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Dependency injection microframework for Python

Project description

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What is Dependency Injector?

Dependency Injector is a dependency injection framework for Python.

It helps implementing the dependency injection principle.

Key features of the Dependency Injector:

  • Providers. Provides Factory, Singleton, Callable, Coroutine, Object, List, Configuration, Dependency and Selector providers that help assembling your objects. See Providers.
  • Overriding. Can override any provider by another provider on the fly. This helps in testing and configuring dev / stage environment to replace API clients with stubs etc. See Provider overriding.
  • Configuration. Read configuration from yaml & ini files, environment variables and dictionaries. See Configuration provider.
  • Containers. Provides declarative and dynamic containers. See Containers.
  • Wiring. Injects dependencies into functions and methods. Helps integrating with other frameworks: Django, Flask, Aiohttp, etc. See Wiring.
  • Typing. Provides typing stubs, mypy-friendly. See Typing and mypy.
  • Performance. Fast. Written in Cython.
  • Maturity. Mature and production-ready. Well-tested, documented and supported.
from dependency_injector import containers, providers
from dependency_injector.wiring import Provide


class Container(containers.DeclarativeContainer):

    config = providers.Configuration()

    api_client = providers.Singleton(
        ApiClient,
        api_key=config.api_key,
        timeout=config.timeout.as_int(),
    )

    service = providers.Factory(
        Service,
        api_client=api_client,
    )


def main(service: Service = Provide[Container.service]):
    ...


if __name__ == '__main__':
    container = Container()
    container.config.api_key.from_env('API_KEY')
    container.config.timeout.from_env('TIMEOUT')
    container.wire(modules=[sys.modules[__name__]])

    main()  # <-- dependency is injected automatically

    with container.api_client.override(mock.Mock()):
        main()  # <-- overridden dependency is injected automatically

When you call main() function the Service dependency is assembled and injected automatically.

When doing a testing you call the container.api_client.override() to replace the real API client with a mock. When you call main() the mock is injected.

You can override any provider with another provider.

It also helps you in configuring project for the different environments: replace an API client with a stub on the dev or stage.

With the Dependency Injector objects assembling is consolidated in the container. Dependency injections are defined explicitly. This makes easier to understand and change how application works.

https://raw.githubusercontent.com/wiki/ets-labs/python-dependency-injector/img/di-readme.svg

Visit the docs to know more about the Dependency injection and inversion of control in Python.

Installation

The package is available on the PyPi:

pip install dependency-injector

Documentation

The documentation is available on the Read The Docs

Concept

The framework stands on the PEP20 (The Zen of Python) principle:

Explicit is better than implicit

You need to specify how to assemble and where to inject the dependencies explicitly.

The power of the framework is in a simplicity. Dependency Injector is a simple tool for the powerful concept.

Frequently asked questions

What is the dependency injection?
  • dependency injection is a principle that decreases coupling and increases cohesion
Why should I do the dependency injection?
  • your code becomes more flexible, testable and clear 😎
How do I start doing the dependency injection?
  • you start writing the code following the dependency injection principle
  • you register all of your application components and their dependencies in the container
  • when you need a component, you specify where to inject it or get it from the container
What price do I pay and what do I get?
  • you need to explicitly specify the dependencies
  • it will be extra work in the beginning
  • it will payoff as the project grows
Have a question?
Found a bug?
Want to help?
  • ⭐️ Star the Dependency Injector on the Github
  • 🆕 Start a new project with the Dependency Injector
  • 💬 Tell your friend about the Dependency Injector
Want to contribute?
  • 🔀 Fork the project
  • ⬅️ Open a pull request to the develop branch

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