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simplified environment variable parsing

Project description

environs: simplified environment variable parsing

Latest version Travis-CI marshmallow 3 compatible

Environs is a Python library for parsing environment variables.

Environs is inspired by envparse and uses marshmallow under the hood for validating, deserializing, and serializing values.


pip install environs

Basic usage

# export GITHUB_USER=sloria
# export MAX_CONNECTIONS=100
# export SHIP_DATE='1984-06-25'
# export TTL=42
# export ENABLE_LOGIN=true
# export GITHUB_REPOS=webargs,konch,ped
# export COORDINATES=23.3,50.0

from environs import Env

env = Env()
# required variables
gh_user = env('GITHUB_USER')  # => 'sloria'
secret = env('SECRET')  # => raises error if not set

# casting
max_connections ='MAX_CONNECTIONS')  # => 100
ship_date ='SHIP_DATE')  # =>, 6, 25)
ttl = env.timedelta('TTL')  # => datetime.timedelta(0, 42)

# providing a default value
enable_login = env.bool('ENABLE_LOGIN', False)  # => True
enable_feature_x = env.bool('ENABLE_FEATURE_X', False)  # => False

# parsing lists
gh_repos = env.list('GITHUB_REPOS')  # => ['webargs', 'konch', 'ped']
coords = env.list('COORDINATES', subcast=float)  # => [23.3, 50.0]

Supported types

The following are all type-casting methods of Env:

  • env.str
  • env.bool
  • env.float
  • env.decimal
  • env.list (accepts optional subcast keyword argument)
  • env.dict (accepts optional subcast keyword argument)
  • env.json
  • env.datetime
  • env.timedelta (assumes value is an integer in seconds)
  • env.url
  • env.uuid

Handling prefixes

# export MYAPP_HOST=lolcathost
# export MYAPP_PORT=3000

with env.prefixed('MYAPP_'):
    host = env('HOST', 'localhost')  # => 'lolcathost'
    port ='PORT', 5000)  # => 3000

# nested prefixes are also supported:

# export MYAPP_DB_HOST=lolcathost
# export MYAPP_DB_PORT=10101

with env.prefixed('MYAPP_'):
    with env.prefixed('DB_'):
        db_host = env('HOST', 'lolcathost')
        db_port ='PORT', 10101)

Proxied variables

# export MAILGUN_LOGIN=sloria

smtp_login = env('SMTP_LOGIN')  # =>'sloria'


# export TTL=-2
# export NODE_ENV='invalid'
# export EMAIL='^_^'

# simple validator'TTL', validate=lambda n: n > 0)
# => Environment variable "TTL" invalid: ['Invalid value.']

# using marshmallow validators
from marshmallow.validate import OneOf

        validate=OneOf(['production', 'development'],
                        error='NODE_ENV must be one of: {choices}'))
# => Environment variable "NODE_ENV" invalid: ['NODE_ENV must be one of: production, development']

# multiple validators
from marshmallow.validate import Length, Email

env.str('EMAIL', validate=[Length(min=4), Email()])
# => Environment variable "EMAIL" invalid: ['Shorter than minimum length 4.', 'Not a valid email address.']


# serialize to a dictionary of simple types (numbers and strings)
# {'COORDINATES': [23.3, 50.0],
# 'GITHUB_REPOS': ['webargs', 'konch', 'ped'],
# 'GITHUB_USER': 'sloria',
# 'MYAPP_HOST': 'lolcathost',
# 'MYAPP_PORT': 3000,
# 'SHIP_DATE': '1984-06-25',
# 'TTL': 42}

Defining custom parser behavior

# export DOMAIN=''
# export COLOR=invalid

from furl import furl

# Register a new parser method for paths
def furl_parser(value):
    return furl(value)

domain = env.furl('DOMAIN')  # => furl('')

# Custom parsers can take extra keyword arguments
def enum_parser(value, choices):
    if value not in choices:
        raise environs.EnvError('Invalid!')
    return value

color = env.enum('COLOR', choices=['black'])  # => raises EnvError

Note: Environment variables parsed with a custom parser function will be serialized by Env.dump without any modification. To define special serialization behavior, use Env.parser_from_field instead (see next section).

Marshmallow integration

# export STATIC_PATH='app/static'

# Custom parsers can be defined as marshmallow Fields
import pathlib

import marshmallow as ma

class PathField(ma.fields.Field):
    def _deserialize(self, value, *args, **kwargs):
        return pathlib.Path(value)

    def _serialize(self, value, *args, **kwargs):
        return str(value)

env.add_parser_from_field('path', PathField)

static_path = env.path('STATIC_PATH')  # => PosixPath('app/static')
env.dump()['STATIC_PATH']  # => 'app/static'

Reading .env files

# myapp/.env

Call Env.read_env before parsing variables.

from environs import Env

env = Env()
# Read .env into os.environ

env.bool('DEBUG')  # => True'PORT')   # => 4567


Why envvars?

See The 12-factor App section on configuration.

Why not os.environ?

While os.environ is enough for simple use cases, a typical application will need a way to manipulate and validate raw environment variables. Environs abstracts common tasks for handling environment variables.

Environs will help you

  • cast envvars to the correct type
  • specify required envvars
  • define default values
  • validate envvars
  • parse list and dict values
  • parse dates, datetimes, and timedeltas
  • parse proxied variables
  • serialize your configuration to JSON, YAML, etc.

Why another library?

There are many great Python libraries for parsing environment variables. In fact, most of the credit for environs’ public API goes to the authors of envparse and django-environ.

environs aims to meet three additional goals:

  1. Make it easy to extend parsing behavior and develop plugins.
  2. Leverage the deserialization and validation functionality provided by a separate library (marshmallow).
  3. Clean up redundant API.


MIT licensed. See the LICENSE file for more details.


2.1.1 (2018-05-21)


  • Fix compatibility with marshmallow 3 beta.

2.1.0 (2018-01-25)


  • Add recurse parameter to Env.read_env (#9). Thanks gthank for the PR.

2.0.0 (2018-01-02)


  • Add support for nested prefixes (#8). Thanks gvialetto for the PR.

Other changes:

  • Backwards-incompatible: Drop support for Python 3.3 and 3.4.

1.2.0 (2017-01-12)


  • Add url parser that returns a urllib.parse.ParseResult (#6). Thanks IlyaSemenov for the suggestion.

Bug fixes:

  • Every instance of Env gets its own parser map, so calling env.parser_for for one instance doesn’t affect other instances.

1.1.0 (2016-05-01)

  • Add Env.read_env method for reading .env files.

1.0.0 (2016-04-30)

  • Support for proxied variables (#2).
  • Backwards-incompatible: Remove env.get method. Use env() instead.
  • Document how to read .env files (#1).

0.1.0 (2016-04-25)

  • First PyPI release.

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