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The dynamic configurator for your Python Project

Project description

dynaconf - The dynamic configurator for your Python Project

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dynaconf a layered configuration system for Python applications - with strong support for 12-factor applications and extensions for Flask and Django.



install Dynaconf in a Python 3 environment

# to use with settings.py, settings.json, .env or environment vars
pip3 install dynaconf

# to include support for more file formats
pip3 install dynaconf[yaml]
pip3 install dynaconf[toml]
pip3 install dynaconf[ini]
pip3 install dynaconf[redis]
pip3 install dynaconf[vault]

# for a complete installation
pip3 install dynaconf[all]

How does it work?

# import the unique dynaconf object
from dynaconf import settings

# access your config variables
Connect(user=settings.USERNAME, passwd=settings.PASSWD)

# You can provide defaults in case config is missing
Connect(user=settings('USERNAME', 'admin'), passwd=settings('PASSWD', 1234))

Where the values come from?

Dynaconf will look for variables in the following order (by default) and you can also customize the order of loaders.

  • Settings files files in the order: settings.{py|yaml|toml|ini|json}
  • .env file
  • exported Environment Variables
  • Remote storage servers
  • Multiple customizable sources

12factor recommended example (environment variables):

# put some variable in a .env file
echo "DYNACONF_USERNAME=admin" >> .env
# Or export directly
export DYNACONF_USERNAME=admin
export DYNACONF_PASSWD='@int 1234'  # you can type the values!

Just read it

# import the unique dynaconf object
from dynaconf import settings

# access your config variables
Connect(user=settings.USERNAME, passwd=settings.PASSWD)

NOTE: You can customize the prefix DYNACONF_ to your own namespace like MYAPP_USERNAME exporting NAMESPACE_FOR_DYNACONF=MYAPP.

Features

  • Read config variables from unique dynaconf object
  • Values can come from different sources:
    • Load values from settings.{py|yaml|toml|ini} file
    • Load values from .env files
    • Load values from System's Exported Environment Variables
    • And even more:
      • Load values from a remote Redis server
      • Load values from a remote SQL database
      • Load values from a remote memcached
      • Load values from a remote Secrets Vault
    • And if you want:
      • Load values from anywhere you want, easy to implement your own loader!
  • Flexible typing system
    • Export Typed environment variables using dynaconf data type markers export FOO=@int 42
  • Flask Support
    • In your Flask application just do FlaskDynaconf(app) and then read values from app.config object
  • Feature Flag System
    • Implement a feature flag system using dynaconf as store and checker
  • Value validation
    • Validate the config variables and define rules

Examples

Choose a file format to store your settings or store it in environment variables

Choose the file format that best fit your project and call it settings.{py|yaml|toml|ini} put this file in the root directory of your project. If you don't want to have a settings file dynaconf can also read values from environment variables or .env files.

Try it

0 - Install dynaconf with TOML support

pip install dynaconf[toml]

1 - Create a settings.toml to store default project settings

[dynaconf]
server = 'foo.com'
username = 'admin'
password = false

2 - Create .secrets.toml to store sensitive variables

[dynaconf]
password = 'My5up3r53c4et'

3 - Create a .env to override values in specific environments

DYNACONF_USERNAME=admin

The .env is optional, it also works if export DYNACONF_VARIABLE=x is used

4 - Create a .gitignore to remove .secrets.* and .env from VCS

.env
.secrets.*

5 - Create the program.py

from dynaconf import settings

print(settings.USERNAME)
print(settings.SERVER)
print(settings.PASSWORD)

6 - Run it

$ python program.py
admin
foo.com
My5up3r53c4et

It is possible to have multiple sources at the same time but the recommendation is to pick a single format for your configurations and use envvars or .env to override it.

Namespace support

When you are working with multiple projects using the same environment maybe you want to use different namespaces for ENV vars based configs

export DYNACONF_DATABASE="DYNADB"
export PROJ1_DATABASE="PROJ1DB"
export PROJ2_DATABASE="PROJ2DB"

and then access them

>>> from dynaconf import settings

# access default namespace settings
>>> settings.DATABASE
'DYNADB'

# switch namespaces
>>> settings.namespace('PROJ1')
>>> settings.DATABASE
'PROJ1DB'

>>> settings.namespace('PROJ2')
>>> settings.DATABASE
'PROJ2DB'

# return to default, call it without args
>>> settings.namespace()
>>> settings.DATABASE
'DYNADB'

You can also use the context manager:

>>> settings.DATABASE
'DYNADB'

>>> with settings.using_namespace('PROJ1'):
...    settings.DATABASE
    'PROJ1DB'

>>> with settings.using_namespace('PROJ2'):
...    settings.DATABASE
    'PROJ2DB'

>>> settings.DATABASE
'DYNADB'

namespace() and using_namespace() takes optional argument clean defaults to True. If you want to keep the pre-loaded values when switching namespaces set it to False.

Namespaced environment

It is usual to have e.g production and development environments, the way to set this is:

Using settings.py as base file you just need other <environment>_settings.py files.

settings.py
development_settings.py
production_settings.py

Then in your environment.

export NAMESPACE_FOR_DYNACONF=DEVELOPMENT|PRODUCTION  # switch enviroment using env vars.

Or using namespace

with settings.using_namespace('development'):
    # code here

settings.namespace('development')

NOTE: settings.py is the base and namespace specific overrides its vars.

using YAML

you need to install with pip install dynaconf[yaml]

Just save a settings.yaml in the root dir.

Using YAML is easier because it support multiple namespace in a single file.

Lets say you have NAMESPACE_FOR_DYNACONF=DYNACONF (the default)

DYNACONF:  # this is the global namespace
  VARIABLE: 'this variable is available on every namespace'
  HOST: null  # this variable is set to None

DEVELOPMENT:
  HOST: devserver.com  # overrides the global or sets new

production:  # upper or lower case does not matter
  host: prodserver.com

Then it will be applied using env var NAMESPACE_FOR_DYNACONF or context manager.

HINT: When using yaml namespace identifier and first level vars are case insensitive, dynaconf will always have them read as upper case.

using TOML

you need to install with pip install dynaconf[toml]

Just save a settings.toml in the root dir.

Using TOML is easier because it support multiple namespace in a single file.

Lets say you have NAMESPACE_FOR_DYNACONF=DYNACONF (the default)

[dynaconf]  # this is the global namespace
variable = 'this variable is available on every namespace'
HOST = false  # this variable is set to False

[DEVELOPMENT]
HOST = 'devserver.com'  # overrides the global or sets new

[production]  # upper or lower case does not matter
host = 'prodserver.com'

Then it will be applied using env var NAMESPACE_FOR_DYNACONF or context manager.

HINT: When using toml namespace identifier and first level vars are case insensitive, dynaconf will always have them read as upper case.

using INIFILES

you need to install dynaconf with pip install dynaconf[ini]

Just save a settings.ini in the root dir.

Using INI is easier because it support multiple namespace in a single file.

Lets say you have NAMESPACE_FOR_DYNACONF=DYNACONF (the default)

[DYNACONF]
VARIABLE = "this variable is available on every namespace"

[DEVELOPMENT]
HOST = "devserver.com"

[production]
host = "prodserver.com"

Then it will be applied using env var NAMESPACE_FOR_DYNACONF or context manager.

HINT: When using INI namespace identifier and first level vars are case insensitive, dynaconf will always have them read as upper case.

using JSON

Just save a settings.json in the root dir.

Using JSON is easier because it support multiple namespace in a single file.

Lets say you have NAMESPACE_FOR_DYNACONF=DYNACONF (the default)

{
  "DYNACONF": {
    "VARIABLE": "this variable is available on every namespace",
    "HOST": null
  },
  "DEVELOPMENT": {
    "HOST": "devserver.com"
  },
  "production": {
    "host": "prodserver.com"
  }
}

Then it will be applied using env var NAMESPACE_FOR_DYNACONF or context manager.

HINT: When using json namespace identifier and first level vars are case insensitive, dynaconf will always have them read as upper case.

casting values from envvars

Sometimes you need to set some values as specific types, boolean, integer, float or lists and dicts.

built in casts

  • @int (as_int)
  • @bool (as_bool)
  • @float (as_float)
  • @json (as_json)

@json / as_json will use json to load a Python object from string, it is useful to get lists and dictionaries. The return is always a Python object.

strings does not need converters.

You have 2 ways to use the casts.

Casting on declaration

Dynaconf uses the AUTO_CAST of envvars, just start your ENV vars names with a typed prefix like in the examples below.

export DYNACONF_DEFAULT_THEME='material'
export DYNACONF_DEBUG='@bool True'
export DYNACONF_DEBUG_TOOLBAR_ENABLED='@bool False'
export DYNACONF_PAGINATION_PER_PAGE='@int 20'
export DYNACONF_MONGODB_SETTINGS='@json {"DB": "quokka_db"}'
export DYNACONF_ALLOWED_EXTENSIONS='@json ["jpg", "png"]'

Starting the settings values with @ will make dynaconf.settings to cast it in the time od load.

There is support for @int, @float, @bool, @json, @note

NOTE: To disable the AUTO_CAST you can set a env var export AUTO_CAST_FOR_DYNACONF=off

Casting on access

export DYNACONF_USE_SSH='yes'

from dynaconf import settings
use_ssh = settings.get('USE_SSH', cast='@bool')
# or
use_ssh = settings('USE_SSH', cast='@bool')
# or
use_ssh = settings.as_bool('USE_SSH')

print use_ssh

True

more examples

export DYNACONF_USE_SSH='enabled'

export DYNACONF_ALIST='@json [1,2,3]'
export DYNACONF_ADICT='@json {"name": "Bruno"}'
export DYNACONF_AINT='@int 42'
export DYNACONF_ABOOL='@bool on'
export DYNACONF_AFLOAT='@float 42.5'
from dynaconf import settings

# original value
settings('USE_SSH')
'enabled'

# cast as bool
settings('USE_SSH', cast='@bool')
True

# also cast as bool
settings.as_bool('USE_SSH')
True

# cast defined in declaration '@bool on'
settings.ABOOL
True

# cast defined in declaration '@json {"name": "Bruno"}'
settings.ADICT
{u'name': u'Bruno'}

# cast defined in declaration '@json [1,2,3]'
settings.ALIST
[1, 2, 3]

# cast defined in decalration '@float 42.5'
settings.AFLOAT
42.5

# cast defined in declaration '@int 42'
settings.AINT
42

Defining default namespace

Include in the settings.py or in the file defined in the envvar DYNACONF_SETTINGS or in the .env file or in the customized LazySettings class the desired namespace

NAMESPACE_FOR_DYNACONF = 'MYPROGRAM'

Storing settings in databases

Using Hashicorp Vault

The https://www.vaultproject.io/ is a key:value store for secrets and Dynaconf can load variables from a Vault secret.

  1. Run a vault server Run a Vault server installed or via docker:
docker run -e 'VAULT_DEV_ROOT_TOKEN_ID=myroot' -p 8200:8200 vault
  1. Install support for vault in dynaconf
pip install dynaconf[vault]
  1. In your .env file or in environment variables do:
VAULT_FOR_DYNACONF_ENABLED=1
VAULT_FOR_DYNACONF_URL="http://localhost:8200"
VAULT_FOR_DYNACONF_TOKEN="myroot"
VAULT_FOR_DYNACONF_PATH="/secret/data/"   # the resulting namespace will have namespace added as in /secret/data/dynaconf

Now you can have keys like PASSWORD and TOKEN defined in the vault and dynaconf will read it.

To write a new secret you can use http://localhost:8200 web admin and write keys under the /secret/dynaconf secret database.

You can also use the Dynaconf writer via Python terminal

from dynaconf.loaders.vault_loader import write
write({'password': '123456'})

Using REDIS

1 Add the configuration for redis client

REDIS_FOR_DYNACONF = {
    'host': 'localhost',
    'port': 6379,
    'db': 0,
    'decode_responses': True
}

NOTE: if running on Python 3 include 'decode_responses': True in REDIS_FOR_DYNACONF

Enable the loader in .env or as environment variable

REDIS_FOR_DYNACONF_ENABLED=1

You can now write variables direct in to a redis hash named DYNACONF_< NAMESPACE >

By default DYNACONF_DYNACONF

You can also use the redis writer

from dynaconf.utils import redis_writer
from dynaconf import settings

redis_writer.write(settings, name='Bruno', database='localhost', PORT=1234)

The above data will be converted to namespaced values and recorded in redis as a hash:

DYNACONF_DYNACONF:
    NAME='Bruno'
    DATABASE='localhost'
    PORT='@int 1234'

if you want to skip type casting, write as string intead of PORT=1234 use PORT='1234' as redis stores everything as string anyway

Data is read from redis and another loaders only once or when namespace() and using_namespace() are invoked. You can access the fresh value using settings.get_fresh(key)

There is also the fresh context manager

from dynaconf import settings

print settings.FOO  # this data was loaded once on import

with settings.fresh():
    print settings.FOO  # this data is being directly read from loaders

And you can also force some variables to be fresh setting in your setting file

DYNACONF_ALWAYS_FRESH_VARS = ['MYSQL_HOST']

or using env vars

export DYNACONF_ALWAYS_FRESH_VARS='@json ["MYSQL_HOST"]'

Then

from dynaconf import settings

print settings.FOO  # This data was loaded once on import

print settings.MYSQL_HOST # This data is being read from redis imediatelly!

Using programatically

Sometimes you want to override settings for your existing Package or Framework lets say you have a conf module exposing a settings object and used to do:

from myprogram.conf import settings

Now you want to use Dynaconf, open that conf.py or conf/__init__.py and do:

# coding: utf-8
from dynaconf import LazySettings

settings = LazySettings(
    ENVVAR_FOR_DYNACONF="MYPROGRAM_SETTINGS_MODULE",
    NAMESPACE_FOR_DYNACONF='MYPROGRAM'
)

Now you can import settings from your own program and dynaconf will do the rest!

Flask Extension

Dynaconf provides an extension to make your app.config in Flask to be a dynaconf instance.

from flask import Flask
from dynaconf import FlaskDynaconf

app = Flask(__name__)
FlaskDynaconf(app)

Now the app.config will read values from dynaconf.settings

Django Extension

Dynaconf provides an extnesion to make django.conf.settings to be a dynaconf instance

In your django project's settings.py include:

INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'dynaconf.contrib.django_dynaconf',
    ...
]

NOTE: The extension must be included as the first INSTALLED_APP of the list

Now create your settings.{py|yaml|toml|ini|json} in your project's root directory (the same folder where manage.py is located)

Now when doing form django.conf import settings this settings object will read values from dynaconf

DEBUGGING

By default Dynaconf only outputs the ERROR level to debug it change

export DEBUG_LEVEL_FOR_DYNACONF='INFO'

The loading precedende order

Dynaconf will perform loads in this order:

  1. Load Default configuration
  2. Load Environment variables (pre load to read initial DYNACONF_ config)
  3. Load Settings file in the order defined in SETTINGS_MODULE_FOR_DYNACONF by default will to load 'settings.py,settings.yaml,settings.toml' in this order overriding previous values
  4. Load all loaders defined in LOADERS_FOR_DYNACONF by default only environment variables will be read again and get higher precedence

The files will be tried to load in the following order allowing overrides

[
 'settings.py', '.secrets.py',
 'settings.yaml', 'settings.yml', '.secrets.yaml', '.secrets.yml',
 'settings.toml', 'settings.tml', '.secrets.toml', '.secrets.tml',
 'settings.ini', 'settings.conf', 'settings.properties',
 '.secrets.ini', '.secrets.conf', '.secrets.properties',
 'settings.json', '.secrets.json'
]

Customizing the loaders

In a setting file like settings.{py|yaml|toml|ini|json} define:

LOADERS_FOR_DYNACONF = [
    'dynaconf.loaders.env_loader',
    'dynaconf.loaders.redis_loader',
    'YourCustomLoaderPath'
]

export also works

export LOADERS_FOR_DYNACONF='@json ["loader1", "loader2"]'

Loaders will be executed in that order.

To disable loaders do:

LOADERS_FOR_DYNACONF=0

This will cause environment variables to lose the higher precedence

More examples:

Take a look at example/ for more.

This was inspired by flask.config and django.conf.settings

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