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# Convergent Encryption Overview

This module implements convergent encryption and generation of an id derived from the plaintext.

# Requirements

This module depends on the availability of either [pycryptopp][] or [pycrypto][] as provider of the AES-256 block cipher. This dependency must be resolved manually. By default it uses pycryptopp (as that seemed to be a bit faster in our tests) and falls back to pycrypto if the first one is not available.

# Usage and API

## convergent.SHA256d

SHA-256 extension against length-extension-attacks as defined by Schneier and Fergusson. Basically just sha256(sha256(data))

>>> from convergent import SHA256d
>>> s = SHA256d()
>>> s.update("Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet")
>>> s.digest()
"\xa1\xdbyA\x04\xf5\xa6S'1\xe7\xa0\xf3\xfd9\x07y2\xa3\xb9x\xcc\x9e%\x0f %\x9d\xa9\x00\xda\xd4"
>>> s.hexdigest()
'a1db794104f5a6532731e7a0f3fd39077932a3b978cc9e250f20259da900dad4'

## convergent.ConvergentEncryption

Convergent encryption using SHA256d and AES-256 CTR with added security and block id generation for deduplicated content addressable storage.

Example encrypting the lorem ipsum[^1]:

>>> from convergent import ConvergentEncryption
>>> c1 = ConvergentEncryption("hard to guess secret")
>>> key, blockid, ciphertext = c1.encrypt(lorem)
>>> len(lorem) == len(ciphertext)
True
>>> c2 = ConvergentEncryption()
>>> plain_text = c2.decrypt(key, ciphertext)
>>> plain_text == lorem
True

### convergent.ConvergentEncryption(secret, warn)

secret: an optional secret string that guards against confirmation-of-a-file attack and learn-partial-information attack. The secret is not needed for successfull decryption but only to verify if the decryption process was successfull.

warn: True by default, sends a warning message to the logging system if no secret was given. Only one log message per process is logged.

### convergent.ConvergentEncryption.set_convergence_secret(secret)

secret: See secret above. Used to set the secret if the class is used as a mix-in. The secret can only be set once.

Returns nothing

Raises convergent.CryptError if the secret was already set.

### convergent.ConvergentEncryption.encrypt(data)

Encrypts the string data.

Returns a tuple of three: the encryption key (needed for decryption), a block id and the encrypted data.

### convergent.ConvergentEncryption.decrypt(key, ciphertext, verify=False)

Decrypts the ciphertext using key. If verify is true and the convergence secret was set the decrypted plain text is verified and convergent.CryptError raised if the decryption process was not successfull.

### convergent.encrypt_key(key, nonce, data)

Convenience function. En- or decrypts data using a one time key calculated from key and nonce.

Nonce may become publicly known but must only be used once or else the system becomes insecure.

Example:

>>> import os, convergent
>>> nonce = os.urandom(32).encode("hex")
>>> ciphertext = convergent.encrypt_key("password", nonce,
                                        "this is totally secret data")
>>> ciphertext == "this is totally secret data"
False
>>> plain_text = convergent.encrypt_key("password", nonce, ciphertext)
>>> plain_text == "this is totally secret data"
True

[^1]: without line breaks: “Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.”

# Cryptographic Details

## SHA256d

The output of SHA256(data) (32 Bytes) are again fed into SHA256. The resulting 32 Bytes are used as a cryptographic hash.

## Convergent Encryption and deduplicated storage

Convergent encryptions uses the cryptographic hash of the plaintext as the encryption key so that identical plaintexts always encrypt to identical ciphertext values as it always identical encryption keys.

This implementation uses SHA256d as a cryptographic hash function and AES-256 in Counter (CTR) mode as a block cipher.

By applying a cryptographic hash function to the encryption key a storage id may be constructed that when used in an addressing schema allows the construction of efficiently used encrypted storage as identical blocks resolve to the same id.

As of now (02/2011) at least two weaknesses of this encryption schema are known: [confirmation-of-a-file attack and learn-partial-information attack][attacks1]. Both can be adverted by mixing a secret value into the encryption key.

This module works as follows, the additional secret and the merge step are optional:

![Convergent Encryption Schema](py-convergent-encryption/raw/master/Documentation/CE-Schema.png)

Where secret is a random string of at least 32 Bytes and append is technically implemented by first updating an initialized SHA256d object with the plain text and second with the secret.

# Changelog

  • 0.2 2011-02-28 Public release
  • 0.1 Initial version

# LICENSE

Copyright (c) 2011, HIT Information-Control GmbH All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

  • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  • Neither the name of the HIT Information-Control GmbH nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS “AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL HIT Information-Control GmbH BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

[attacks1]: http://www.mail-archive.com/cryptography@metzdowd.com/msg08949.html [pycrypto]: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/pycrypto [pycryptopp]: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/pycryptopp

Release History

Release History

0.2

This version

History Node

TODO: Figure out how to actually get changelog content.

Changelog content for this version goes here.

Donec et mollis dolor. Praesent et diam eget libero egestas mattis sit amet vitae augue. Nam tincidunt congue enim, ut porta lorem lacinia consectetur. Donec ut libero sed arcu vehicula ultricies a non tortor. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.

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