Use Twisted anywhere!
Crochet: Use Twisted anywhere!
Crochet is an MIT-licensed library that makes it easier to use Twisted from regular blocking code. Some use cases include:
- Easily use Twisted from a blocking framework like Django or Flask.
- Write a library that provides a blocking API, but uses Twisted for its implementation.
- Port blocking code to Twisted more easily, by keeping a backwards compatibility layer.
- Allow normal Twisted programs that use threads to interact with Twisted more cleanly from their threaded parts. For example, this can be useful when using Twisted as a WSGI container.
Crochet is maintained by Itamar Turner-Trauring.
Note: Crochet development is pretty slow these days because mostly it Just Works. PyPI shows about 30,000 downloads a month, so existing users seem happy: https://pypistats.org/packages/crochet
You can install Crochet by running:
$ pip install crochet
Downloads are available on PyPI.
Documentation can be found on Read The Docs.
Bugs and feature requests should be filed at the project Github page.
API and features
Crochet supports Python 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, and 3.9 as well as PyPy3. Python 2.7 and 3.5 support is available in older releases.
Crochet provides the following basic APIs:
- Allow blocking code to call into Twisted and block until results are available or a timeout is hit, using the crochet.wait_for decorator.
- A lower-level API (crochet.run_in_reactor) allows blocking code to run code “in the background” in the Twisted thread, with the ability to repeatedly check if it’s done.
Crochet will do the following on your behalf in order to enable these APIs:
- Transparently start Twisted’s reactor in a thread it manages.
- Shut down the reactor automatically when the process’ main thread finishes.
- Hook up Twisted’s log system to the Python standard library logging framework. Unlike Twisted’s built-in logging bridge, this includes support for blocking Handler instances.
- It’s possible to decorate async/await Twisted functions with @wait_for and @run_in_reactor, thanks to Árni Már Jónsson.
- Added type hints, thanks to Merlin Davis.
- Added formal support for Python 3.9.
- Dropped the deprecated APIs @wait_for_reactor, @in_reactor, DeferredResult, the wrapped_function attribute, and unlimited timeouts on EventualResult.wait().
- Dropped support for Python 2.7 and 3.5.
- Fix a timeout overflow bug in 32-bit machines.
- Added support for Python 3.8 and PyPy 3.
- Dropped support for Python 3.4, since latest Twisted doesn’t support it.
- Added support for Python 3.7. Thanks to Jeremy Cline for the patch.
- The underlying callable wrapped @run_in_reactor and @wait_for is now available via the more standard __wrapped__ attribute.
Backwards incompatibility (in tests):
- This was actually introduced in 1.8.0: wrapped_function may not always be available on decorated callables. You should use __wrapped__ instead.
- Fixed regression in 1.8.0 where bound method couldn’t be wrapped. Thanks to 2mf for the bug report.
- Signatures on decorated functions now match the original functions. Thanks to Mikhail Terekhov for the original patch.
- Documentation improvements, including an API reference.
- Switched to EPoll reactor for logging thread. Anecdotal evidence suggests this fixes some issues on AWS Lambda, but it’s not clear why. Thanks to Rolando Espinoza for the patch.
- It’s now possible to call @run_in_reactor and @wait_for above a @classmethod. Thanks to vak for the bug report.
- If the Python logging.Handler throws an exception Crochet no longer goes into a death spiral. Thanks to Michael Schlenker for the bug report.
- Versions of Twisted < 16.0 are no longer supported (i.e. no longer tested in CI.)
- Added support for Python 3.6.
- Added support for Python 3.5.
- Python 2.6, Python 3.3, and versions of Twisted < 15.0 are no longer supported.
- Added support for Python 3.4.
- Added a section on known issues and workarounds.
- Main thread detection (used to determine when Crochet should shutdown) is now less fragile. This means Crochet now supports more environments, e.g. uWSGI. Thanks to Ben Picolo for the patch.
- It is now possible to call EventualResult.wait() (or functions wrapped in wait_for) at import time if another thread holds the import lock. Thanks to Ken Struys for the patch.
- crochet.wait_for implements the timeout/cancellation pattern documented in previous versions of Crochet. crochet.wait_for_reactor and EventualResult.wait(timeout=None) are now deprecated, since lacking timeouts they could potentially block forever.
- Functions wrapped with wait_for and run_in_reactor can now be accessed via the wrapped_function attribute, to ease unit testing of the underlying Twisted code.
- It is no longer possible to call EventualResult.wait() (or functions wrapped with wait_for) at import time, since this can lead to deadlocks or prevent other threads from importing. Thanks to Tom Prince for the bug report.
- warnings are no longer erroneously turned into Twisted log messages.
- The reactor is now only imported when crochet.setup() or crochet.no_setup() are called, allowing daemonization if only crochet is imported (http://tm.tl/7105). Thanks to Daniel Nephin for the bug report.
- Improved motivation, added contact info and news to the documentation.
- Better example of using Crochet from a normal Twisted application.
- EventualResult.wait() can now be used safely from multiple threads, thanks to Gavin Panella for reporting the bug.
- Fixed reentrancy deadlock in the logging code caused by http://bugs.python.org/issue14976, thanks to Rod Morehead for reporting the bug.
- Crochet now installs on Python 3.3 again, thanks to Ben Cordero.
- Crochet should now work on Windows, thanks to Konstantinos Koukopoulos.
- Crochet tests can now run without adding its absolute path to PYTHONPATH or installing it first.
- EventualResult.original_failure is now documented.
- Added section on use cases and alternatives. Thanks to Tobias Oberstein for the suggestion.
- Twisted does not have to be pre-installed to run setup.py, thanks to Paul Weaver for bug report and Chris Scutcher for patch.
- Importing Crochet does not have side-effects (installing reactor event) any more.
- Blocking calls are interrupted earlier in the shutdown process, to reduce scope for deadlocks. Thanks to rmorehead for bug report.
- Expanded and much improved documentation, including a new section with design suggestions.
- New decorator @wait_for_reactor added, a simpler alternative to @run_in_reactor.
- Refactored @run_in_reactor, making it a bit more responsive.
- Blocking operations which would otherwise never finish due to reactor having stopped (EventualResult.wait() or @wait_for_reactor decorated call) will be interrupted with a ReactorStopped exception. Thanks to rmorehead for the bug report.
- @run_in_reactor decorated functions (or rather, their generated wrapper) are interrupted by Ctrl-C.
- On POSIX platforms, a workaround is installed to ensure processes started by reactor.spawnProcess have their exit noticed. See Twisted ticket 6378 for more details about the underlying issue.
- EventualResult.wait() now raises error if called in the reactor thread, thanks to David Buchmann.
- Unittests are now included in the release tarball.
- Allow Ctrl-C to interrupt EventualResult.wait(timeout=None).
- Improved documentation.
- Renamed DeferredResult to EventualResult, to reduce confusion with Twisted’s Deferred class. The old name still works, but is deprecated.
- Deprecated @in_reactor, replaced with @run_in_reactor which doesn’t change the arguments to the wrapped function. The deprecated API still works, however.
- Unhandled exceptions in EventualResult objects are logged.
- Added more examples.
- setup.py sdist should work now.
- Initial release.
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