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Project Description

dpath-python

A python library for accessing and searching dictionaries via /slashed/paths ala xpath

Basically it lets you glob over a dictionary as if it were a filesystem. It allows you to specify globs (ala the bash eglob syntax, through some advanced fnmatch.fnmatch magic) to access dictionary elements, and provides some facility for filtering those results.

sdists are available on pypi: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/dpath

Installing

The best way to install dpath is via easy_install or pip.

easy_install dpath
pip install dpath

Using Dpath

import dpath.util

Separators

All of the functions in this library (except ‘merge’) accept a ‘separator’ argument, which is the character that should separate path components. The default is ‘/’, but you can set it to whatever you want.

Searching

Suppose we have a dictionary like this:

x = {
    "a": {
        "b": {
        "3": 2,
        "43": 30,
        "c": [],
        "d": ['red', 'buggy', 'bumpers'],
        }
    }
}

… And we want to ask a simple question, like “Get me the value of the key ‘43’ in the ‘b’ hash which is in the ‘a’ hash”. That’s easy.

>>> help(dpath.util.get)
Help on function get in module dpath.util:

get(obj, glob, separator='/')
    Given an object which contains only one possible match for the given glob,
    return the value for the leaf matching the given glob.

    If more than one leaf matches the glob, ValueError is raised. If the glob is
    not found, KeyError is raised.

>>> dpath.util.get(x, '/a/b/43')
30

Or you could say “Give me a new dictionary with the values of all elements in x['a']['b'] where the key is equal to the glob '[cd]'. Okay.

>>> help(dpath.util.search)
Help on function search in module dpath.util:

search(obj, glob, yielded=False)
Given a path glob, return a dictionary containing all keys
that matched the given glob.

If 'yielded' is true, then a dictionary will not be returned.
Instead tuples will be yielded in the form of (path, value) for
every element in the document that matched the glob.

… Sounds easy!

>>> result = dpath.util.search(x, "a/b/[cd]")
>>> print json.dumps(result, indent=4, sort_keys=True)
{
"a": {
    "b": {
    "c": [],
    "d": [
        "red",
        "buggy",
        "bumpers"
    ]
    }
}
}

… Wow that was easy. What if I want to iterate over the results, and not get a merged view?

>>> for x in dpath.util.search(x, "a/b/[cd]", yielded=True): print x
...
('a/b/c', [])
('a/b/d', ['red', 'buggy', 'bumpers'])

… Or what if I want to just get all the values back for the glob? I don’t care about the paths they were found at:

>>> help(dpath.util.values)
Help on function values in module dpath.util:

values(obj, glob, separator='/', afilter=None, dirs=True)
Given an object and a path glob, return an array of all values which match
the glob. The arguments to this function are identical to those of search(),
and it is primarily a shorthand for a list comprehension over a yielded
search call.

>>> dpath.util.values(x, '/a/b/d/\*')
['red', 'buggy', 'bumpers']

Example: Setting existing keys

Let’s use that same dictionary, and set keys like ‘a/b/[cd]’ to the value ‘Waffles’.

>>> help(dpath.util.set)
Help on function set in module dpath.util:

set(obj, glob, value)
Given a path glob, set all existing elements in the document
to the given value. Returns the number of elements changed.

>>> dpath.util.set(x, 'a/b/[cd]', 'Waffles')
2
>>> print json.dumps(x, indent=4, sort_keys=True)
{
    "a": {
        "b": {
        "3": 2,
        "43": 30,
        "c": "Waffles",
        "d": "Waffles"
        }
    }
}

Example: Adding new keys

Let’s make a new key with the path ‘a/b/e/f/g’, set it to “Roffle”. This behaves like ‘mkdir -p’ in that it makes all the intermediate paths necessary to get to the terminus.

>>> help(dpath.util.new)
Help on function new in module dpath.util:

new(obj, path, value)
Set the element at the terminus of path to value, and create
it if it does not exist (as opposed to 'set' that can only
change existing keys).

path will NOT be treated like a glob. If it has globbing
characters in it, they will become part of the resulting
keys

>>> dpath.util.new(x, 'a/b/e/f/g', "Roffle")
>>> print json.dumps(x, indent=4, sort_keys=True)
{
    "a": {
        "b": {
            "3": 2,
            "43": 30,
            "c": "Waffles",
            "d": "Waffles",
            "e": {
                "f": {
                    "g": "Roffle"
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

This works the way we expect with lists, as well. If you have a list object and set index 10 of that list object, it will grow the list object with None entries in order to make it big enough:

>>> dpath.util.new(x, 'a/b/e/f/h', [])
>>> dpath.util.new(x, 'a/b/e/f/h/13', 'Wow this is a big array, it sure is lonely in here by myself')
>>> print json.dumps(x, indent=4, sort_keys=True)
{
    "a": {
        "b": {
            "3": 2,
            "43": 30,
            "c": "Waffles",
            "d": "Waffles",
            "e": {
                "f": {
                    "g": "Roffle",
                    "h": [
                        null,
                        null,
                        null,
                        null,
                        null,
                        null,
                        null,
                        null,
                        null,
                        null,
                        null,
                        null,
                        null,
                        "Wow this is a big array, it sure is lonely in here by myself"
                    ]
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

Handy!

Example: Merging

Also, check out dpath.util.merge. The python dict update() method is great and all but doesn’t handle merging dictionaries deeply. This one does.

>>> help(dpath.util.merge)
Help on function merge in module dpath.util:

merge(dst, src, afilter=None, flags=4, _path='')
    Merge source into destination. Like dict.update() but performs
    deep merging.

    flags is an OR'ed combination of MERGE_ADDITIVE, MERGE_REPLACE, or
    MERGE_TYPESAFE.
        * MERGE_ADDITIVE : List objects are combined onto one long
          list (NOT a set). This is the default flag.
        * MERGE_REPLACE : Instead of combining list objects, when
          2 list objects are at an equal depth of merge, replace
          the destination with the source.
        * MERGE_TYPESAFE : When 2 keys at equal levels are of different
          types, raise a TypeError exception. By default, the source
          replaces the destination in this situation.

>>> y = {'a': {'b': { 'e': {'f': {'h': [None, 0, 1, None, 13, 14]}}}, 'c': 'RoffleWaffles'}}
>>> print json.dumps(y, indent=4, sort_keys=True)
{
"a": {
    "b": {
    "e": {
        "f": {
        "h": [
            null,
            0,
            1,
            null,
            13,
            14
        ]
        }
    }
    },
    "c": "RoffleWaffles"
}
}
>>> dpath.util.merge(x, y)
>>> print json.dumps(x, indent=4, sort_keys=True)
{
"a": {
    "b": {
    "3": 2,
    "43": 30,
    "c": "Waffles",
    "d": "Waffles",
    "e": {
        "f": {
        "g": "Roffle",
        "h": [
            null,
            0,
            1,
            null,
            13,
            14,
            null,
            null,
            null,
            null,
            null,
            null,
            null,
            "Wow this is a big array, it sure is lonely in here by myself"
        ]
        }
    }
    },
    "c": "RoffleWaffles"
}
}

Now that’s handy. You shouldn’t try to use this as a replacement for the deepcopy method, however - while merge does create new dict and list objects inside the target, the terminus objects (strings and ints) are not copied, they are just re-referenced in the merged object.

Filtering

All of the methods in this library (except new()) support a ‘afilter’ argument. This can be set to a function that will return True or False to say ‘yes include that value in my result set’ or ‘no don’t include it’.

Filtering functions receive every terminus node in a search - e.g., anything that is not a dict or a list, at the very end of the path. For each value, they return True to include that value in the result set, or False to exclude it.

Consider this example. Given the source dictionary, we want to find ALL keys inside it, but we only really want the ones that contain “ffle” in them:

>>> print json.dumps(x, indent=4, sort_keys=True)
{
"a": {
    "b": {
    "3": 2,
    "43": 30,
    "c": "Waffles",
    "d": "Waffles",
    "e": {
        "f": {
        "g": "Roffle"
        }
    }
    }
}
}
>>> def afilter(x):
...     if "ffle" in str(x):
...             return True
...     return False
...
>>> result = dpath.util.search(x, '**', afilter=afilter)
>>> print json.dumps(result, indent=4, sort_keys=True)
{
"a": {
    "b": {
    "c": "Waffles",
    "d": "Waffles",
    "e": {
        "f": {
        "g": "Roffle"
        }
    }
    }
}
}

Obviously filtering functions can perform more advanced tests (regular expressions, etc etc).

Key Names

By default, dpath only understands dictionary keys that are integers or strings. String keys must be non-empty. You can change this behavior by setting a library-wide dpath option:

import dpath.options
dpath.options.ALLOW_EMPTY_STRING_KEYS = True

Again, by default, this behavior is OFF, and empty string keys will result in dpath.exceptions.InvalidKeyName being thrown.

Separator got you down? Use lists as paths

The default behavior in dpath is to assume that the path given is a string, which must be tokenized by splitting at the separator to yield a distinct set of path components against which dictionary keys can be individually glob tested. However, this presents a problem when you want to use paths that have a separator in their name; the tokenizer cannot properly understand what you mean by ‘/a/b/c’ if it is possible for ‘/’ to exist as a valid character in a key name.

To get around this, you can sidestep the whole “filesystem path” style, and abandon the separator entirely, by using lists as paths. All of the methods in dpath.util.* support the use of a list instead of a string as a path. So for example:

dpath.path : The Undocumented Backend

dpath.util is where you want to spend your time: this library has the friendly functions that will understand simple string globs, afilter functions, etc.

dpath.path is the backend pathing library - it is currently undocumented, and not meant to be used directly! It passes around lists of path components instead of string globs, and just generally does things in a way that you (as a frontend user) might not expect. Stay out of it. You have been warned!

Release History

Release History

1.4.0

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TODO: Figure out how to actually get changelog content.

Changelog content for this version goes here.

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Download Files

Download Files

TODO: Brief introduction on what you do with files - including link to relevant help section.

File Name & Checksum SHA256 Checksum Help Version File Type Upload Date
dpath-1.4.0.tar.gz (13.9 kB) Copy SHA256 Checksum SHA256 Source Jun 12, 2015

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