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A slick ORM cache with automatic granular event-driven invalidation for Django.

Project description

A slick app that supports automatic or manual queryset caching and automatic granular event-driven invalidation.

It uses redis as backend for ORM cache and redis or filesystem for simple time-invalidated one.

And there is more to it:

  • decorator to cache any user function as queryset
  • extension for jinja2 to cache template fragments as querysets
  • a couple of hacks to make django faster


Python 2.6, Django 1.2 and Redis 2.2.7.


Using pip:

$ pip install django-cacheops

Or you can get latest one from github:

$ git clone git://
$ ln -s `pwd`/django-cacheops/cacheops/ /somewhere/on/python/path/


Add cacheops to your INSTALLED_APPS before any apps that use it.

Setup redis connection and enable caching for desired models:

    'host': 'localhost', # redis-server is on same machine
    'port': 6379,        # default redis port
    'db': 1,             # SELECT non-default redis database
                         # using separate redis db or redis instance
                         # is highly recommended
    'socket_timeout': 3,

    # Automatically cache any User.objects.get() calls for 15 minutes
    # This includes request.user or access,
    # where is a foreign key to auth.User
    'auth.user': ('get', 60*15),

    # Automatically cache all gets, queryset fetches and counts
    # to other django.contrib.auth models for an hour
    'auth.*': ('all', 60*60),

    # Enable manual caching on all news models with default timeout of an hour
    # Use News.objects.cache().get(...)
    #  or Tags.objects.filter(...).order_by(...).cache()
    # to cache particular ORM request.
    # Invalidation is still automatic
    'news.*': ('just_enable', 60*60),

    # Automatically cache count requests for all other models for 15 min
    '*.*': ('count', 60*15),

Additionally, you can tell cacheops to degrade gracefully on redis fail with:



Automatic caching.

It’s automatic you just need to set it up.

Manual caching.

You can force any queryset to use cache by calling it’s .cache() method:


Here you can specify which ops should be cached for queryset, for example, this code:

qs = Article.objects.filter(tag=2).cache(ops=['count'])
paginator = Paginator(objects, ipp)
articles = list( # hits database

will cache .count() call in Paginator but not later in articles fetch. There are three possible actions - get, fetch and count. You can pass any subset of this ops to .cache() method even empty to turn off caching. There are, however, a shortcut for it:

qs = Article.objects.filter(visible=True).nocache()
qs1 = qs.filter(tag=2)       # hits database
qs2 = qs.filter(category=3)  # hits it once more

It is usefull when you want to disable automatic caching on particular queryset.

Function caching.

You can cache and invalidate result of a function the same way as a queryset. Cache of next function will be invalidated on any Article change, addition or deletetion:

from cacheops import cached_as

def article_stats():
    return {
        'tags': list( Article.objects.values('tag').annotate(count=Count('id')) )
        'categories': list( Article.objects.values('category').annotate(count=Count('id')) )

Note that we are using list on both querysets here, it’s because we don’t want to cache queryset objects but their result.

Also note that cache key does not depend on arguments of a function, so it’s result should not, either. This is done to enable caching of view functions. Instead you should use a local function:

def articles_block(category, count=5):

    @cached_as(Article.objects.filter(category=category), extra=count)
    def _articles_block():
        qs = Article.objects.filter(category=category)
        articles = list(qs.filter(photo=True)[:count])

        if len(articles) < count:
            articles += list(qs[:count-len(articles)])

        return articles

    return _articles_block()

Using local function gives additional advantage: we can filter queryset used in @cached_as() to make invalidation more granular. We also add an extra to make diffrent keys for calls with same category but diffrent count.


Cacheops uses both time and event-driven invalidation. The event-driven one listens on model signals and invalidates appropriate caches on and .delete().

Invalidation tries to be granular which means it won’t invalidate a queryset that cannot be influenced by added/updated/deleted object judjing by query conditions. Most time this will do what you want, if it’s not you can use one of the following:

from cacheops import invalidate_obj, invalidate_model

invalidate_obj(some_article)  # invalidates queries affected by some_article
invalidate_model(Article)     # invalidates all queries for model

And last there is invalidate command:

./ invalidate articles.Artcile.34  # same as invalidate_obj
./ invalidate articles.Article     # same as invalidate_model
./ invalidate articles   # invalidate all models in articles

And the one that FLUSHES cacheops redis database:

./ invalidate all

Don’t use that if you share redis database for both cache and something else.

Simple time-invalidated cache

To cache result of a function call for some time use:

from cacheops import cached

def top_articles(category):
    return ... # Some costly queries

@cached() will generate separate entries for each combination of decorated function and its arguments. Also you can use extra same way as in @cached_as(), most useful for nested functions:

def articles_json(self):
    @cached(timeout=10*60, extra=self.category)
    def _articles_json():
        return json.dumps(...)

    return _articles_json()

Cacheops also provides get/set primitives for simple cache:

from cacheops import cache

cache.set(cache_key, data, timeout=None)

cache.get will raise CacheMiss if nothing is stored for given key:

from cacheops import cache, CacheMiss

    result = cache.get(key)
except CacheMiss:
    ... # deal with it

Jinja2 extension

Add cacheops.jinja2.cache to your extensions and use:

{% cached_as queryset [, timeout=<timeout>] [, extra=<key addition>] %}
    ... some template code ...
{% endcached_as %}


{% cached [timeout=<timeout>] [, extra=<key addition>] %}
{% endcached %}

Tags work the same way as corresponding decorators.


  1. Conditions other than __exact or __in don’t provide more granularity for invalidation.
  2. Conditions on related models don’t provide it either.
  3. Update of “selected_related” object does not invalidate cache for queryset.
  4. Mass updates don’t trigger invalidation.
  5. ORDER BY and LIMIT/OFFSET don’t affect invalidation.
  6. Doesn’t work with RawQuerySet.
  7. Conditions on subqueries don’t affect invalidation.
  8. Doesn’t work right with multi-table inheritance.
  9. Aggregates is not implemented yet.
  10. Timeout in queryset and @cached_as() cannot be larger than default.

Here 1, 3, 5, 10 are part of design compromise, trying to solve them will make things complicated and slow. 2 and 7 can be implemented if needed, but it’s probably counter-productive since one can just break queries into simple ones, which cache better. 4 is a deliberate choice, making it “right” will flush cache too much when update conditions are orthogonal to most queries conditions. 6 can be cached as SomeModel.objects.all() but @cached_as() someway covers that and is more flexible. 8 is postponed until it will gain more interest or a champion willing to implement it emerge.

Performance tips

Here come some performance tips to make cacheops and Django ORM faster.

  1. When you use cache you pickle and unpickle lots of django model instances, which could be slow. You can optimize django models serialization with django-pickling.

  2. Constructing querysets is rather slow in django, mainly because most of QuerySet methods clone self, then change it and return a clone. Original queryset is usually thrown away. Cacheops adds .inplace() method, which makes queryset mutating, preventing useless cloning:

    items = Item.objects.inplace().filter(category=12).order_by('-date')[:20]

    You can revert queryset to cloning state using .cloning() call.

  3. More to 2, there is unfixed bug in django 1.4-, which sometimes make queryset cloning very slow. You can use any patch from this ticket to fix it.

  4. Use template fragment caching when possible, it’s way more fast because you don’t need to generate anything. Also pickling/unpickling a string is much faster than list of model instances. Cacheops doesn’t provide extension for django’s built-in templates for now, but you can adapt django.templatetags.cache to work with cacheops fairly easily (send me a pull request if you do).

  5. Run separate redis instance for cache with disabled persistence. You can manually call SAVE or BGSAVE to stay hot upon server restart.

  6. If you filter queryset on many different or complex conditions cache could degrade performance (comparing to uncached db calls) in consequence of frequent cache misses. Disable cache in such cases entirely or on some heurestics which detect if this request would be probably hit. E.g. enable cache if only some primary fields are used in filter.

    Caching querysets with large amount of filters also slows down all subsequent invalidation on that model. You can disable caching if more than some amount of fields is used in filter simultaneously.


  • fast mode: store cache in local memory, but check in with redis if it’s valid
  • docs about file cache
  • add .delete(cache_key) method to simple and file cache
  • .invalidate() method on simple cached funcs
  • queryset brothers
  • jinja2 tag for “get random of some list” block with lazy rendering
  • make a version of invalidation with scripting
  • shard cache between multiple redises
  • integrate with prefetch_related()

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