django-cors-headers is a Django application for handling the server headers required for Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS).
A Django App that adds Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) headers to responses. This allows in-browser requests to your Django application from other origins.
Adding CORS headers allows your resources to be accessed on other domains. It’s important you understand the implications before adding the headers, since you could be unintentionally open up your site’s private data to others.
Some good resources to read on the subject are:
Tested with all combinations of:
- Python: 2.7, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7
- Django: 1.11, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2
Install from pip:
pip install django-cors-headers
and then add it to your installed apps:
INSTALLED_APPS = ( ... 'corsheaders', ... )
You will also need to add a middleware class to listen in on responses:
MIDDLEWARE = [ # Or MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES on Django < 1.10 ... 'corsheaders.middleware.CorsMiddleware', 'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware', ... ]
CorsMiddleware should be placed as high as possible, especially before any middleware that can generate responses such as Django’s CommonMiddleware or Whitenoise’s WhiteNoiseMiddleware. If it is not before, it will not be able to add the CORS headers to these responses.
Also if you are using CORS_REPLACE_HTTPS_REFERER it should be placed before Django’s CsrfViewMiddleware (see more below).
django-cors-headers was created in January 2013 by Otto Yiu. It went unmaintained from August 2015 and was forked in January 2016 to the package django-cors-middleware by Laville Augustin at Zeste de Savoir. In September 2016, Adam Johnson, Ed Morley, and others gained maintenance responsibility for django-cors-headers (Issue 110) from Otto Yiu. Basically all of the changes in the forked django-cors-middleware were merged back, or re-implemented in a different way, so it should be possible to switch back. If there’s a feature that hasn’t been merged, please open an issue about it.
django-cors-headers has had 40+ contributors in its time; thanks to every one of them.
Configure the middleware’s behaviour in your Django settings. You must add the hosts that are allowed to do cross-site requests to CORS_ORIGIN_WHITELIST, or set CORS_ORIGIN_ALLOW_ALL to True to allow all hosts.
If True, the whitelist will not be used and all origins will be accepted. Defaults to False.
A list of origins that are authorized to make cross-site HTTP requests. Defaults to .
An Origin is defined by the CORS RFC Section 3.2 as a URI scheme + hostname + port, or the special value ‘null’. Default ports (HTTPS = 443, HTTP = 80) are optional here. The special value null is sent by the browser in “privacy-sensitive contexts”, such as when the client is running from a file:// domain.
CORS_ORIGIN_WHITELIST = [ "https://example.com", "https://sub.example.com", "http://localhost:8080", "http://127.0.0.1:9000" )
A list of strings representing regexes that match Origins that are authorized to make cross-site HTTP requests. Defaults to . Useful when CORS_ORIGIN_WHITELIST is impractical, such as when you have a large number of subdomains.
CORS_ORIGIN_REGEX_WHITELIST = [ r"^https://\w+\.example\.com$", ]
The following are optional settings, for which the defaults probably suffice.
A regex which restricts the URL’s for which the CORS headers will be sent. Defaults to r'^.*$', i.e. match all URL’s. Useful when you only need CORS on a part of your site, e.g. an API at /api/.
CORS_URLS_REGEX = r'^/api/.*$'
A list of HTTP verbs that are allowed for the actual request. Defaults to:
CORS_ALLOW_METHODS = ( 'DELETE', 'GET', 'OPTIONS', 'PATCH', 'POST', 'PUT', )
The default can be imported as corsheaders.defaults.default_methods so you can just extend it with your custom methods. This allows you to keep up to date with any future changes. For example:
from corsheaders.defaults import default_methods CORS_ALLOW_METHODS = default_methods + ( 'POKE', )
The list of non-standard HTTP headers that can be used when making the actual request. Defaults to:
CORS_ALLOW_HEADERS = ( 'accept', 'accept-encoding', 'authorization', 'content-type', 'dnt', 'origin', 'user-agent', 'x-csrftoken', 'x-requested-with', )
The default can be imported as corsheaders.defaults.default_headers so you can extend it with your custom headers. This allows you to keep up to date with any future changes. For example:
from corsheaders.defaults import default_headers CORS_ALLOW_HEADERS = default_headers + ( 'my-custom-header', )
The list of HTTP headers that are to be exposed to the browser. Defaults to .
The number of seconds a client/browser can cache the preflight response. If this is 0 (or any falsey value), no max age header will be sent. Defaults to 86400 (one day).
Note: A preflight request is an extra request that is made when making a “not-so-simple” request (e.g. Content-Type is not application/x-www-form-urlencoded) to determine what requests the server actually accepts. Read more about it in the CORS MDN article.
If True, cookies will be allowed to be included in cross-site HTTP requests. Defaults to False.
Note: in Django 2.1 the SESSION_COOKIE_SAMESITE setting was added, set to 'Lax' by default, which will prevent Django’s session cookie being sent cross-domain. Change it to None to bypass this security restriction.
Most sites will need to take advantage of the Cross-Site Request Forgery protection that Django offers. CORS and CSRF are separate, and Django has no way of using your CORS configuration to exempt sites from the Referer checking that it does on secure requests. The way to do that is with its CSRF_TRUSTED_ORIGINS setting. For example:
CORS_ORIGIN_WHITELIST = ( 'http://read.only.com', 'http://change.allowed.com', ) CSRF_TRUSTED_ORIGINS = ( 'change.allowed.com', )
CSRF_TRUSTED_ORIGINS was introduced in Django 1.9, so users of earlier versions will need an alternate solution. If CORS_REPLACE_HTTPS_REFERER is True, CorsMiddleware will change the Referer header to something that will pass Django’s CSRF checks whenever the CORS checks pass. Defaults to False.
Note that unlike CSRF_TRUSTED_ORIGINS, this setting does not allow you to distinguish between domains that are trusted to read resources by CORS and domains that are trusted to change resources by avoiding CSRF protection.
With this feature enabled you should also add corsheaders.middleware.CorsPostCsrfMiddleware after django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware in your MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES to undo the Referer replacement:
MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES = [ ... 'corsheaders.middleware.CorsMiddleware', ... 'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware', 'corsheaders.middleware.CorsPostCsrfMiddleware', ... ]
If you have a use case that requires more than just the above configuration, you can attach code to check if a given request should be allowed. For example, this can be used to read the list of origins you allow from a model. Attach any number of handlers to the check_request_enabled Django signal, which provides the request argument (use **kwargs in your handler to protect against any future arguments being added). If any handler attached to the signal returns a truthy value, the request will be allowed.
For example you might define a handler like this:
# myapp/handlers.py from corsheaders.signals import check_request_enabled from myapp.models import MySite def cors_allow_mysites(sender, request, **kwargs): return MySite.objects.filter(host=request.host).exists() check_request_enabled.connect(cors_allow_mysites)
Then connect it at app ready time using a Django AppConfig:
# myapp/__init__.py default_app_config = 'myapp.apps.MyAppConfig'
# myapp/apps.py from django.apps import AppConfig class MyAppConfig(AppConfig): name = 'myapp' def ready(self): # Makes sure all signal handlers are connected from myapp import handlers # noqa
A common use case for the signal is to allow all origins to access a subset of URL’s, whilst allowing a normal set of origins to access all URL’s. This isn’t possible using just the normal configuration, but it can be achieved with a signal handler.
First set CORS_ORIGIN_WHITELIST to the list of trusted origins that are allowed to access every URL, and then add a handler to check_request_enabled to allow CORS regardless of the origin for the unrestricted URL’s. For example:
# myapp/handlers.py from corsheaders.signals import check_request_enabled def cors_allow_api_to_everyone(sender, request, **kwargs): return request.path.startswith('/api/') check_request_enabled.connect(cors_allow_api_to_everyone)
- Add a hint to the corsheaders.E013 check to make it more obvious how to resolve it.
- Allow ‘null’ in CORS_ORIGIN_WHITELIST check.
CORS_ORIGIN_WHITELIST now requires URI schemes, and optionally ports. This is part of the CORS specification (Section 3.2) that was not implemented in this library, except from with the CORS_ORIGIN_REGEX_WHITELIST setting. It fixes a security issue where the CORS middleware would allow requests between schemes, for example from insecure http:// Origins to a secure https:// site.
You will need to update your whitelist to include schemes, for example from this:
CORS_ORIGIN_WHITELIST = ['example.com']
CORS_ORIGIN_WHITELIST = ['https://example.com']
Removed the CORS_MODEL setting, and associated class. It seems very few, or no users were using it, since there were no bug reports since its move to abstract in version 2.0.0 (2017-01-07). If you are using this functionality, you can continue by changing your model to not inherit from the abstract one, and add a signal handler for check_request_enabled that reads from your model. Note you’ll need to handle the move to include schemes for Origins.
- Tested on Django 2.2. No changes were needed for compatibility.
- Tested on Python 3.7. No changes were needed for compatibility.
- Improve inclusion of tests in sdist to ignore .pyc files.
- Include test infrastructure in sdist to allow consumers to use it.
- Drop Django 1.8, 1.9, and 1.10 support. Only Django 1.11+ is supported now.
- Fix DeprecationWarning from importing collections.abc.Sequence on Python 3.7.
- Always add ‘Origin’ to the ‘Vary’ header for responses to enabled URL’s, to prevent caching of responses intended for one origin being served for another.
- Match CORS_URLS_REGEX to request.path_info instead of request.path, so the patterns can work without knowing the site’s path prefix at configuration time.
- Add Content-Length header to CORS preflight requests. This fixes issues with some HTTP proxies and servers, e.g. AWS Elastic Beanstalk.
- Django 2.0 compatibility. Again there were no changes to the actual library code, so previous versions probably work.
- Ensured that request._cors_enabled is always a bool() - previously it could be set to a regex match object.
- Django 1.11 compatibility. There were no changes to the actual library code, so previous versions probably work, though they weren’t properly tested on 1.11.
- Fix when the check for CORS_MODEL is done to allow it to properly add the headers and respond to OPTIONS requests.
- Add support for specifying ‘null’ in CORS_ORIGIN_WHITELIST.
- Remove previously undocumented CorsModel as it was causing migration issues. For backwards compatibility, any users previously using CorsModel should create a model in their own app that inherits from the new AbstractCorsModel, and to keep using the same data, set the model’s db_table to ‘corsheaders_corsmodel’. Users not using CorsModel will find they have an unused table that they can drop.
- Make sure that Access-Control-Allow-Credentials is in the response if the client asks for it.
- Fix a bug with the single check if CORS enabled added in 1.3.0: on Django < 1.10 shortcut responses could be generated by middleware above CorsMiddleware, before it processed the request, failing with an AttributeError for request._cors_enabled. Also clarified the docs that CorsMiddleware should be kept as high as possible in your middleware stack, above any middleware that can generate such responses.
- Add checks to validate the types of the settings.
- Add the ‘Do Not Track’ header 'DNT' to the default for CORS_ALLOW_HEADERS.
- Add ‘Origin’ to the ‘Vary’ header of outgoing requests when not allowing all origins, as per the CORS spec. Note this changes the way HTTP caching works with your CORS-enabled responses.
- Check whether CORS should be enabled on a request only once. This has had a minor change on the conditions where any custom signals will be called - signals will now always be called before HTTP_REFERER gets replaced, whereas before they could be called before and after. Also this attaches the attribute _cors_enabled to request - please take care that other code you’re running does not remove it.
- Add CorsModel.__str__ for human-readable text
- Add a signal that allows you to add code for more intricate control over when CORS headers are added.
- Made settings dynamically respond to changes, and which allows you to import the defaults for headers and methods in order to extend them.
- Drop Python 2.6 support.
- Drop Django 1.3-1.7 support, as they are no longer supported.
- Confirmed Django 1.9 support (no changes outside of tests were necessary).
- Added Django 1.10 support.
- Package as a universal wheel.
- django-cors-header now supports Django 1.8 with its new application loading system! Thanks @jpadilla for making this possible and sorry for the delay in making a release.
django-cors-headers is all grown-up :) Since it’s been used in production for many many deployments, I think it’s time we mark this as a stable release.
- Switching this middleware versioning over to semantic versioning
- #46 add user-agent and accept-encoding default headers
- #45 pep-8 this big boy up
- Add support for Python 3
- Updated tests
- Improved docuemntation
- Small bugfixes
- Added an option to selectively enable CORS only for specific URLs
- Added the ability to specify a regex for whitelisting many origin hostnames at once
- Introduced port distinction for origin checking
- Use urlparse for Python 3 support
- Added testcases to project
- Add support for exposed response headers
- Fixed middleware to ensure correct response for CORS preflight requests
- Add Access-Control-Allow-Credentials control to simple requests
- Bugfix to repair mismatched default variable names
- Refactor/pull defaults into separate file
- Initial release
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