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Automatically upgrade your Django project code.

Project description pre-commit

Automatically upgrade your Django project code.


Use pip:

python -m pip install django-upgrade

Python 3.8 to 3.11 supported.

pre-commit hook

You can also install django-upgrade as a pre-commit hook. Add the following to the repos section of your .pre-commit-config.yaml file (docs), above any code formatters (such as Black):

-   repo:
    rev: ""  # replace with latest tag on GitHub
    -   id: django-upgrade
        args: [--target-version, "4.1"]   # Replace with Django version

Then, upgrade your entire project:

pre-commit run django-upgrade --all-files

Commit any changes. In the process, your other hooks will run, potentially reformatting django-upgrade’s changes to match your project’s code style.

Keep the hook installed in order to upgrade all code added to your project. pre-commit’s autoupdate command will also let you take advantage of future django-upgrade features.

Want to improve your code quality? Check out my book Boost Your Django DX which covers using pre-commit, django-upgrade, and many other tools. I wrote django-upgrade whilst working on the book!


django-upgrade is a commandline tool that rewrites files in place. Pass your Django version as <major>.<minor> to the --target-version flag. django-upgrade will run all its fixers for versions up to and including the target version. These fixers rewrite your code to avoid DeprecationWarnings and use some new features.

For example:

django-upgrade --target-version 4.1 example/core/ example/

The --target-version flag defaults to 2.2, the oldest supported version when this project was created. For more on usage run django-upgrade --help.

django-upgrade focuses on upgrading your code and not on making it look nice. Run django-upgrade before formatters like Black.

django-upgrade does not have any ability to recurse through directories. Use the pre-commit integration, globbing, or another technique for applying to many files. Some fixers depend on the names of containing directories to activate, so ensure you run djagno-upgrade with paths relative to the root of your project. For example, with git ls-files | xargs:

git ls-files -- '*.py' | xargs django-upgrade --target-version 4.1

…or PowerShell’s ForEach-Object:

git ls-files -- '*.py' | %{django-upgrade --target-version 4.1 $_}

The full list of fixers is documented below.


django-codemod is a pre-existing, more complete Django auto-upgrade tool, written by Bruno Alla. Unfortunately its underlying library LibCST is particularly slow, making it annoying to run django-codemod on every commit and in CI.

django-upgrade is an experiment in reimplementing such a tool using the same techniques as the fantastic pyupgrade. The tool leans on the standard library’s ast and tokenize modules, the latter via the tokenize-rt wrapper. This means it will always be fast and support the latest versions of Python.

For a quick benchmark: running django-codemod against a medium Django repository with 153k lines of Python takes 133 seconds. pyupgrade and django-upgrade both take less than 0.5 seconds.


All Versions

The below fixers run regardless of the target version.

Versioned blocks

Removes outdated comparisons and blocks from if statements comparing to django.VERSION. Supports comparisons of the form:

if django.VERSION <comparator> (<X>, <Y>):

Where <comparator> is one of <, <= , >, or >=, and <X> and <Y> are integer literals. A single else block may be present, but elif is not supported.

-if django.VERSION < (4, 1):
-    class RenameIndex:
-        ...

-if django.VERSION >= (4, 1):
-    constraint.validate()
-    custom_validation(constraint)

See also pyupgrade’s similar feature that removes outdated code from checks on the Python version.

Django 1.7

Release Notes

Admin model registration

Rewrites calls to the new @admin.register() decorator syntax when eligible. This only applies in files that use from django.contrib import admin or from django.contrib.gis import admin.

 from django.contrib import admin

+@admin.register(MyModel1, MyModel2)
 class MyCustomAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
     ..., MyCustomAdmin), MyCustomAdmin)

This also works with custom admin sites. Such calls are detected heuristically based on three criteria:

  1. The object whose register() method is called has a name ending with site.

  2. The registered class has a name ending with Admin.

  3. The filename has the word admin somewhere in its path.

from myapp.admin import custom_site
from django.contrib import admin

+@admin.register(MyModel, site=custom_site)
class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):

-custom_site.register(MyModel, MyModelAdmin), MyModelAdmin)

If a register() call is preceded by an unregister() call that includes the same model, it is ignored.

from django.contrib import admin

class MyCustomAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    ..., MyCustomAdmin)

Django 1.9

Release Notes

on_delete argument

Add on_delete=models.CASCADE to ForeignKey and OneToOneField:

 from django.db import models

+models.ForeignKey("auth.User", on_delete=models.CASCADE)

+models.OneToOneField("auth.User", on_delete=models.CASCADE)

This fixer also support from-imports:

-from django.db.models import ForeignKey
+from django.db.models import CASCADE, ForeignKey

+ForeignKey("auth.User", on_delete=CASCADE)


Update the DATABASES setting backend path django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2 to use the renamed version django.db.backends.postgresql.

Settings files are heuristically detected as modules with the whole word “settings” somewhere in their path. For example myproject/ or myproject/settings/

     "default": {
-        "ENGINE": "django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2",
+        "ENGINE": "django.db.backends.postgresql",
         "NAME": "mydatabase",
         "USER": "mydatabaseuser",
         "PASSWORD": "mypassword",
         "HOST": "",
         "PORT": "5432",

Compatibility imports

Rewrites some compatibility imports:

  • django.forms.utils.pretty_name in django.forms.forms

  • django.forms.boundfield.BoundField in django.forms.forms

Whilst mentioned in the Django 3.1 release notes, these have been possible since Django 1.9.

-from django.forms.forms import pretty_name
+from django.forms.utils import pretty_name

Django 1.11

Release Notes

Compatibility imports

Rewrites some compatibility imports:

  • django.core.exceptions.EmptyResultSet in django.db.models.query, django.db.models.sql, and django.db.models.sql.datastructures

  • django.core.exceptions.FieldDoesNotExist in django.db.models.fields

Whilst mentioned in the Django 3.1 release notes, these have been possible since Django 1.11.

-from django.db.models.query import EmptyResultSet
+from django.core.exceptions import EmptyResultSet

-from django.db.models.fields import FieldDoesNotExist
+from django.core.exceptions import FieldDoesNotExist

Django 2.0

Release Notes


Rewrites imports of include() and url() from django.conf.urls to django.urls. url() calls using compatible regexes are rewritten to the new path() syntax, otherwise they are converted to call re_path().

-from django.conf.urls import include, url
+from django.urls import include, path, re_path

 urlpatterns = [
-    url(r'^$', views.index, name='index'),
+    path('', views.index, name='index'),
-    url(r'^about/$', views.about, name='about'),
+    path('about/', views.about, name='about'),
-    url(r'^post/(?P<slug>[-a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/$',, name='post'),
+    path('post/<slug:slug>/',, name='post'),
-    url(r'^weblog', include('blog.urls')),
+    re_path(r'^weblog', include('blog.urls')),

Existing re_path() calls are also rewritten to the path() syntax when eligible.

-from django.urls import include, re_path
+from django.urls import include, path, re_path

 urlpatterns = [
-    re_path(r'^about/$', views.about, name='about'),
+    path('about/', views.about, name='about'),
     re_path(r'^post/(?P<slug>[\w-]+)/$',, name='post'),

The compatible regexes that will be converted to use path converters are the following:

  • [^/]+str

  • [0-9]+int

  • [-a-zA-Z0-9_]+slug

  • [0-9a-f]{8}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{12}uuid

  • .+path

These are taken from the path converter classes.

For some cases, this change alters the type of the arguments passed to the view, from str to the converted type (e.g. int). This is not guaranteed backwards compatible: there is a chance that the view expects a string, rather than the converted type. But, pragmatically, it seems 99.9% of views do not require strings, and instead work with either strings or the converted type. Thus, you should test affected paths after this fixer makes any changes.

Note that [\w-] is sometimes used for slugs, but is not converted because it might be incompatible. That pattern matches all Unicode word characters, such as “α”, unlike Django’s slug converter, which only matches Latin characters.


Rewrites imports of lru_cache from django.utils.functional to use functools.

-from django.utils.functional import lru_cache
+from functools import lru_cache

<func>.allow_tags = True

Removes assignments of allow_tags attributes to True. This was an admin feature to allow display functions to return HTML without marking it as unsafe, deprecated in Django 1.9. In practice, most display functions that return HTML already use format_html() or similar, so the attribute wasn’t necessary. This only applies in files that use from django.contrib import admin or from django.contrib.gis import admin.

 from django.contrib import admin

 def upper_case_name(obj):

-upper_case_name.allow_tags = True

Django 2.2

Release Notes


Rewrites use of request.META to read HTTP headers to instead use request.headers. Header lookups are done in lowercase per the HTTP/2 specification.


-self.request.META.get('HTTP_SERVER', '')
+self.request.headers.get('server', '')


-"HTTP_SERVER" in request.META
+"server" in request.headers


Rewrites deprecated alias django.core.paginator.QuerySetPaginator to Paginator.

-from django.core.paginator import QuerySetPaginator
+from django.core.paginator import Paginator



Rewrites deprecated class FixedOffset(x, y)) to timezone(timedelta(minutes=x), y)

Known limitation: this fixer will leave code broken with an ImportError if FixedOffset is called with only *args or **kwargs.

-from django.utils.timezone import FixedOffset
-FixedOffset(120, "Super time")
+from datetime import timedelta, timezone
+timezone(timedelta(minutes=120), "Super time")


Rewrites model and form fields using FloatRangeField to DecimalRangeField, from the relevant django.contrib.postgres modules.

 from django.db.models import Model
-from django.contrib.postgres.fields import FloatRangeField
+from django.contrib.postgres.fields import DecimalRangeField

 class MyModel(Model):
-    my_field = FloatRangeField("My range of numbers")
+    my_field = DecimalRangeField("My range of numbers")

TestCase class database declarations

Rewrites the allow_database_queries and multi_db attributes of Django’s TestCase classes to the new databases attribute. This only applies in test files, which are heuristically detected as files with either “test” or “tests” somewhere in their path.

Note that this will only rewrite to databases = [] or databases = "__all__". With multiple databases you can save some test time by limiting test cases to the databases they require (which is why Django made the change).

 from django.test import SimpleTestCase

 class MyTests(SimpleTestCase):
-    allow_database_queries = True
+    databases = "__all__"

     def test_something(self):
         self.assertEqual(2 * 2, 4)

Django 3.0

Release Notes

django.utils.encoding aliases

Rewrites smart_text() to smart_str(), and force_text() to force_str().

-from django.utils.encoding import force_text, smart_text
+from django.utils.encoding import force_str, smart_str


django.utils.http deprecations

Rewrites the urlquote(), urlquote_plus(), urlunquote(), and urlunquote_plus() functions to the urllib.parse versions. Also rewrites the internal function is_safe_url() to url_has_allowed_host_and_scheme().

-from django.utils.http import urlquote
+from urllib.parse import quote

-escaped_query_string = urlquote(query_string)
+escaped_query_string = quote(query_string)

django.utils.text deprecation

Rewrites unescape_entities() with the standard library html.escape().

-from django.utils.text import unescape_entities
+import html

-unescape_entities("some input string")
+html.escape("some input string")

django.utils.translation deprecations

Rewrites the ugettext(), ugettext_lazy(), ugettext_noop(), ungettext(), and ungettext_lazy() functions to their non-u-prefixed versions.

-from django.utils.translation import ugettext as _, ungettext
+from django.utils.translation import gettext as _, ngettext

-ungettext("octopus", "octopodes", n)
+ngettext("octopus", "octopodes", n)

Django 3.1

Release Notes


Rewrites imports of JSONField and related transform classes from those in django.contrib.postgres to the new all-database versions. Ignores usage in migration files, since Django kept the old class around to support old migrations. You will need to make migrations after this fix makes changes to models.

-from django.contrib.postgres.fields import JSONField
+from django.db.models import JSONField


Rewrites the setting PASSWORD_RESET_TIMEOUT_DAYS to PASSWORD_RESET_TIMEOUT, adding the multiplication by the number of seconds in a day.

Settings files are heuristically detected as modules with the whole word “settings” somewhere in their path. For example myproject/ or myproject/settings/

+PASSWORD_RESET_TIMEOUT = 60 * 60 * 24 * 4


Removes the deprecated documentation-only providing_args argument.

 from django.dispatch import Signal
-my_cool_signal = Signal(providing_args=["documented", "arg"])
+my_cool_signal = Signal()


Injects the now-required length argument, with its previous default 12.

 from django.utils.crypto import get_random_string
-key = get_random_string(allowed_chars="01234567899abcdef")
+key = get_random_string(length=12, allowed_chars="01234567899abcdef")


Transforms the NullBooleanField() model field to BooleanField(null=True). Ignores usage in migration files, since Django kept the old class around to support old migrations. You will need to make migrations after this fix makes changes to models.

-from django.db.models import Model, NullBooleanField
+from django.db.models import Model, BooleanField

 class Book(Model):
-    valuable = NullBooleanField("Valuable")
+    valuable = BooleanField("Valuable", null=True)


Replace list error message key with list_invalid on forms ModelMultipleChoiceField.

-forms.ModelMultipleChoiceField(error_messages={"list": "Enter multiple values."})
+forms.ModelMultipleChoiceField(error_messages={"invalid_list": "Enter multiple values."})

Django 3.2

Release Notes


Rewrites functions that have admin action attributes assigned to them to use the new @admin.action() decorator. This only applies in files that use from django.contrib import admin or from django.contrib.gis import admin.

 from django.contrib import admin

 # Module-level actions:

+    description="Publish articles",
 def make_published(modeladmin, request, queryset):

-make_published.short_description = "Publish articles"

 # …and within classes:

 class BookAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
+    @admin.action(
+        description="Unpublish articles",
+        permissions=("unpublish",),
+    )
     def make_unpublished(self, request, queryset):

-    make_unpublished.allowed_permissions = ("unpublish",)
-    make_unpublished.short_description = "Unpublish articles"


Rewrites functions that have admin display attributes assigned to them to use the new @admin.display() decorator. This only applies in files that use from django.contrib import admin or from django.contrib.gis import admin.

 from django.contrib import admin

 # Module-level display functions:

+    description="NAME",
 def upper_case_name(obj):

-upper_case_name.short_description = "NAME"

 # …and within classes:

 class BookAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
+    @admin.display(
+        description='Is Published?',
+        boolean=True,
+        ordering='-publish_date',
+    )
     def is_published(self, obj):

-    is_published.boolean = True
-    is_published.admin_order_field = '-publish_date'
-    is_published.short_description = 'Is Published?'


Rewrites the requires_system_checks attributes of management command classes from bools to "__all__" or [] as appropriate. This only applies in command files, which are heuristically detected as files with management/commands somewhere in their path.

 from import BaseCommand

 class Command(BaseCommand):
-    requires_system_checks = True
+    requires_system_checks = "__all__"

 class SecondCommand(BaseCommand):
-    requires_system_checks = False
+    requires_system_checks = []


Rewrites the whitelist keyword argument to its new name allowlist.

 from django.core.validators import EmailValidator



Removes module-level default_app_config assignments from files:

-default_app_config = 'my_app.apps.AppConfig'

Django 4.0

Release Notes


Removes the deprecated USE_L10N setting if set to its default value of True.

Settings files are heuristically detected as modules with the whole word “settings” somewhere in their path. For example myproject/ or myproject/settings/

-USE_L10N = True

Django 4.1

Release Notes

django.utils.timezone.utc deprecations

Rewrites imports of django.utils.timezone.utc to use datetime.timezone.utc. Requires an existing import of the datetime module.

 import datetime
-from django.utils.timezone import utc

 import datetime as dt
 from django.utils import timezone


assertFormError() and assertFormsetError()

Rewrites calls to these assertion functions from the old signature to the new one.

-self.assertFormError(response, "form", "username", ["Too long"])
+self.assertFormError(response.context["form"], "username", ["Too long"])

-self.assertFormError(response, "form", "username", None)
+self.assertFormError(response.context["form"], "username", [])

-self.assertFormsetError(response, "formset", 0, "username", ["Too long"])
+self.assertFormsetError(response.context["formset"], 0, "username", ["Too long"])

-self.assertFormsetError(response, "formset", 0, "username", None)
+self.assertFormsetError(response.context["formset"], 0, "username", [])

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