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Instant integration of Ian Bicking's WebTest ( with Django's testing framework.

Project description

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django-webtest is an app for instant integration of Ian Bicking’s WebTest ( with Django’s testing framework.


$ pip install django-webtest


from django_webtest import WebTest

class MyTestCase(WebTest):

    # optional: we want some initial data to be able to login
    fixtures = ['users', 'blog_posts']

    # optional: default extra_environ for this TestCase
    extra_environ = {'HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE': 'ru'}

    def testBlog(self):
        # pretend to be logged in as user `kmike` and go to the index page
        index ='/', user='kmike')

        # All the webtest API is available. For example, we click
        # on a <a href='/tech-blog/'>Blog</a> link, check that it
        # works (result page doesn't raise exceptions and returns 200 http
        # code) and test if result page have 'My Article' text in
        # its body.
        assert 'My Article' in'Blog')

django-webtest provides a django.test.TestCase subclass (django_webtest.WebTest) that creates webtest.TestApp around django wsgi interface and makes it available in tests as

It also features an optional user argument for,, etc. to help making authorized requests. This argument should be a django.contrib.auth.models.User instance or a string with user’s username for the user who is supposed to be logged in. To log out again, call, clearing all cookies. To make a bunch of calls with the same user, call app.set_user(user) before your requests; if you want to disable that user, call app.get(..., user=None) for one request or app.set_user(None) to unset the user for all following calls.

For 500 errors original traceback is shown instead of usual html result from handler500.

You also get the response.templates and response.context goodness that is usually only available if you use Django’s native test client. These attributes contain a list of templates that were used to render the response and the context used to render these templates. All of Django’s native asserts ( assertFormError, assertTemplateUsed, assertTemplateNotUsed, assertContains, assertNotContains, assertRedirects) are also supported for WebTest responses.

The session dictionary is available via, and has the same content than Django’s native test client.

Unlike Django’s native test client CSRF checks are not suppressed by default so missing CSRF tokens will cause test fails (and that’s good).

If forms are submitted via WebTest forms API then all form fields (including CSRF token) are submitted automagically:

class AuthTest(WebTest):
    fixtures = ['users.json']

    def test_login(self):
        form ='auth_login')).form
        form['username'] = 'foo'
        form['password'] = 'bar'
        response = form.submit().follow()
        self.assertEqual(response.context['user'].username, 'foo')

However if forms are submitted via raw POST requests using then csrf tokens become hard to construct. CSRF checks can be disabled by setting csrf_checks attribute to False in this case:

class MyTestCase(WebTest):
    csrf_checks = False

    def test_post(self):'/')

When a subclass of Django’s TransactionTestCase is desired, use django_webtest.TransactionWebTest.

For disabling CSRF checks in a pytest-django fixture, see Usage with PyTest.

All of these features can be easily set up manually (thanks to WebTest architecture) and they are even not neccessary for using WebTest with Django but it is nice to have some sort of integration instantly.

See for API help. Webtest can follow links, submit forms, parse html, xml and json responses with different parsing libraries, upload files and more.

Integration with django-rest-framework

If your project uses django-rest-framework, the setting REST_FRAMEWORK['AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES'] will be patched automatically to include a class that links the rest-framework authentication system with app.get(user=user).

Usage with PyTest

You need to install pytest-django:

$ pip install pytest-django

Then you can use django-webtest’s fixtures:

def test_1(django_app):
    resp = django_app.get('/')
    assert resp.status_code == 200, 'Should return a 200 status code'

We have a django_app_factory fixture we can use to create custom fixtures. For example, one that doesn’t do CSRF checks:


def csrf_exempt_django_app(django_app_factory):
    return django_app_factory(csrf_checks=False)

csrf_checks and extra_environ are the only arguments to django_app_factory.


While django.test.client.Client is fine for its purposes, it is not well-suited for functional or integration testing. From Django’s test client docstring:

This is not intended as a replacement for Twill/Selenium or the like - it is here to allow testing against the contexts and templates produced by a view, rather than the HTML rendered to the end-user.

WebTest plays on the same field as twill. WebTest has a nice API, is fast, small, talks to the django application via WSGI instead of HTTP and is an easy way to write functional/integration/acceptance tests. django-webtest is able to provide access to the names of rendered templates and template context just like native Django TestClient.


Development happens at github: Issue tracker:

Feel free to submit ideas, bugs or pull requests.

Running tests

Make sure tox is installed and run:

$ tox

from the source checkout.


1.9.11 (2023-09-18)

  • Add support for official Python & Django versions

  • Do not insert WebtestAuthentication to the head of DEFAULT_AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES.

1.9.10 (2022-03-02)

  • Add an optional WebTest backend that does not interfere with handling of permissions by custom backends. Accessible via WEBTEST_AUTHENTICATION_BACKEND setting. Fixed #123

1.9.9 (2021-12-27)

  • Add Django 4 support

  • Remove Django 2 support

1.9.8 (2021-10-06)

1.9.7 (2019-07-05)

  • allow overriding HTTP_HOST with DjangoTestApp.__init__. Fixed #102

1.9.6 (2019-06-07)

  • rest_framework auth class. Fixed #98 #100

1.9.5 (2019-05-31)

  • Fix compatibility with django 3. See #96

  • Add integration with django-rest-framework auth

  • Add missing args to DjangoTestApp. Fixed #86

1.9.4 (2018-10-27)

  • py34 and Django 1.8 are no longer tested (but may works)

  • allow to use positionnal args; fixed #89

  • remove deprecated pytest.yield_fixture functions. use pytest.fixture instead; fixed #88

  • Don’t add duplicate WebtestUserMiddleware to the list of middlewares in WebTestMixin. fixed #87

  • restore MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES support; fixed #84

1.9.3 (2018-05-03)

  • Passing user=None to get/post/etc. methods will clear a user previously set with set_user instead of doing nothing.

  • Avoid sharing settings between tests in pytest plugin

  • Fix middleware settings name used

1.9.2 (2017-05-17)

  • silence warnings about is_authenticated on 1.11

  • include correct hostname (testserver) when using set_cookie

1.9.1 (2017-03-09)

  • Fix package description (multiline are no longer allowed by pypi)

1.9.0 (2017-03-09)

  • Backward incompatibility: positionnal arguments are no longer supported. You’ll need to replace them by keywords arguments.

  • Added support for Django 1.11

  • Dropped support for Django <= 1.7

  • Dropped support for Python 2.6

  • Changed value of HTTP_HOST header from localhost to testserver, to match behaviour of Django test client.

  • Fixed DjangoTestApp.options

  • Added DjangoTestApp.head

  • Added pytest fixtures

1.8.0 (2016-09-14)

  • Fixed issue #40 - combining app.get auto_follow=True with other keyword args.

  • Add compatibility to the MIDDLEWARE setting introduced in django 1.10

  • Drop support for django 1.2

1.7.9 (2016-04-19)

  • Add set_user() to allow to set a user globally for the app

  • Allow ‘click’ to be given a user param

  • Mention testapp.reset() in readme

  • Allow to use json_ methods

1.7.8 (2015-04-21)

  • is switched to setuptools; WebTest is now installed automatically (thanks Eric Araujo);

  • importlib from stdlib is used when available, for django 1.9 compatibility (thanks Helen Sherwood-Taylor);

  • django-webtest’s own tests are fixed to work in django 1.6+;

  • repository is no longer supported.

1.7.7 (2014-03-25)

  • Fix installation for Python 3.x on systems with C locales.

1.7.6 (2014-01-20)

  • DjangoTestApp methods pass all custom keyword arguments to webtest.TestApp; this allows to use xhr=True feature (thanks Max Kharandziuk).

  • Travis CI testing fixes (thanks Darian Moody).

1.7.5 (2013-07-17)

1.7.4 (2013-07-14)

  • Really add TransactionWebTest base class (thanks Julien Aubert).

1.7.3 (2013-07-07)

  • Added support for PATCH and OPTIONS HTTP methods (thanks Will Bradley).

1.7.2 (2013-06-27)

  • TransactionWebTest base class is added (thanks Iurii Kriachko).

1.7.1 (2013-06-11)

  • Added support for non-ascii usernames.

1.7 (2013-05-23)

  • Added support for django 1.6 (thanks Carl Meyer).

1.6.1 (2013-03-31)

  • Added support for django 1.5+ custom user models (thanks Gautier Hayoun).

1.6 (2013-03-07)

  • Added ability to pass a custom response_class and app_class to WebTest (thanks Bruno Renié);

  • Added case-insensitive header access in DjangoWebtestResponse (thanks Bruno Renié).

1.5.7 (2013-02-27)

  • WebTest 2.0 support.

1.5.6 (2013-01-21)

  • django 1.5 support: transaction handling is fixed (thanks Marco Braak).

1.5.5 (2013-01-14)

  • Fixed django 1.5 support: DjangoWebtestResponse.streaming attribute is added (thanks David Winterbottom).

1.5.4 (2012-09-13)

  • fix django 1.5 issues with AdminMediaHandler (thanks Tai Lee);

  • tox.ini is updated to use latest django versions and the official trunk with python3 support;

  • django 1.5 SimpleCookie issues are fixed.

1.5.3 (2012-04-25)

  • self.assertRedirects is fixed for authenticated requests.

1.5.2 (2012-04-01)

  • if AuthenticationMiddleware is not in a middleware list, WebtestUserMiddleware is put to the end of middlewares in order to provide better backward compatibility with 1.4.x in case of custom auth middlewares.

1.5.1 (2012-03-22)

  • Fixed handling of forms with method=”get”. Thanks Jeroen Vloothuis.

1.5 (2012-02-24)

  • WebtestUserMiddleware is inserted after AuthenticationMiddleware, not to the end of middleware list (thanks bigkevmcd);

  • don’t list python 2.5 as supported because WebOb dropped 2.5 support;

  • python 3 support;

  • test running using tox.

1.4.4 (2012-02-08)

  • ‘user’ parameter for and methods (thanks Ruslan Popov).

1.4.3 (2011-09-27)

  • The django session dictionary is available via

1.4.2 (2011-08-26)

  • REMOTE_ADDR is now '' by default. This is how standard django’s test client behave.

    Please note that this can slow tests down and cause other side effects if django-debug-toolbar 0.9.x is installed+configured and INTERNAL_IPS contain '' because debug toolbar will become turned on during tests. The workaround is to remove django-debug-toolbar middleware during tests in your test settings:

    DEBUG_MIDDLEWARE = 'debug_toolbar.middleware.DebugToolbarMiddleware'

1.4.1 (2011-06-29)

  • self.renew_app() method for resetting the ‘browser’ inside tests.

1.4 (2011-06-23)

  • Better auth implementation;

  • support for assertRedirects, assertContains and assertNotContains.

1.3 (2010-12-31)

  • Django 1.3 compatibility: test responses are now having ‘templates’ attribute;

  • Django 1.3 compatibility: the way exceptions are handled is changed;

  • auto_follow parameter for app.get method (redirect chains will be auto-followed with auto_follow=True).

1.2.1 (2010-08-24)

  • REMOTE_USER authorization can be disabled.

1.2 (2010-08-21)

  • response.template and response.context goodness (thanks Gregor Müllegger);

  • tests (thanks Gregor Müllegger);

  • csrf checks are now optional (thanks Gregor Müllegger).

1.1.1 (2010-07-16)

  • User instance can be passed to get and post methods instead of user’s username.

1.1 (2010-06-15)

  • Original traceback instead of html 500 error page;

  • per-TestCase extra_environ (thanks Gael Pasgrimaud);

  • fixed a bug with parameters (thanks anonymous).

1.0 (2010-04-20)

Initial release (thanks Ian Bicking for WebTest).

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