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edX extensions of Django REST Framework

Project description

edX Django REST Framework Extensions CI Codecov

This library includes various cross-cutting concerns related to APIs. API functionality added to this library must be required for multiple Open edX applications or multiple repositories.

Some of these concerns include extensions of Django REST Framework (DRF), which is how the repository initially got its name.

Publishing a Release

After a PR merges, a new version of the package will automatically be released by Travis when the commit is tagged. Use:

git tag -a X.Y.Z -m "Releasing version X.Y.Z"
git push origin X.Y.Z

Do not create a Github Release, or ensure its message points to the CHANGELOG.rst and ADR 0001-use-changelog.rst.

JWT Authentication and REST API Endpoints

JWT Authentication is the preferred method of authentication for Open edX API endpoints. See JWT Authentication README for more details.


One feature of this library is a csrf app containing an API endpoint for retrieving CSRF tokens from the Django service in which it is installed. This is useful for frontend apps attempting to make POST, PUT, and DELETE requests to a Django service with Django’s CSRF middleware enabled.

To make use of this API endpoint:

  1. Install edx-drf-extensions in your Django project.

  2. Add csrf.apps.CsrfAppConfig to INSTALLED_APPS.

  3. Add 'edx_rest_framework_extensions.auth.jwt.middleware.JwtAuthCookieMiddleware' to MIDDLEWARE.

  4. Add csrf.urls to


The latest documentation for this repository can be found on Read the Docs


The code in this repository is licensed under Apache 2.0 unless otherwise noted.

Please see LICENSE.txt for details.

How To Contribute

Contributions are very welcome.

Please read How To Contribute for details.

Reporting Security Issues

Please do not report security issues in public. Please email

Change Log


[10.3.0] - 2024-03-29

  • Added Support for Python 3.11

  • Dropped support for Django<4.2

[10.2.0] - 2024-01-26

  • Subclasses base exception JwtAuthenticationError from Django Rest Framework’s AuthenticationFailed exception, allowing JwtAuthenticationError to be recognized and handled by the default exception handler of the Django Rest Framework.

[10.1.0] - 2024-01-26


    • This toggle should only get enabled in the LMS, and should remain disabled in all other services.

    • If enabled, makes sure that the user email in JWT cookies and LMS user email matches

    • If email matches, it allows authentication otherwise raise JwtUserEmailMismatchError error.

[10.0.0] - 2023-11-30


  • BREAKING CHANGE: Removed ENABLE_FORGIVING_JWT_COOKIES toggle. It is now permanently enabled.

    • The header USE-JWT-COOKIE was removed because it has been fully replaced by forgiving JWTs.

    • Removed temporary rollout custom attributes: use_jwt_cookie_requested, jwt_auth_request_user_not_found, and skip_jwt_vs_session_check.

[9.1.2] - 2024-01-07


  • Restores and fixes simplified JWT cookie vs session user check by checking username instead of lms user id (originally introduced in 9.1.0, and removed in 9.1.1).

    • Removed VERIFY_LMS_USER_ID_PROPERTY_NAME, which is no longer needed.

    • Removed custom attribute jwt_auth_get_lms_user_id_status, since we no longer attempt to get the lms_user_id from the user object.

    • Renames custom attribute jwt_auth_mismatch_session_lms_user_id to jwt_auth_mismatch_session_username.

    • Adds custom attribute jwt_auth_mismatch_jwt_cookie_username.

    • Adds custom attribute jwt_cookie_unsafe_decode_issue for when a JWT cookie cannot even be unsafely decoded.

    • Fixes mock JWT creation for tests to use preferred_username, which is configured in each Open edX service.

[9.1.1] - 2024-01-04


  • Reverted 9.1.0 change until issue can be fixed.

[9.1.0] - 2024-01-03


  • (Now reverted) Simplified JWT cookie vs session user check by checking username instead of lms user id. Note: this was reverted on 9.1.1.

[9.0.1] - 2023-12-06


  • Fixed bug for successful JWTs where the JWT user id was still using the service user id, rather than the LMS user id, so comparison against the LMS user id would fail.


  • As part of the bug fix, the custom attribute failed_jwt_cookie_user_id was renamed to jwt_cookie_lms_user_id, and will be set for all JWT cookies. Since this is only a breaking change for recently added monitoring, this won’t be versioned as a breaking change.

[9.0.0] - 2023-11-27


  • BREAKING CHANGE: Fixes a bug for any service other than the identity service (LMS/CMS), where the session’s local service user id would never match the JWT LMS user id when compared.

    • The custom attribute jwt_auth_mismatch_session_user_id was renamed to jwt_auth_mismatch_session_lms_user_id to make this more clear.

    • The setting EDX_DRF_EXTENSIONS[VERIFY_LMS_USER_ID_PROPERTY_NAME] was added to enable choosing the user object property that contains the LMS user id, if one exists. If this is set to None (the default), the check will use the lms_user_id property if it is found, and otherwise will skip this additional protection. In case of an unforeseen issue, use ‘skip-check’ to skip the check, even when there is an lms_user_id property.

    • The custom attribute jwt_auth_get_lms_user_id_status was added to provide observability into the new functionality.

    • The breaking change only affects services with ENABLE_FORGIVING_JWT_COOKIES enabled. It now requires the new setting VERIFY_LMS_USER_ID_PROPERTY_NAME to be set appropriately in order to provide the existing Session vs JWT user id check. Note that only LMS/CMS will likely need to set this value.

[8.13.1] - 2023-11-15


  • Fixed bug where JwtAuthentication called with a Django request instead of a DRF request would fail. Also added custom attribute jwt_auth_request_user_not_found to track down these unexpected cases.

[8.13.0] - 2023-10-30


  • Bug fix for when both ENABLE_SET_REQUEST_USER_FOR_JWT_COOKIE and the JWT cookie user vs session user check behind ENABLE_FORGIVING_JWT_COOKIES were enabled at the same time.


  • Added custom attributes set_user_from_jwt_status and skip_jwt_vs_session_check.


  • ADR for removing HTTP_USE_JWT_COOKIE, which explains forgiven JWT cookies, was updated to explain the cases where the JWT cookie user and session user do not match.


  • Toggle EDX_DRF_EXTENSIONS[ENABLE_JWT_VS_SESSION_USER_CHECK] has been removed. This check is now a default part of the ENABLE_FORGIVING_JWT_COOKIES functionality. ENABLE_JWT_VS_SESSION_USER_CHECK was just a temporary roll-out toggle that was already proven out everywhere ENABLE_FORGIVING_JWT_COOKIES was already enabled.

[8.12.0] - 2023-10-16


  • Made changes to the recent ENABLE_JWT_VS_SESSION_USER_CHECK custom attributes. Although this is technically a breaking change, skipping major release because of limited use of these attributes.

    • The jwt_auth_session_user_id attribute has been renamed to clarify that this attribute only appears in the case of a mismatch.

    • Dropped jwt_auth_and_session_user_mismatch, which is redundant to simply checking for the existence of jwt_auth_mismatch_session_user_id.

    • Updated annotations for jwt_auth_request_user_not_found, because it has proven to be a real case in Production and not just in testing.

[8.11.1] - 2023-10-11


  • Added support for Django 4.2

[8.11.0] - 2023-10-04


  • Added toggle EDX_DRF_EXTENSIONS[ENABLE_JWT_VS_SESSION_USER_CHECK] to enable the following:

    • New custom attributes is_jwt_vs_session_user_check_enabled, jwt_auth_session_user_id, jwt_auth_and_session_user_mismatch, and invalid_jwt_cookie_user_id for monitoring and debugging.

    • When forgiving JWT cookies are also enabled, user mismatches will now result in a failure, rather than a forgiving JWT.


  • BREAKING CHANGE: For tests only, the test utility method generate_unversioned_payload now requires that the user argument contains an id attribute. In the case of a Mock user, you must set

[8.10.0] - 2023-09-19


  • (#354) Implemented verify_jwk_signature_using_keyset function. This function allows for easy verification of JSON Web Key (JWK) signatures using a provided keyset.

[8.9.3] - 2023-09-13


  • Added more useful exception logging when JWT auth fails. The exception we get for that did not have enough detail about how the auth check failed so we dig deeper to an exception that is more useful and log that.

[8.9.2] - 2023-08-31


  • Fixes exceptional case where JwtAuthentication should not CSRF protect a request that has both a JWT token in the authorization header and a JWT cookie, since the cookie should be ignored.


  • Updated one of the values of the custom attribute jwt_auth_result from ‘skipped’ to ‘n/a’.

[8.9.1] - 2023-08-22


  • Removed unused direct dependency on six.

  • Removed unused direct dependency on python-dateutil.


  • Fixed Django 40 middleware deprecation warning

[8.9.0] - 2023-08-14


  • Added capability to forgive JWT cookie authentication failures as a replacement for the now deprecated USE-JWT-COOKIE header. See DEPR * For now, this capability must be enabled using the ENABLE_FORGIVING_JWT_COOKIES toggle. * Added temporary custom attributes is_forgiving_jwt_cookies_enabled and use_jwt_cookie_requested to help with this deprecation.

  • Added custom attributes has_jwt_cookie and jwt_auth_result for JWT authentication observability.


  • Two features that were gated on the presence of the USE-JWT-COOKIE header will now be gated on the presence of a JWT cookie instead, regardless of the state of the new ENABLE_FORGIVING_JWT_COOKIES toggle. The new behavior should be nearly equivalent in most cases, and should cause no issues in the exceptional cases. The two features include CSRF protection for JWT cookies, and the setting of the request user when ENABLE_SET_REQUEST_USER_FOR_JWT_COOKIE is enabled.

[8.8.0] - 2023-05-16


  • Removed dependency on pyjwkest. Uses existing PyJWT dependency instead.

Warning: This change causes edx-drf-extensions to become a bit more strict about how it handles unexpected whitespace inside of Base64-encoded keys. For example, the following JSON is hard-wrapped inside a YAML single-quoted string, and edx-drf-extensions will start failing to load this in version 8.8.0:

  "keys": [
      "e": "AQAB",
      "kid": "prod-key-001",
      "kty": "RSA",
      "n": "VGhpcyBpcyBqdXN0IHNvbWUgZGVtb25zdHJhd

Newlines are ignored within Base64, but are illegal inside JSON strings. However, the YAML parser actually replaces the newlines with single spaces due to the single-quoting, so the JSON will actually contain a modulus (n) value with two spaces breaking up the Base64. Spaces are in turn not allowed in Base64. Due to interactions between various Base64 parsers, URL-safe encoding, and how padding is handled by the Python base64 standard library, this will be read as intended by pyjwkest but not by PyJWT. This is not a bug, just a difference in how malformed inputs are handled.

The safe way to encode this JSON is without hard wrapping:

    "keys": [
        "e": "AQAB",
        "kid": "prod-key-001",
        "kty": "RSA",
        "n": "VGhpcyBpcyBqdXN0IHNvbWUgZGVtb25zdHJhdGlvbiB0ZXh0IHJhdGhlciB0aGFuIGFjdHVhbCBrZXkgbWF0ZXJpYWwuICAK"

Before upgrading to version 8.8.0, ensure your keys are properly encoded with no whitespace of any sort inside of runs of Base64.

[8.7.0] - 2023-04-14


  • Add edx_drf_extensions_version to help with rollout of changes in this library across services.


  • Removed exception case for InvalidTokenError that was never invoked.

[8.6.0] - 2023-04-12


  • Added jwt_auth_check_symmetric_key, jwt_auth_asymmetric_verified, jwt_auth_symmetric_verified, and jwt_auth_verification_failed custom attributes to aid in deprecation and removal of symmetric keys.

  • Added jwt_auth_issuer and jwt_auth_issuer_verification custom attributes.


  • Changed jwt_auth_verify_keys_count custom attribute to aid in key rotations, to instead be jwt_auth_verify_asymmetric_keys_count and jwt_auth_verify_all_keys_count. The latter count is only used in the case that the token can’t be verified with the asymmetric keys alone.

[8.5.3] - 2023-04-11


  • (Hopefully) fixed the ability to publish edx-drf-extensions, by adding a long_description to There was no real 8.5.1 or 8.5.2.

[8.5.0] - 2023-04-05


  • Added jwt_auth_verify_keys_count custom attribute to aid in key rotations

[8.4.1] - 2022-12-18


  • Additional logging in authenticate_credentials within the JWT authentication middleware for debugging purposes.

[8.4.0] - 2022-12-16


  • Added custom attribute, following OpenTelemetry convention. This works with some New Relic automatic tooling around users. The old custom attribute request_user_id should be considered deprecated.

[8.3.1] - 2022-09-09


  • Fixed disabled user error by reverting change to JwtAuthentication.

[8.3.0] - 2022-09-07


  • JwtAuthentication will fail for disabled users (with unusable password).

[8.2.0] - 2022-08-24


  • Added only asymmetric jwt decoding functionality in decoder


  • Rename toggle_warnings to toggle_warning for consistency with setting_warning.

[8.1.0] - 2022-01-28


  • Dropped Support for Django22, 30, 31

[8.0.1] - 2021-11-01


  • Resolve RemovedInDjango4.0 warnings.

[8.0.0] - 2021-09-30


  • BREAKING CHANGE: Updated EnsureJWTAuthSettingsMiddleware to understand and work with permissions combined using DRF’s in-built support. This allows switching away from rest_condition. Any view that still uses rest_condition will cause the middleware to throw an error.

[7.0.1] - 2021-08-10


[7.0.0] - 2021-08-03


  • BREAKING CHANGE: generate_jwt_token: Now returns string (instead of bytes), and no longer requires decoding. This was to keep consistent with change to jwt.encode in pyjwt upgrade (see below).

  • BREAKING CHANGE: Upgraded dependency pyjwt[crypto] to 2.1.0, which introduces its own breaking changes that may affect consumers of this library. Pay careful attention to the 2.0.0 breaking changes documented in

[6.6.0] - 2021-07-13


  • Added support for django3.1 and 3.2

[6.5.0] - 2021-02-12


  • Added a new custom attribute jwt_auth_failed to both monitor failures, and to help prepare for future refactors.

[6.4.0] - 2021-01-19


  • Added a new custom attribute request_is_staff_or_superuser

[6.3.0] - 2021-01-12


  • Drop support for Python 3.5

[6.2.0] - 2020-08-24


  • Renamed “custom metric” to “custom attribute” throughout the repo. This was based on a decision (ADR) captured in edx-django-utils.

    • Deprecated RequestMetricsMiddleware due to rename. Use RequestCustomAttributesMiddleware instead.

[6.1.2] - 2020-07-19


  • _get_user_from_jwt no longer throws an UnsupportedMediaType error for failing to parse “new user” requests.

[6.1.1] - 2020-07-19


  • Latest drf-jwt is throwing error in case of any other Authorization Header. Fixing that issue in JwtAuthentication class.

[6.1.0] - 2020-06-26


  • Update drf-jwt to pull in new allow-list(they called it blacklist) feature.



[6.0.0] - 2020-05-05


  • BREAKING CHANGE: Renamed ‘request_auth_type’ to ‘request_auth_type_guess’. This makes it more clear that this metric could report the wrong value in certain cases. This could break dashboards or alerts that relied on this metric.

  • BREAKING CHANGE: Renamed value session-or-unknown to session-or-other. This name makes it more clear that it is the method of authentication that is in question, not whether or not the user is authenticated. This could break dashboards or alerts that relied on this metric.


  • Added ‘jwt-cookie’ as new value for ‘request_auth_type_guess’.

  • Added new ‘request_authenticated_user_found_in_middleware’ metric. Helps identify for what middleware step the request user was set, if it was set. Example values: ‘process_request’, ‘process_view’, ‘process_response’, or ‘process_exception’.


  • Fixed/Added setting of authentication metrics for exceptions as well.

  • Fixed ‘request_auth_type_guess’ to be more accurate when recording values of ‘unauthenticated’ and ‘no-user’.

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