A library for parsing and evaluating dice notation

## Project description

A library and command line tool for parsing and evaluating dice notation.

## Usage

From the command line, as a pip-installed entry point:

$ roll 3d6

or as a module:

$ python -m dice 3d6

The command line arguments are as follows:

-m --min Make all rolls the lowest possible result -M --max Make all rolls the highest possible result -h --help Show this help text -v --verbose Show additional output -V --version Show the package version

If your expression begins with a dash (`-`), then put a double dash (`--`)
before it to prevent docopt from trying to process it as a command option.
Example: `roll -- -10d6`. Alternatively, use parenthesis: `roll (-10d6)`.

Invoking from python:

import dice dice.roll('3d6')

This returns an `Element` which is the result of the roll, which can be a
`list`, `int`, or subclass thereof, depending on the top-level operator.

## Notation

The expression works like a simple equation parser with some extra operators.

*The following operators are listed in order of precedence. Parentheses may
be used to force an alternate order of evaluation.*

The dice (`[N]dS`) operator takes an amount (N) and a number of sides (S), and
returns a list of N random numbers between 1 and S. For example: `4d6` may
return `[6, 3, 2, 4]`. Usin a `%` as the second operand is shorthand for
rolling a d100, and a using `f` is shorthand for ±1 fudge dice.

The fudge dice (`[N]uS`) operator is interchangable with the dice operator,
but makes the dice’s range from -S to S instead of 1 to S. This includes 0.

A wild dice (`[N]wS`) roll is special. The last roll in this set is called the
“wild die”. If this die’s roll is the maximum value, the second-highest roll
in the set is set to the maximum value. If its roll is the minimum, then
both it and the highest roll in the set aer set to zero. Then another die is
rolled. If this roll is the minimum value again, then ALL die are set to zero.
If a single-sided wild die is rolled, the roll behaves like a normal one.

If N is not specified, it is assumed you want to roll a single die.
`d6` is equivalent to `1d6`.

Rolls can be exploded with the `x` operator, which adds an additional dice
to the set for each roll above a given threshold. If a threshold isn’t given,
it defaults to the maximum possible roll. If the extra dice exceed this
threshold, they “explode” again! Safeguards are in place to prevent this from
crashing the parser with infinite explosions.

You can make the parser reroll dice below a certain threshold with the `r`
and `rr` operators. The single `r` variety allows the new roll to be below
the threshold, whereas the double variety’s roll *changes* the roll range to
have a minimum of the threshold. The threshold defaults to the minimum roll.

The highest, middle or lowest rolls or list entries can be selected with
(`^` or `h`), (`m` or `o`), or (`v` or `l`) respectively.
`6d6^3` will keep the highest 3 rolls, whereas `6d6v3` will select
the lowest 3 rolls. If a number isn’t specified, it defaults to keeping all
but one for highest and lowest, and all but two for the middle. If a negative
value is given as the operand for any of these operators, this operation will
drop that many elements from the result. For example, `6d6^-2` will drop the
two lowest values from the set, leaving the 4 highest. Zero has no effect.

A variant of the explode operator is the `a` (“again”) operator. Instead of
re-rolling values equal to or greater than the threshold (or max value), this
operator doubles values *equal* to the provided threshold (or max value). When
no right-side operand is specified, the left side must be a dice expression.

There are two operators for taking a set of rolls or numbers and counting the
number of elements at or above a certain threshold, or “successes”. Both
require a right-hand operand for the threshold. The first, `e`, only counts
successes. The second, `f`, counts successes minus failures, which are when
a roll is the minimum possible value for the die element, or 1 for lists.

A list or set of rolls can be turned into an integer with the total (`t`)
operator. `6d1t` will return `6` instead of `[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1]`.
Applying integer operations to a list of rolls will total them automatically.

A set of dice rolls can be sorted with the sort (`s`) operator. `4d6s`
will not change the return value, but the dice will be sorted from lowest to
highest.

The `+-` operator is a special prefix for sets of rolls and lists. It
negates odd roles within a list. Example: `[1, 2, 3]` -> `[-1, 2, -3]`.
There is also a negate (`-`) operator, which works on either single
elements, sets or rolls, or lists. There is also an identity `+` operator.

Values can be added or subtracted from each element of a list or set of rolls
with the pointwise add (`.+`) and subtract (`.-`) operators. For example:
`4d1 .+ 3` will return `[4, 4, 4, 4]`.

Basic integer operations are also available: `(16 / 8 * 4 - 2 + 1) % 4 -> 3`.

Finally, there are two operators for building and extending lists. To build a
list, use a comma to seperate elements. If any comma-seperated item isn’t a
scalar (e.g. a roll), it is flattened into one by taking its total. The
extend operator (`|`) is used to merge two lists into one, or append single
elements to the beginning or end of a list.

## API

The calls to `dice.roll()` above may be replaced with `dice.roll_min()` or
`dice.roll_max()` to force ALL rolls to their highest or lowest values
respectively. This might be useful to see what the minumum and maximum
possible values for a given expression are. Beware that this causes wild dice
rolls to act like normal ones, and rolls performed as explosions are not
forced high or low.

The `roll()` function and variants take a boolean `raw` parameter which
makes the library return the element instead of the result. Note that the
`evaluate_cached` method is called as part of `roll()`, which populates
`element.result`. Calling `element.evaluate()` will not reset this value.

To display a verbose breakdown of the element tree, the
`dice.utilities.verbose_print(element)` function is available.
If `element.result` has not yet been populated, the function calls
`evaluate_cached()` first. Keep this in mind if you want to print the result
of an evaluation with custom arguments. `verbose_print()` returns a `str`.

Most evaluation errors will raise `DiceError` or `DiceFatalError`, both of
which are subclasses of `DiceBaseError`. These exceptions have a method
named `pretty_print`, which will output a string indicating where the error
happened:

>>> try: ... dice.roll('1/0') ... except dice.DiceBaseException as e: ... print(e.pretty_print()) ... 1/0 ^ Division by zero >>>

## Licence

The MIT License (MIT)

Copyright (c) 2013 Sam Clements, 2017 Caleb Johnson

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the “Software”), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS”, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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