheels.wheels()
  • Inspect the functions mentioned in the workflow and models and search them in CO2MPAS documentation ensuring you are visiting the documents for the actual version you are using.


Execution Model

The execution of CO2MPAS model for a single vehicle is a stepwise procedure of 3 stages: precondition, calibration, and prediction. These are invoked repeatedly, and subsequently combined, for the various cycles, as shown in the “active” flow-diagram of the execution, below:

code-block:: co2mpas

code-block:: dsp
alt:Flow-diagram of the execution of various Stages and Cycles sub-models.
>>> import co2mpas
>>> dsp = co2mpas.model.model()


The models in the diagram are nested; explore by clicking on them.

  1. Precondition: identifies the initial state of the vehicle by running a preconditioning WLTP cycle, before running the WLTP-H and WLTP-L cycles. The inputs are defined by the input.precondition.wltp_p node, while the outputs are stored in output.precondition.wltp_p.
  2. Calibration: the scope of the stage is to identify, calibrate and select (see next sections) the best physical models from the WLTP-H and WLTP-L inputs (input.calibration.wltp_x). If some of the inputs needed to calibrate the physical models are not provided (e.g. initial_state_of_charge), the model will select the missing ones from precondition-stage’s outputs (output.precondition.wltp_p). Note that all data provided in input.calibration.wltp_x overwrite those in output.precondition.wltp_p.
  3. Prediction: executed for the NEDC and as well as for the WLTP-H and WLTP-L cycles. All predictions use the calibrated_models. The inputs to predict the cycles are defined by the user in nodes. If some or all inputs for the prediction of WLTP-H and WLTP-L cycles are not provided, the model will select from `output.calibration.wltp_x nodes a minimum set required to predict CO2 emissions.

Excel input: data naming conventions

This section describes the data naming convention used in the CO2MPAS template (.xlsx file). In it, the names used as sheet-names, parameter-names and column-names are “sensitive”, in the sense that they construct a data-values tree which is then fed into into the simulation model as input. These names are split in “parts”, as explained below with examples:

  • sheet-names parts:

                └┬─┘ └─┬─┘ └────┬─────┘ └─┬──┘ └┬┘
    scope────────┘     │        │         │     │
    usage──────────────┘        │         │     │
    stage───────────────────────┘         │     │
    cycle─────────────────────────────────┘     │

    First 4 parts above are optional, but at least one of them must be present on a sheet-name; those parts are then used as defaults for all parameter-names contained in that sheet. type is optional and specify the type of sheet.

  • parameter-names/columns-names parts:

                   └┬─┘ └─┬─┘ └────┬────┘ └──────────┬──────────┘ └──┬─┘
    scope(optional)─┘     │        │                 │               │
    usage(optional)───────┘        │                 │               │
    stage(optional)────────────────┘                 │               │
    parameter────────────────────────────────────────┘               │

    OR with the last 2 parts reversed:

                                         └──┬─┘ └──────────┬──────────┘
    cycle(optional)─────────────────────────┘              │


  • The dot(.) may be replaced by space.
  • The usage and stage parts may end with an s, denoting plural, and are not case-insensitive, e.g. Inputs.

Description of the name-parts

  1. scope:

    • base [default]: values provided by the user as input to CO2MPAS.
    • plan: values selected (see previous section) to calibrate the models and to predict the CO2 emission.
    • flag: values provided by the user as input to run_base and run_plan models.
    • meta: values provided by the user as meta data of the vehicle test.
  2. usage:

    • input [default]: values provided by the user as input to CO2MPAS.
    • data: values selected (see previous section) to calibrate the models and to predict the CO2 emission.
    • output: CO2MPAS precondition, calibration, and prediction results.
    • target: reference-values (NOT USED IN CALIBRATION OR PREDICTION) to be compared with the CO2MPAS results. This comparison is performed in the report sub-model by compare_outputs_vs_targets() function.
    • config: values provided by the user that modify the model_selector.
  3. stage:

    • precondition [imposed when: wltp-p is specified as cycle]: data related to the precondition stage.
    • calibration [default]: data related to the calibration stage.
    • prediction [imposed when: nedc is specified as cycle]: data related to the prediction stage.
    • selector: data related to the model selection stage.
  4. cycle:

    • nedc-h: data related to the NEDC High cycle.
    • nedc-l: data related to the NEDC Low cycle.
    • wltp-h: data related to the WLTP High cycle.
    • wltp-l: data related to the WLTP Low cycle.
    • wltp-precon: data related to the preconditioning WLTP cycle.
    • wltp-p: is a shortcut of wltp-precon.
    • nedc [default]: is a shortcut to set values for both nedc-h and nedc-l cycles.
    • wltp [default]: is a shortcut to set values for both wltp-h and wltp-l cycles.
    • all: is a shortcut to set values for nedc, wltp, and wltp-p cycles.
  5. param: any data node name (e.g. vehicle_mass) used in the physical model.

  6. sheet_type: there are three sheet types, which are parsed according to their contained data:

    • pl [parsed range is #A1:__]: table of scalar and time-depended values used into the simulation plan as variation from the base model.
    • pa [parsed range is #B2:C_]: scalar or not time-depended values (e.g. r_dynamic, gear_box_ratios, full_load_speeds).
    • ts [parsed range is #A2:__]: time-depended values (e.g. times, velocities, gears). Columns without values are skipped. COLUMNS MUST HAVE THE SAME LENGTH!
    ..note:: If it is not defined, the default value follows these rules:

    When scope is plan, the sheet is parsed as pl. If scope is base and cycle is missing in the sheet-name, the sheet is parsed as pa, otherwise it is parsed as ts.

Calibrated Physical Models

There are potentially eight models calibrated from input scalar-values and time-series (see reference):

  1. AT_model,
  2. electric_model,
  3. clutch_torque_converter_model,
  4. co2_params,
  5. engine_cold_start_speed_model,
  6. engine_coolant_temperature_model,
  7. engine_speed_model, and
  8. start_stop_model.

Each model is calibrated separately over WLTP_H and WLTP_L. A model can contain one or several functions predicting different quantities. For example, the electric_model contains the following functions/data:

  • alternator_current_model,
  • alternator_status_model,
  • electric_load,
  • max_battery_charging_current,
  • start_demand.

These functions/data are calibrated/estimated based on the provided input (in the particular case: alternator current, battery current, and initial SOC) over both cycles, assuming that data for both WLTP_H and WLTP_L are provided.


The co2_params model has a third possible calibration configuration (so called ALL) using data from both WLTP_H and WLTP_L combined (when both are present).

Model selection


Since v1.4.1-Rally, this part of the model remains disabled, unless the flag.use_selector is true.

For the type approval mode the selection is fixed. The criteria is to select the models calibrated from WLTP_H to predict WLTP_H and NEDC_H; and from WLTP_L to predict WLTP_L and NEDC_L.

While for the engineering mode the automatic selection can be enabled adding -D flag.use_selector=True to the batch command. Then to select which is the best calibration (from WLTP_H or WLTP_L or ALL) to be used in the prediction phase, the results of each stage are compared against the provided input data (used in the calibration). The calibrated models are THEN used to recalculate (predict) the inputs of the WLTP_H and WLTP_L cycles. A score (weighted average of all computed metrics) is attributed to each calibration of each model as a result of this comparison.


The overall score attributed to a specific calibration of a model is the average score achieved when compared against each one of the input cycles (WLTP_H and WLTP_L).

For example, the score of electric_model calibrated based on WLTP_H when predicting WLTP_H is 20, and when predicting WLTP_L is 14. In this case the overall score of the the electric_model calibrated based on WLTP_H is 17. Assuming that the calibration of the same model over WLTP_L was 18 and 12 respectively, this would give an overall score of 15.

In this case the second calibration (WLTP_L) would be chosen for predicting the NEDC.

In addition to the above, a success flag is defined according to upper or lower limits of scores which have been defined empirically by the JRC. If a model fails these limits, priority is then given to a model that succeeds, even if it has achieved a worse score.

The following table describes the scores, targets, and metrics for each model:

Developers Installation

Python Installation

If you already have a suitable python-3 installation with all scientific packages updated to their latest versions, you may skip this 1st stage.


Installing Python under Windows:

The program requires CPython-3, and depends on numpy, scipy, pandas, sklearn and matplotlib packages, which depend on C-native backends and need a C-compiler to install from sources.

In Windows it is strongly suggested NOT to install the standard CPython distribution that comes up first(!) when you google for “python windows”, unless you are an experienced python-developer, and you know how to hunt down pre-compiled dependencies from the PyPi repository and/or from the Unofficial Windows Binaries for Python Extension Packages.

Therefore we suggest that you download one of the following two scientific-python distributions:

Install WinPython

  1. Install the latest python-3.4+ 64 bit from WinPython Prefer an installation-folder without any spaces leading to it.

  2. Open the WinPython’s command-prompt console, by locating the folder where you just installed it and run (double-click) the following file:

    <winpython-folder>\"WinPython Command Prompt.exe"
  3. In the console-window check that you have the correct version of WinPython installed, and expect a similar response:

    > python -V
    Python 3.4.3
    REM Check your python is indeed where you installed it.
    > where python
  4. Use this console and follow ref: co2mpas-install-package instructions, below.

Install Anaconda

The Anaconda distribution is a non-standard Python environment that for Windows containing all the scientific packages we need, and much more. It is not update-able, and has a semi-regular release-cycle of 3 months.

  1. Install Anaconda python-3.4+ 64 bit from Prefer an installation-folder without any spaces leading to it.


    When asked by the installation wizard, ensure that Anaconda gets to be registered as the default python-environment for the user’s account.

  2. Open a Windows command-prompt console:

    "windows start button" --> `cmd.exe`
  3. In the console-window check that you have the correct version of Anaconda-python installed, by typing:

    > python -V
    Python 3.4.3 :: Anaconda 2.3.0 (64-bit)
    REM Check your python is indeed where you installed it.
    > where python
  4. Use this console and follow ref: co2mpas-install-package instructions, below.

Install CO2MPAS package

  1. Install CO2MPAS executable internally into your python-environment with the following console-commands (there is no prob if the 1st uninstall command fails):

    > pip uninstall co2mpas
    > pip install co2mpas
    Collecting co2mpas
    Installing collected packages: co2mpas
    Successfully installed co2mpas-2.0.0


    Installation failures:

    The previous step require http-connectivity for pip command to Python’s “standard” repository ( In case you are behind a corporate proxy, you may try one of the methods described in section Alternative installation methods, below.

    If all methods to install CO2MPAS fail, re-run pip command adding extra verbose flags -vv, copy-paste the console-output, and report it to JRC.

  2. Check that when you run CO2MPAS, the version executed is indeed the one installed above (check both version-identifiers and paths):

    > co2mpas -vV
    co2mpas_version: 2.0.0
    co2mpas_rel_date: 2018-08-31T14:22:45.237546
    co2mpas_path: d:\co2mpas_ALLINONE-64bit-v1.4.1\Apps\WinPython\python-3.4.3\lib\site-packages\co2mpas
    python_path: D:\co2mpas_ALLINONE-64bit-v1.4.1\WinPython\python-3.4.3
    python_version: 3.4.3 (v3.4.3:9b73f1c3e601, Feb 24 2015, 22:44:40) [MSC v.1600 XXX]
    PATH: D:\co2mpas_ALLINONE-64bit-v1.4.1\WinPython...


    The above procedure installs the latest CO2MPAS, which might be more up-to-date than the version described here!

    In that case you can either:

    1. Visit the documents for the newer version actually installed.
    2. “Pin” the exact version you wish to install with a pip command (see section below).

Install extras

Internally CO2MPAS uses an algorithmic scheduler to execute model functions. In order to visualize the design-time models and run-time workflows you need to install the Graphviz visualization library from:

If you skip this step, the modelgraph sub-command and the --plot-workflow option would both fail to run (see ref: co2mpas-debug).

Upgrade CO2MPAS (with internet connectivity)

  1. Uninstall (see below) and re-install it.

Uninstall CO2MPAS

To uninstall CO2MPAS type the following command, and confirm it with y:

> pip uninstall co2mpas
Uninstalling co2mpas-<installed-version>
Proceed (y/n)?

Re-run the command again, to make sure that no dangling installations are left over; disregard any errors this time.

Alternative installation methods

You may get multiple versions of CO2MPAS, from various places, but all require the use of pip command from a console to install:


In all cases below, remember to uninstall CO2MPAS if it’s already installed.

Remember also to store the installation logs with the -v --log options, particularly if you install a specific version from GitHub

  • Latest STABLE: use the default pip described command above.

  • Latest PRE-RELEASE: append the --pre option in the pip command.

  • Specific version: modify the pip command like that, with optionally appending --pre:

    pip install co2mpas==1.0.1 --process-dependency-links ... # Other options, like above.
  • Specific branch from the GitHub-sources:

    pip install -v log pip.log git+ --process-dependency-links
  • Specific commit from the GitHub-sources:

    pip install -v log pip.log git+ --process-dependency-links
  • Speed-up download: append the --use-mirrors option in the pip command.

  • (for all of the above) When you are behind an http-proxy: append an appropriately adapted option --proxy http://user:password@yourProxyUrl:yourProxyPort.


    To avert any security deliberations for this http-proxy “tunnel”, JRC cryptographically signs all final releases with one of those keys: - GPG key ID: 9CF277C40A8A1B08 form @ankostis - GPG key ID: 1831F9C2294A33CC for @vinci1it2000

    Your IT staff may validate their authenticity and detect man-in-the-middle attacks, however impossible.

  • (for all of the above) Without internet connectivity or when the above proxy cmd fails:

    1. Use an existing Python-3.5 environment; that might be an older ALLINONE, WinPython, Anaconda or Linux’s standard python environment.

    2. With with a “regular” browser and when connected to the Internet, pre-download locally and unzip the respective co2mpas_DEPENDENCIES-vX.X.XXX.7z file from the latest ALLINONE release (e.g. This archive contains all the dependent packages of CO2MPAS.

    3. Install CO2MPAS, referencing the above folder. Assuming that you unzipped the packages in the folder path/to/co2mpas_packages, use a console-command like this:

      pip install co2mpas  --no-index  -f path/to/co2mpas_packages --process-dependency-links

Install Multiple versions in parallel

In order to run and compare results from different CO2MPAS versions, you may use virtualenv command.

The virtualenv command creates isolated python-environments (“children-venvs”) where in each one you can install a different versions of CO2MPAS.


The virtualenv command does NOT run under the conda python-environment. Use the conda command in similar manner to create child conda-environments instead.

  1. Ensure virtualenv command installed in your “parent” python-environment, i.e the “WinPython” you use:

    > pip install virtualenv


    The pip command above has to run only once for each parent python-env. If virtualenv is already installed, pip will exit gracefully.

  2. Ensure CO2MPAS uninstalled in your parent-env:

    > pip uninstall co2mpas


    It is important for the “parent” python-env NOT to have CO2MPAS installed! The reason is that you must set “children venvs” to inherit all packages installed on their “parent” (i.e. numpy and pandas), and you cannot update any inherited package from within a child-env.

  3. Move to the folder where you want your “venvs” to reside and create the “venv” with this command:

    > virtualenv --system-site-packages co2mpas_v1.0.1.venv

    The --system-site-packages option instructs the child-venv to inherit all “parent” packages (numpy, pandas).

    Select a venv’s name to signify the version it will contains, e.g. co2mpas_v1.0.1.venv. The .venv at the end is not required, it is just for tagging the venv folders.

  4. “Activate” the new “venv” by running the following command (notice the dot(.) at the begining of the command):

    > .\co2mpas_v1.0.1.venv\Scripts\activate.bat

    Or type this in bash:

    $ source co2mpas_v1.0.1.venv\Scripts\activate.bat

    You must now see that your prompt has been prefixed with the venv’s name.

  1. Install the CO2MPAS version you want inside the activated venv. See the ref: co2mpas-install-package section, above.


    Always store the installation logs, particularly if you install a specific version from GitHub:

    pip install -v log pip.log ...  ## co2mpas specifiers follows here...

    Don’t forget afterwards to check that what you get when running CO2MPAS is what you installed.

  2. To “deactivate” the active venv, type:

    > deactivate

    The prompt-prefix with the venv-name should now dissappear. And if you try to invoke CO2MPAS, it should fail.


  • Repeat steps 2–>5 to create venvs for different versions of co2mpas.
  • Use steps (6: Activate) and (9: Deactivate) to switch between different venvs.


In order to press [Tab] and get completions, do the following in your environment (ALLINONE is pre-configured with them):

  • For the Clink environment, on cmd.exe, add the following lua script inside clink’s profile folder: clink/profile/co2mpas_autocompletion.lua

    --[[ clink-autocompletion for CO2MPAS
    local handle = io.popen('co2mpas-autocompletions')
    words_str = handle:read("*a")
    function words_generator(prefix, first, last)
        local cmd = 'co2mpas'
        local prefix_len = #prefix
        --print('P:'..prefix..', F:'..first..', L:'..last..', l:'..rl_state.line_buffer)
        if prefix_len == 0 or rl_state.line_buffer:sub(1, cmd:len()) ~= cmd then
            return false
        for w in string.gmatch(words_str, "%S+") do
            -- Add matching app-words.
            if w:sub(1, prefix_len) == prefix then
            -- Add matching files & dirs.
            full_path = true
            nf = clink.match_files(prefix..'*', full_path)
            if nf > 0 then
        return clink.match_count() > 0
    sort_id = 100
  • For the bash shell just add this command in your ~/.bashrc (or type it every time you open a new console):

    complete -fdev -W "`co2mpas-autocompletions`" co2mpas

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