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Django REST framework integration for django-rules

Project description

django-rest-framework-rules aims to seamlessly integrate rules - a tiny but powerful app providing object-level permissions - into the Django REST framework.

Parts of the original django-rules documentation were used to improve the reading experience of this document.

Requirements

This package was made to be used with Django, django-rules and the django-rest-framework.

Build status

https://travis-ci.org/escodebar/django-rest-framework-rules.svg?branch=master

Run tests

$ git clone http://github.com/escodebar/django-rest-framework-rules.git
$ cd django-rest-framework-rules
$ python3 -m venv . && source bin/activate
$ pip install -r requirements_test.txt
$ (django-rest-framework-rules) ./runtests.sh

How to install

Using pip:

$ pip install django-rest-framework-rules

Using rest_framework_rules

rest_framework_rules aims to integrate rules permission system into the Django REST framework.

rules is based on the idea that you maintain a dict-like object that maps string keys used as identifiers of some kind, to callables, called predicates. Predicates can do pretty much anything with the given arguments, but must always return True if the condition they check is true, False otherwise. (Read more about rules in the django-rules documentation - Using Rules.)

For a better illustration of the usage of rest_framework_rules let’s assume the following setup: We are proud owners of an app (climb-app!) which allows routesetters to advertise their newly created routes / boulders. The climbers can use the app to review the routes / boulders and propose solutions for these.

Given such an application, one could think of the following permissions:

Routesetters may - create new boulders - retrieve boulders’ details - update their boulders - delete their boulders - retrieve their boulders’ reviews - retrieve their boulders’ solutions

Climbers may - retrieve boulders’ details - create boulder reviews - retrieve boulders’ reviews - update their reviews - delete their reviews - create a boulder solution - retrieve boulders’ solutions - update their boulder solutions - delete their boulder solutions

Let’s define some predicates and the beforementioned permissions (this code usually resides in rules.py in your application folder).

from climb_app.models import Climber, RouteSetter
import rules

@rules.predicate
def is_a_climber(user):
    return Climber.objects.filter(user=user).exists()

@rules.predicate
def is_a_routesetter(user):
    return RouteSetter.objects.filter(user=user).exists()

@rules.predicate
def is_related_to_routesetters_boulder(user, content=None):
    if content is None or not hasattr(content, 'boulder'):
        return False
    return content.boulder.routesetter == user

@rules.predicate
def object_is_none(user, obj=None):
    return obj is None

@rules.predicate
def is_author(user, content):
    if not hasattr(content, 'author'):
        return False
    return content.author == user

rules.add_perm('climb_app.create_boulder', is_a_routesetter)
rules.add_perm('climb_app.retrieve_boulder', is_a_climber | is_a_routesetter & is_author)
rules.add_perm('climb_app.update_boulder', is_a_routesetter & is_author)
rules.add_perm('climb_app.delete_boulder', is_a_routesetter & is_author)
rules.add_perm('climb_app.retrieve_reviews', is_a_routesetter)
rules.add_perm('climb_app.retrieve_climbers', is_a_routesetter)

rules.add_perm('climb_app.create_climber_content', is_a_climber)
rules.add_perm('climb_app.retrieve_climber_content',
               (is_a_climber |
                is_a_routesetter & is_related_to_routesetters_boulder |
                is_a_routesetter & object_is_none))
rules.add_perm('climb_app.update_climber_content', is_a_climber & is_author)
rules.add_perm('climb_app.delete_climber_content', is_a_climber & is_author)

PermissionRequiredMixin with the APIView and GenericAPIView

The PermissionRequiredMixin allows to define a required permission name (permission_required). This permission name (or list of such) is needed by the request’s user to access the methods of the view.

I could think of the following use case within climb-app! Let’s allow climbers to check boulders once they were able to solve them. (This is basically adding a solution without data.)

from climb_app.models import Boulder, Solution
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework_rules.mixins import PermissionRequiredMixin

class CheckmarkBoulderView(PermissionRequiredMixin, APIView):
    permission_required = 'climb_app.create_climber_content'

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        solution, created = Solution.objects.get_or_create(
            user=request.user,
            boulder=Boulder.objects.get(pk=kwargs.get('boulder_pk')),
        )
        if created:
            return Response(status=204)
        return Response(status=304)

When used with a GenericAPIView, the PermissionRequiredMixin allows to define an object_permission_required (defaults to permission_required if not set). This permission (or list of permissions) is required by the request’s user to call the get_object method of the view.

In the context of climb-app! this could be used with the views for retrieving and updating boulder reviews:

from climb_app.models import Review
from climb_app.serializer import ReviewSerializer
from rest_framework.generics import GenericAPIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework_rules.mixins import PermissionRequiredMixin

class RetrieveReviewView(PermissionRequiredMixin, GenericAPIView):
    permission_required = 'climb_app.retrieve_climber_content'
    queryset = Review.objects.all()

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        review = self.get_object()
        serializer = ReviewSerializer(review)
        return Response(data=serializer.data)

class CreateOrUpdateReviewView(PermissionRequiredMixin, GenericAPIView):
    object_permission_required = 'climb_app.update_climber_content'
    permission_required = 'climb_app.create_climber_content'
    queryset = Review.objects.all()

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        solution, created = Review.objects.get_or_create(
            user=request.user,
            boulder=Boulder.objects.get(pk=kwargs.get('boulder_pk')),
        )
        if created:
            return Response(status=204)
        return Response(status=304)

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        review = self.get_object()
        # update review...
        return Response(status=204)

PermissionRequiredMixin with the ViewSet and GenericViewSet

The PermissionRequiredMixin can be used as well with ViewSet and GenericViewSet. The user need to have the permission_required to call actions of a viewset and object_permission_required (which defaults to permission_required if not set) to call get_object.

Let’s use this in climb app! to allow routesetters to create, delete boulders and list the reviews of their boulders.

from climb_app.models import Boulder, Review
from climb_app.serializers import BoulderSerializer, ReviewSerializer
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.viewsets import GenericViewSet, ViewSet
from rest_framework_rules.mixins import PermissionRequiredMixin

class ReviewViewSet(PermissionRequiredMixin, ViewSet):
    permission_required = 'climb_app.retrieve_reviews'

    def list(self, request):
        queryset = Review.objects.filter(boulder__author=request.user)
        serializer = ReviewSerializer(queryset, many=True)
        return Response(serializer.data)

class BoulderViewSet(PermissionRequiredMixin, GenericViewSet):
    object_permission_required = 'climb_app.delete_boulder'
    permission_required = 'climb_app.create_boulder'

    def create(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # create boulders...
        return Response(status=204)

    def destroy(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        instance = self.get_object()
        instance.delete()
        return Response(status=204)

permission_required decorator with APIView and ViewSet methods

Permissions can be set using the permission_required decorator. The required permission(s) is passed as first argument to the decorator. The decorator also has an optional fn argument, which is either the context object itself or a callable returning the context object. The arguments passed to the context object callable are the same as the ones of the decorated method.

from climb_app.models import Boulder, Solution
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework_rules.decorators import permission_required

class CheckmarkBoulderView(APIView):

    @permission_required('climb_app.create_climber_content')
    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        solution, created = Solution.objects.get_or_create(
            user=request.user,
            boulder=Boulder.objects.get(pk=kwargs.get('boulder_pk')),
        )
        if created:
            return Response(status=204)
        return Response(status=304)


class BoulderViewSet(ViewSet):

    @permission_required('climb_app.access_method')
    def create(self, request):
        # create boulder...
        return Response(status=204)

    @permission_required(
        'someapp.access_method',
        fn=lambda request, pk: Boulder.objects.get(pk=pk))
    def destroy(self, request, pk):
        boulder = Boulder.objects.get(pk=pk)
        boulder.delete()
        return Response(status=204)

using list_route and detail_route decorator with the PermissionRequiredMixin

rest_framework provides the decorators list_route and detail_route to define custom routes in viewsets. These can be used as well with django-rest-framework-rules under the condition, that the ViewSet is mixed with the PermissionRequiredMixin.

Let’s add some custom routes to the BoulderViewSet defined in climb-app! to allow routesetter to retrieve all reviews of a boulder and list all climbers which have solved the routesetter’s boulders.

from rest_framework.decorators import list_route, detail_route
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.viewsets import ViewSet
from rest_framework_rules.mixins import PermissionRequiredMixin

class BoulderViewSet(PermissionRequiredMixin, GenericViewSet):
    object_permission_required = 'climb_app.delete_boulder'
    permission_required = 'climb_app.create_boulder'

    def create(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # create boulders...
        return Response(status=204)

    def destroy(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        instance = self.get_object()
        instance.delete()
        return Response(status=204)

    @detail_route(methods=['get'], permission_required='climb_app.retrieve_reviews')
    def reviews(self, request, pk):
        boulder = self.get_object()
        queryset = (Review.objects
                    .filter(boulder=boulder)
                    .order_by('created'))
        serializer = ReviewSerializer(queryset=queryset, many=True)
        return Response(serializer.data)

    @list_route(methods=['get'], permission_required='climb_app.retrieve_climbers')
    def climbers(self, request):
        queryset = Climber.objects.filter(solution__boulder__author=request.user).distinct()
        serializer = ClimberSerializer(queryset=queryset, many=True)
        return Response(serializer.data)

Changelog

v1.0.0 - 2018/05/15
  • Dropped python 2.7 support.
v0.1.1 - 2017/11/17
  • Improve README and package setup.
v0.1.0 - 2017/11/13
  • Implemented PermissionRequiredMdddixin, permission_required decorator and the django rest framework integration tests.
v0.0.1 - 2017/10/30

Licence

django-rest-framework-rules is distributed under the MIT licence.

Copyright (c) 2017 Pablo Escodebar

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the “Software”), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS”, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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