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RESTful API for WebSockets using django channels.

Project description

Django Channels Rest Framework provides a DRF like interface for building channels-v3 websocket consumers.

This project can be used alongside HyperMediaChannels and ChannelsMultiplexer to create a Hyper Media Style api over websockets. However Django Channels Rest Framework is also a free standing framework with the goal of providing an api that is familiar to DRF users.

theY4Kman has developed a useful Javascript client library dcrf-client to use with DCRF.

Thanks to

DCRF is based of a fork of Channels Api and of course inspired by Django Rest Framework.




pip install djangochannelsrestframework


In your application definition when you declare your consumers it is very important to use the .as_asgi() class method. Eg MyConsumer.as_asgi() you should not have any instances of MyConsumer() in your code base.

A Generic Api Consumer

In DCRF you can create a GenericAsyncAPIConsumer that works much like a GenericAPIView in DRF: For a more indeph look into Rest Like Websocket consumers read this blog post.

from . import models
from . import serializers
from djangochannelsrestframework import permissions
from djangochannelsrestframework.generics import GenericAsyncAPIConsumer
from djangochannelsrestframework.mixins import (

class LiveConsumer(ListModelMixin, GenericAsyncAPIConsumer):
    queryset = models.Test.objects.all()
    serializer_class = serializers.TestSerializer
    permission_classes = (permissions.IsAuthenticated,)

Because this class uses the ListModelMixin, one has access to the list action.

One may use the same exact querysets and serializer_class utilized in their DRF Views, but must omit the DRF permissions. Permissions are to be imported from djangochannelsrestframework, which provides the standard AllowAny and IsAuthenticated permissions.

To call an action from the client send a websocket message: {action: "list", "request_id": 42}

There are a selection of mixins that expose the common CURD actions:

  • ListModelMixin - list
  • PatchModelMixin - patch
  • CreateModelMixin - create
  • RetrieveModelMixin - retrieve
  • UpdateModelMixin - update
  • DeleteModelMixin - delete

Observing a Model instance

Consumer that let you subscribe to changes on an instance:

class TestConsumer(ObserverModelInstanceMixin, GenericAsyncAPIConsumer):
    queryset = get_user_model().objects.all()
    serializer_class = UserSerializer

this exposes the retrieve, subscribe_instance and unsubscribe_instance actions.

To subscribe send:

    "action": "subscribe_instance",
    "pk": 42,  # the id of the instance you are subscribing to
    "request_id": 4  # this id will be used for all resultent updates.

Actions will be sent down out from the server:

  "action": "update",
  "errors": [],
  "response_status": 200,
  "request_id": 4,
  "data": {'email': '', 'id': 42, 'username': 'thenewname'},

Adding Custom actions

class UserConsumer(GenericAsyncAPIConsumer):
    queryset = get_user_model().objects.all()
    serializer_class = UserSerializer

    async def send_email(self, pk=None, to=None, **kwargs):
        user = await database_sync_to_async(self.get_object)(pk=pk)
        # ... do some stuff
        # remember to wrap all db actions in `database_sync_to_async`
        return {}, 200  # return the contenct and the response code.

    @action()  # if the method is not async it is already wrapped in `database_sync_to_async`
    def publish(self, pk=None, **kwargs):
        user = self.get_object(pk=pk)
        # ...
        return {'pk': pk}, 200

Consumers that are not bound to Models

You can also create consumers that are not at all related to any models.

from djangochannelsrestframework.decorators import action
from djangochannelsrestframework.consumers import AsyncAPIConsumer

class MyConsumer(AsyncAPIConsumer):

    async def an_async_action(self, some=None, **kwargs):
        # do something async
        return {'response with': 'some message'}, 200

    def a_sync_action(self, pk=None, **kwargs):
        # do something sync
        return {'response with': 'some message'}, 200

Using your normal views over a websocket connection

from djangochannelsrestframework.consumers import view_as_consumer

application = ProtocolTypeRouter({
    "websocket": AuthMiddlewareStack(
            url(r"^front(end)/$", view_as_consumer(YourDjangoView)),

Subscribing to all instances of a model

One can subscribe to all instances of a model by utilizing the model_observer.

from import model_observer

async def model_activity(self, message, observer=None, action=None, **kwargs):
    # send activity to your frontend
    await self.send_json(message)

This method will send messages to the client on all CRUD operations made through the Django ORM. The action arg here it will take values such as create, delete and update you should consider passing this to your frontend client.

Note: These notifications do not include bulk updates, such as models.Test.objects.filter(name="abc").update(name="newname")

WARNING When using this to decorate a method to avoid the method firing multiple times you should ensure that if there are multiple @model_observer wrapped methods for the same model type within a single file that each method has a different name.

Subscribing to a model_observer

You can do this in a few placed, a common example is in the websocket_connect method.

async def websocket_connect(self, message):

    # Super Save
    await super().websocket_connect(message)

    # Initialized operation
    await self.activities_change.subscribe()

This method utilizes the previously mentioned model_activity method to subscribe to all instances of the current Consumer’s model.

One can also subscribe by creating a custom action

Another way is override AsyncAPIConsumer.accept(self, **kwargs)

class ModelConsumerObserver(AsyncAPIConsumer):
    async def accept(self, **kwargs):
        await super().accept(** kwargs)
        await self.model_change.subscribe()

    async def model_change(self, message, action=None, **kwargs):
        await self.send_json(message)

    ''' If you want the data serializeded instead of pk '''
    def model_serialize(self, instance, action, **kwargs):
        return TestSerializer(instance).data

Subscribing to a filtered list of models

In most situations you want to filter the set of models that you subscribe to.

To do this we need to split the model updates into groups and then in the consumer subscribe to the groups that we want/have permission to see.

class MyConsumer(AsyncAPIConsumer):

  async def classroom_change_handler(self, message, observer=None, action=None, **kwargs):
      # due to not being able to make DB QUERIES when selecting a group
      # maybe do an extra check here to be sure the user has permission
      # send activity to your frontend
      await self.send_json(dict(body=message, action=action))

  def classroom_change_handler(self, instance: models.Classroom, **kwargs):
      # this block of code is called very often *DO NOT make DB QUERIES HERE*
      yield f'-school__{instance.school_id}'
      yield f'-pk__{}'

  def classroom_change_handler(self, school=None, classroom=None, **kwargs):
      # This is called when you subscribe/unsubscribe
      if school is not None:
          yield f'-school__{}'
      if classroom is not None:
          yield f'-pk__{}'

  async def subscribe_to_classrooms_in_school(self, school_pk, **kwargs):
      # check user has permission to do this
      await self.classroom_change_handler.subscribe(school=school)

  async def subscribe_to_classroom(self, classroom_pk, **kwargs):
      # check user has permission to do this
      await self.classroom_change_handler.subscribe(classroom=classroom)

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