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Keep track of failed login attempts in Django-powered sites.

Project description


Jazzband GitHub PyPI release Documentation Build Status Coverage

Axes is a very simple way for you to keep track of failed authentication attempts for your login views.

The name is sort of a geeky pun, since it can be interpreted as:

  • access, as in monitoring access attempts, or
  • axes, as in tools you can use to hack (generally on wood).

In this case, however, the hacking part of it can be taken a bit further: Axes is intended to help you stop people from brute forcing your Django site.


Axes records login attempts to your Django powered site and prevents attackers from brute forcing the site when they exceed the configured attempt limit.

Axes can track the attempts and persist them in the database indefinitely, or alternatively use a fast and DDoS resistant cache implementation.

Axes can be configured to monitor login attempts by IP address, username, user agent, or their combinations.

Axes supports cool off periods, IP address whitelisting and blacklisting, user account whitelisting, and other features for Django access management.


For more information on installation and configuration see the documentation at:


If you have questions or have trouble using the app please file a bug report at:


This is a Jazzband project. By contributing you agree to abide by the Contributor Code of Conduct and follow the guidelines.

It is best to separate proposed changes and PRs into small, distinct patches by type so that they can be merged faster into upstream and released quicker:

  • features,
  • bugfixes,
  • code style improvements, and
  • documentation improvements.

All contributions are required to pass the quality gates configured with the CI. This includes running tests and linters successfully on the currently officially supported Python and Django versions.

The test automation is run automatically by Travis CI, but you can run it locally with the tox command before pushing commits.


5.4.3 (2020-08-06)

  • Add Django 3.1 support. [hramezani]

5.4.2 (2020-07-28)

  • Add ABC or abstract base class implementation for handlers. [jorlugaqui]

5.4.1 (2020-07-03)

  • Fix code styling for linters. [aleksihakli]

5.4.0 (2020-07-03)

  • Propagate username to lockout view in URL parameters. [PetrDlouhy]
  • Update CAPTCHA examples. [PetrDlouhy]
  • Upgrade django-ipware to version 3. [hramezani,mnislam01]

5.3.5 (2020-07-02)

  • Restrict ipware version for version compatibility. [aleksihakli]

5.3.4 (2020-06-09)

  • Deprecate Django 1.11 LTS support. [aleksihakli]

5.3.3 (2020-05-22)

  • Fix AXES_ONLY_ADMIN_SITE functionality when no default admin site is defined in the URL configuration. [igor-shevchenko]

5.3.2 (2020-05-15)

  • Fix AppConf settings prefix for Fargate. [marksweb]

5.3.1 (2020-03-23)

  • Fix null byte ValueError bug in ORM. [ddimmich]

5.3.0 (2020-03-10)

  • Improve Django REST Framework compatibility. [I0x4dI]

5.2.2 (2020-01-08)

  • Add missing proxy implementation for axes.handlers.proxy.AxesProxyHandler.get_failures. [aleksihakli]

5.2.1 (2020-01-08)

  • Add django-reversion compatibility notes. [mark-mishyn]
  • Add pluggable lockout responses and the AXES_LOCKOUT_CALLABLE configuration flag. [aleksihakli]

5.2.0 (2020-01-01)

  • Add a test handler. [aidanlister]

5.1.0 (2019-12-29)

  • Add pluggable user account whitelisting and the AXES_WHITELIST_CALLABLE configuration flag. [aleksihakli]

5.0.20 (2019-12-01)

  • Fix django-allauth compatibility issue. [hramezani]
  • Improve tests for login attempt monitoring. [hramezani]
  • Add reverse proxy documentation. [ckcollab]
  • Update OAuth documentation examples. [aleksihakli]

5.0.19 (2019-11-06)

  • Optimize access attempt fetching in database handler. [hramezani]
  • Optimize request data fetching in proxy handler. [hramezani]

5.0.18 (2019-10-17)

  • Add cooloff_timedelta context variable to lockout responses. [jstockwin]

5.0.17 (2019-10-15)

  • Safer string formatting for user input. [aleksihakli]

5.0.16 (2019-10-15)

  • Fix string formatting bug in logging. [zerolab]

5.0.15 (2019-10-09)

  • Add AXES_ENABLE_ADMIN flag. [flannelhead]

5.0.14 (2019-09-28)

  • Docs, CI pipeline, and code formatting improvements [aleksihakli]

5.0.13 (2019-08-30)

  • Python 3.8 and PyPy support. [aleksihakli]
  • Migrate to setuptools_scm and automatic versioning. [aleksihakli]

5.0.12 (2019-08-05)

  • Support callables for AXES_COOLOFF_TIME setting. [DariaPlotnikova]

5.0.11 (2019-07-25)

  • Fix typo in rST formatting that prevented 5.0.10 release to PyPI. [aleksihakli]

5.0.10 (2019-07-25)

  • Refactor type checks for axes.helpers.get_client_cache_key for framework compatibility, fixes #471. [aleksihakli]

5.0.9 (2019-07-11)

  • Add better handling for attempt and log resets by moving them into handlers which allows customization and more configurability. Unimplemented handlers raise NotImplementedError by default. [aleksihakli]
  • Add Python 3.8 dev version and PyPy to the Travis test matrix. [aleksihakli]

5.0.8 (2019-07-09)

  • Add AXES_ONLY_ADMIN_SITE flag for only running Axes on admin site. [hramezani]
  • Add axes_reset_logs command for removing old AccessLog records. [tlebrize]
  • Allow AxesBackend subclasses to pass the axes.W003 system check. [adamchainz]

5.0.7 (2019-06-14)

  • Fix lockout message showing when lockout is disabled with the AXES_LOCK_OUT_AT_FAILURE setting. [mogzol]
  • Add support for callable AXES_FAILURE_LIMIT setting. [bbayles]

5.0.6 (2019-05-25)

  • Deprecate AXES_DISABLE_SUCCESS_ACCESS_LOG flag in favour of AXES_DISABLE_ACCESS_LOG which has mostly the same functionality. Update documentation to better reflect the behaviour of the flag. [aleksihakli]

5.0.5 (2019-05-19)

  • Change the lockout response calculation to request flagging instead of exception throwing in the signal handler and middleware. Move request attribute calculation from middleware to handler layer. Deprecate axes.request.AxesHttpRequest object type definition. [aleksihakli]
  • Deprecate the old version 4.x axes.backends.AxesModelBackend class. [aleksihakli]
  • Improve documentation on attempt tracking, resets, Axes customization, project and component compatibility and integrations, and other things. [aleksihakli]

5.0.4 (2019-05-09)

  • Fix regression with OAuth2 authentication backends not having remote IP addresses set and throwing an exception in cache key calculation. [aleksihakli]

5.0.3 (2019-05-08)

  • Fix django.contrib.auth module login and logout functionality so that they work with the handlers without the an AxesHttpRequest to improve cross compatibility with other Django applications. [aleksihakli]
  • Change IP address resolution to allow empty or missing addresses. [aleksihakli]
  • Add error logging for missing request attributes in the handler layer so that users get better indicators of misconfigured applications. [aleksihakli]

5.0.2 (2019-05-07)

  • Add AXES_ENABLED setting for disabling Axes with e.g. tests that use Django test client login, logout, and force_login methods, which do not supply the request argument to views, preventing Axes from functioning correctly in certain test setups. [aleksihakli]

5.0.1 (2019-05-03)

  • Add changelog to documentation. [aleksihakli]

5.0 (2019-05-01)

  • Deprecate Python 2.7, 3.4 and 3.5 support. [aleksihakli]
  • Remove automatic decoration and monkey-patching of Django views and forms. Decorators are available for login function and method decoration as before. [aleksihakli]
  • Use backend, middleware, and signal handlers for tracking login attempts and implementing user lockouts. [aleksihakli, jorlugaqui, joshua-s]
  • Add AxesDatabaseHandler, AxesCacheHandler, and AxesDummyHandler handler backends for processing user login and logout events and failures. Handlers are configurable with the AXES_HANDLER setting. [aleksihakli, jorlugaqui, joshua-s]
  • Improve management commands and separate commands for resetting all access attempts, attempts by IP, and attempts by username. New command names are axes_reset, axes_reset_ip and axes_reset_username. [aleksihakli]
  • Add support for string import for AXES_USERNAME_CALLABLE that supports dotted paths in addition to the old callable type such as a function or a class method. [aleksihakli]
  • Deprecate one argument call signature for AXES_USERNAME_CALLABLE. From now on, the callable needs to accept two arguments, the HttpRequest and credentials that are supplied to the Django authenticate method in authentication backends. [aleksihakli]
  • Move axes.attempts.is_already_locked function to axes.handlers.AxesProxyHandler.is_locked. Various other previously undocumented methods have been deprecated and moved inside the project. The new documented public APIs can be considered as stable and can be safely utilized by other projects. [aleksihakli]
  • Improve documentation layouting and contents. Add public API reference section. [aleksihakli]

4.5.4 (2019-01-15)

  • Improve README and documentation [aleksihakli]

4.5.3 (2019-01-14)

  • Remove the unused AccessAttempt.trusted flag from models [aleksihakli]
  • Improve README and Travis CI setups [aleksihakli]

4.5.2 (2019-01-12)

  • Added Turkish translations [obayhan]

4.5.1 (2019-01-11)

  • Removed duplicated check that was causing issues when using APIs. [camilonova]
  • Added Russian translations [lubicz-sielski]

4.5.0 (2018-12-25)

  • Improve support for custom authentication credentials using the AXES_USERNAME_FORM_FIELD and AXES_USERNAME_CALLABLE settings. [mastacheata]
  • Updated behaviour for fetching username from request or credentials: If no AXES_USERNAME_CALLABLE is configured, the optional credentials that are supplied to the axes utility methods are now the default source for client username and the HTTP request POST is the fallback for fetching the user information. AXES_USERNAME_CALLABLE implements an alternative signature with two arguments request, credentials in addition to the old request call argument signature in a backwards compatible fashion. [aleksihakli]
  • Add official support for the Django 2.1 version and Python 3.7. [aleksihakli]
  • Improve the requirements, documentation, tests, and CI setup. [aleksihakli]

4.4.3 (2018-12-08)

  • Fix missing German translations [aleksihakli]
  • Add AXES_RESET_ON_SUCCESS configuration flag [arjenzijlstra]

4.4.2 (2018-10-30)

  • fix missing migration and add check to prevent it happening again. [markddavidoff]

4.4.1 (2018-10-24)

  • Add a German translation [adonig]
  • Documentation wording changes [markddavidoff]
  • Use get_client_username in log_user_login_failed instead of credentials [markddavidoff]
  • pin prospector to 0.12.11, and pin astroid to 1.6.5 [hsiaoyi0504]

4.4.0 (2018-05-26)


4.3.1 (2018-04-21)

  • Change custom authentication backend failures from error to warning log level [aleksihakli]
  • Set up strict code linting for CI pipeline that fails builds if linting does not pass [aleksihakli]
  • Clean up old code base and tests based on linter errors [aleksihakli]

4.3.0 (2018-04-21)

  • Refactor and clean up code layout [aleksihakli]
  • Add prospector linting and code checks to toolchain [aleksihakli]
  • Clean up log message formatting and refactor type checks [EvaSDK]
  • Fix faulty user locking with user agent when AXES_ONLY_USER_FAILURES is set [EvaSDK]

4.2.1 (2018-04-18)

  • Fix unicode string interpolation on Python 2.7 [aleksihakli]

4.2.0 (2018-04-13)

  • Add configuration flags for client IP resolving [aleksihakli]
  • Add AxesModelBackend authentication backend [markdaviddoff]

4.1.0 (2018-02-18)

  • Add AXES_CACHE setting for configuring axes specific caching. [JWvDronkelaar]
  • Add checks and tests for faulty LocMemCache usage in application setup. [aleksihakli]

4.0.2 (2018-01-19)

  • Improve Windows compatibility on Python < 3.4 by utilizing win_inet_pton [hsiaoyi0504]
  • Add documentation on django-allauth integration [grucha]
  • Add documentation on known AccessAttempt caching configuration problems when using axes with the django.core.cache.backends.locmem.LocMemCache [aleksihakli]
  • Refactor and improve existing AccessAttempt cache reset utility [aleksihakli]

4.0.1 (2017-12-19)

  • Fixes issue when not using AXES_USERNAME_FORM_FIELD [camilonova]

4.0.0 (2017-12-18)

  • BREAKING CHANGES. AXES_BEHIND_REVERSE_PROXY AXES_REVERSE_PROXY_HEADER AXES_NUM_PROXIES were removed in order to use django-ipware to get the user ip address [camilonova]
  • Added support for custom username field [kakulukia]
  • Customizing Axes doc updated [pckapps]
  • Remove filtering by username [camilonova]
  • Fixed logging failed attempts to authenticate using a custom authentication backend. [D3X]

3.0.3 (2017-11-23)

  • Test against Python 2.7. [mbaechtold]
  • Test against Python 3.4. [pope1ni]

3.0.2 (2017-11-21)

  • Added form_invalid decorator. Fixes #265 [camilonova]

3.0.1 (2017-11-17)

  • Fix DeprecationWarning for logger warning [richardowen]
  • Fixes global lockout possibility [joeribekker]
  • Changed the way output is handled in the management commands [ataylor32]

3.0.0 (2017-11-17)

  • BREAKING CHANGES. Support for Django >= 1.11 and signals, see issue #215. Drop support for Python < 3.6 [camilonova]

2.3.3 (2017-07-20)

  • Many tweaks and handles successful AJAX logins. [Jack Sullivan]
  • Add tests for proxy number parametrization [aleksihakli]
  • Add AXES_NUM_PROXIES setting [aleksihakli]
  • Log failed access attempts regardless of settings [jimr]
  • Updated configuration docs to include AXES_IP_WHITELIST [Minkey27]
  • Add test for get_cache_key function [jorlugaqui]
  • Delete cache key in reset command line [jorlugaqui]
  • Add signals for setting/deleting cache keys [jorlugaqui]

2.3.2 (2016-11-24)

  • Only look for lockable users on a POST [schinckel]
  • Fix and add tests for IPv4 and IPv6 parsing [aleksihakli]

2.3.1 (2016-11-12)

  • Added settings for disabling success accesslogs [Minkey27]
  • Fixed illegal IP address string passed to inet_pton [samkuehn]

2.3.0 (2016-11-04)

  • Fixed axes_reset management command to skip “ip” prefix to command arguments. [EvaMarques]
  • Added axes_reset_user management command to reset lockouts and failed login records for given users. [vladimirnani]
  • Fixed Travis-PyPI release configuration. [jezdez]
  • Make IP position argument optional. [aredalen]
  • Added possibility to disable access log [svenhertle]
  • Fix for IIS used as reverse proxy adding port number [Dmitri-Sintsov]
  • Made the signal race condition safe. [Minkey27]
  • Added AXES_ONLY_USER_FAILURES to support only looking at the user ID. [lip77us]

2.2.0 (2016-07-20)

  • Improve the logic when using a reverse proxy to avoid possible attacks. [camilonova]

2.1.0 (2016-07-14)

  • Add default_app_config so you can just use axes in INSTALLED_APPS [vdboor]

2.0.0 (2016-06-24)

  • Removed middleware to use app_config [camilonova]
  • Lots of cleaning [camilonova]
  • Improved test suite and versions [camilonova]

1.7.0 (2016-06-10)

  • Use render shortcut for rendering LOCKOUT_TEMPLATE [Radoslaw Luter]
  • Added app_label for RemovedInDjango19Warning [yograterol]
  • Add iso8601 translator. [mullakhmetov]
  • Edit json response. Context now contains ISO 8601 formatted cooloff time [mullakhmetov]
  • Add json response and iso8601 tests. [mullakhmetov]
  • Fixes issue 162: UnicodeDecodeError on pip install [joeribekker]
  • Added AXES_NEVER_LOCKOUT_WHITELIST option to prevent certain IPs from being locked out. [joeribekker]

1.6.1 (2016-05-13)

  • Fixes whitelist check when BEHIND_REVERSE_PROXY [Patrick Hagemeister]
  • Made migrations py3 compatible [mvdwaeter]
  • Fixing #126, possibly breaking compatibility with Django<=1.7 [int-ua]
  • Add note for upgrading users about new migration files [kelseyq]
  • Fixes #148 [camilonova]
  • Decorate auth_views.login only once [teeberg]
  • Set IP public/private classifier to be compliant with RFC 1918. [SilasX]
  • Issue #155. Lockout response status code changed to 403. [Arthur Mullahmetov]
  • BUGFIX: Missing migration [smeinel]

1.6.0 (2016-01-07)

  • Stopped using render_to_response so that other template engines work [tarkatronic]
  • Improved performance & DoS prevention on query2str [tarkatronic]
  • Immediately return from is_already_locked if the user is not lockable [jdunck]
  • Iterate over ip addresses only once [annp89]
  • added initial migration files to support django 1.7 &up. Upgrading users should run migrate –fake-initial after update [ibaguio]
  • Add db indexes to CommonAccess model [Schweigi]

1.5.0 (2015-09-11)

  • Fix #_get_user_attempts to include username when filtering AccessAttempts if AXES_LOCK_OUT_BY_COMBINATION_USER_AND_IP is True [afioca]

1.4.0 (2015-08-09)

  • Send the user_locked_out signal. Fixes #94. [toabi]

1.3.9 (2015-02-11)

  • Python 3 fix (#104)

1.3.8 (2014-10-07)

  • Rename GitHub organization from django-security to django-pci to emphasize focus on providing assistance with building PCI compliant websites with Django. [aclark4life]

1.3.7 (2014-10-05)

  • Explain common issues where Axes fails silently [cericoda]
  • Allow for user-defined username field for lookup in POST data [SteveByerly]
  • Log out only if user was logged in [zoten]
  • Support for floats in cooloff time (i.e: 0.1 == 6 minutes) [marianov]
  • Limit amount of POST data logged (#73). Limiting the length of value is not enough, as there could be arbitrary number of them, or very long key names. [peterkuma]
  • Improve get_ip to try for real ip address [7wonders]
  • Change IPAddressField to GenericIPAddressField. When using a PostgreSQL database and the client does not pass an IP address you get an inet error. This is a known problem with PostgreSQL and the IPAddressField. It can be fixed by using a GenericIPAddressField instead. [polvoblanco]
  • Get first X-Forwarded-For IP [tutumcloud]
  • White listing IP addresses behind reverse proxy. Allowing some IP addresses to have direct access to the app even if they are behind a reverse proxy. Those IP addresses must still be on a white list. [ericbulloch]
  • Reduce logging of reverse proxy IP lookup and use configured logger. Fixes #76. Instead of logging the notice that django.axes looks for a HTTP header set by a reverse proxy on each attempt, just log it one-time on first module import. Also use the configured logger (by default axes.watch_login) for the message to be more consistent in logging. [eht16]
  • Limit the length of the values logged into the database. Refs #73 [camilonova]
  • Refactored tests to be more stable and faster [camilonova]
  • Clean client references [camilonova]
  • Fixed admin login url [camilonova]
  • Added django 1.7 for testing [camilonova]
  • Travis file cleanup [camilonova]
  • Remove hardcoded url path [camilonova]
  • Fixing tests for django 1.7 [Andrew-Crosio]
  • Fix for django 1.7 exception not existing [Andrew-Crosio]
  • Removed python 2.6 from testing [camilonova]
  • Use django built-in six version [camilonova]
  • Added six as requirement [camilonova]
  • Added python 2.6 for travis testing [camilonova]
  • Replaced u string literal prefixes with six.u() calls [amrhassan]
  • Fixes object type issue, response is not an string [camilonova]
  • Python 3 compatibility fix for db_reset [nicois]
  • Added example project and helper scripts [barseghyanartur]
  • Admin command to list login attemps [marianov]
  • Replaced six imports with django.utils.six ones [amrhassan]
  • Replaced u string literal prefixes with six.u() calls to make it compatible with Python 3.2 [amrhassan]
  • Replaced assertIn`s and `assertNotIn`s with `assertContains and assertNotContains [fcurella]
  • Added py3k to travis [fcurella]
  • Update test cases to be python3 compatible [nicois]
  • Python 3 compatibility fix for db_reset [nicois]
  • Removed trash from example urls [barseghyanartur]
  • Added django installer [barseghyanartur]
  • Added example project and helper scripts [barseghyanartur]

1.3.6 (2013-11-23)

  • Added AttributeError in case get_profile doesn’t exist [camilonova]
  • Improved axes_reset command [camilonova]

1.3.5 (2013-11-01)

  • Fix an issue with __version__ loading the wrong version [graingert]

1.3.4 (2013-11-01)

  • Update README.rst for PyPI [marty, camilonova, graingert]
  • Add cooloff period [visualspace]

1.3.3 (2013-07-05)

  • Added ‘username’ field to the Admin table [bkvirendra]
  • Removed fallback logging creation since logging cames by default on django 1.4 or later, if you don’t have it is because you explicitly wanted. Fixes #45 [camilonova]

1.3.2 (2013-03-28)

  • Fix an issue when a user logout [camilonova]
  • Match pypi version [camilonova]
  • Better User model import method [camilonova]
  • Use only one place to get the version number [camilonova]
  • Fixed an issue when a user on django 1.4 logout [camilonova]
  • Handle exception if there is not user profile model set [camilonova]
  • Made some cleanup and remove a pokemon exception handling [camilonova]
  • Improved tests so it really looks for the rabbit in the hole [camilonova]
  • Match pypi version [camilonova]

1.3.1 (2013-03-19)

  • Add support for Django 1.5 [camilonova]

1.3.0 (2013-02-27)

  • Bug fix: get_version() format string [csghormley]

1.2.9 (2013-02-20)

  • Add to and improve test cases [camilonova]

1.2.8 (2013-01-23)

  • Increased http accept header length [jslatts]

1.2.7 (2013-01-17)

  • Reverse proxy support [rmagee]
  • Clean up README [martey]

1.2.6 (2012-12-04)

  • Remove unused import [aclark4life]

1.2.5 (2012-11-28)

  • Fix [aclark4life]
  • Added ability to flag user accounts as unlockable. [kencochrane]
  • Added ipaddress as a param to the user_locked_out signal. [kencochrane]
  • Added a signal receiver for user_logged_out. [kencochrane]
  • Added a signal for when a user gets locked out. [kencochrane]
  • Added AccessLog model to log all access attempts. [kencochrane]

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