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Project Description

EvProc is a framework for building complex event processors. There are many similar frameworks available, so why EvProc? EvProc provides a few advantages. First, a @want() decorator is available to pre-filter events, as opposed to registering an event handler on specific events. (Filtering works primarily with an event name, allowing flexibility, but it is also possible to register arbitrary filter functions, which can evaluate an event to determine whether to call the event handler.) A second advantage is the ability to register event handlers using the “entrypoint” support of setuptools, allowing extensibility. Finally, EvProc provides limited inter-handler communication, using the proc property of Event instances, and backs this up with the ability to specify ordering among event handlers using requirements.

Defining Events

An event in EvProc is an instance of a subclass of evproc.Event. The Event class is an abstract class; subclasses must implement a name property, the contents of which will be a unique string naming the event. The constructor takes a single optional argument, a ctxt argument, which may be used to pass a context in to event handlers. The constructor may, of course, be extended as required to provide any necessary information about the event, such as a specific resource that the event occurred on.

The Event class also provides a special proc property. This property may be used by event handlers to store data for use by other event handlers, by setting attributes. To minimize the possibility of two unrelated handlers attempting to manipulate the same attribute, the proc property is namespaced; that is, attributes on proc may not be set, but attributes on those attributes may.

As an example of the use of the proc property, consider two event handlers that wish to communicate with each other. Assume that these handlers interact to perform testing; perhaps one handler selects test parameters, and the second handler actually performs the test (e.g., there may be multiple tests to perform). The first handler could set, say, proc.tests.args and proc.tests.kwargs, and the second handler would then retrieve the values it needed.

Event Handlers

An event handler is simply a function that will be called with two arguments; the first argument will be an instance of evproc.Processor (described below), and the second will be an instance of evproc.Event (described above). The event handler may perform any code necessary to process the event. Each event handler must have a unique name; by default, the name will be the same as the function name, but this may be overridden when registering the event handler. Event handlers may also be loaded from setuptools entrypoints; in this case, the name used is the entrypoint name.

There are three optional decorators that may be used on an event handler function. The first is the @evproc.want() decorator, which may be called with one or more event names; the handler function will only be called if the event being handled matches one of these event names. The decorator may also be passed one or more filter functions; in this case, the event handler will only be called if all of the filter functions return True. If event names are also passed, then the event must also match one of those names. The @want() decorator may be used multiple times to specify other sets of filters; the event need only match one filter specified by @want(). For instance, consider this example:

@evproc.want('ev1', 'ev2')
@evproc.want('ev3', lambda ev: ev.resource.name == 'resource')
def handler(proc, ev):
    ...

This handler will be called for all events with the names “ev1” and “ev2”, but will only be called for the event “ev3” if ev.resource.name contains the value "resource".

Event handlers are able to interact with each other, as mentioned above. To do this, it is necessary to enforce certain ordering guarantees on the event handler. This is controlled by the @evproc.requires() and @evproc.required_by() decorators. These decorators take the names of one or more event handlers (names are set at registration time, as mentioned above). The @requires() decorator is used to indicate that the specified functions must run before the decorated function, while the @required_by() decorator is used to indicate that the specified function require the decorated function to be run first. In both cases, the @want() decorators of the functions must be compatible.

The @requires() and @required_by() decorators are used to define a dependency graph, which is then topologically sorted to ensure that the handler functions are called in the correct order. As an example, consider the split test functions mentioned above. We could declare the functions like so:

def test_prepare(proc, ev):
    ...
    ev.tests.args = args
    ev.tests.kwargs = kwargs

@evproc.requires('test_prepare')
def test_run(proc, ev):
    args = ev.tests.args
    kwargs = ev.tests.kwargs
    intermediate = getattr(ev.tests, 'auxiliary', [])
    ...

@evproc.required_by('test_run')
@evproc.requires('test_prepare')
def test_auxiliary(proc, ev):
    ...
    ev.tests.auxiliary = results

In this example, the test_prepare() handler function would be called first, followed by the test_auxiliary() handler function, and finally the test_run() handler function would be called.

An event handler may optionally return a list of events, which will be processed in order.

The Event Processor

The evproc.Processor class is responsible for processing events. To use EvProc, instantiate a Processor instance and use its register() or load_from() methods to declare event handler functions. Then, simply pass Event instances to the process() method to invoke the event processors in the correct order.

The Processor.register() method may be used to register individual event handler functions. By default, the function’s declared name (func.__name__) is used as the handler name, but this may be overridden by passing the optional name parameter to register().

To load event handlers from a setuptools entrypoint, use the Processor.load_from() method. This method takes, as its sole argument, the entrypoint group name; as an example, if one installed application has a setup.py containing:

entry_points={
    'app.handlers': [
        'test_prepare = app:test_prepare',
        'test_run = app.test_run',
    ],
}

And if a second installed application has the following in its setup.py:

entry_points={
    'app.handlers': [
        'test_auxiliary = otherapp:test_auxiliary',
    ],
}

Then all three handler functions could be loaded into the Processor instance proc with the following call:

proc.load_from('app.handlers')

The Processor.process() method may be called as many times as necessary. In fact, most event-driven applications consist of a loop which constructs Event instances, then passes them to the Processor.process() method. A full application could look something like the following:

def main():
    proc = evproc.Processor()
    proc.load_from('app.handlers')

    while True:
        # Construct event objects
        ...
        ev = AppEvent(...)

        # Process the event
        proc.process(ev)

Processor.process() returns None unless an event processor raises a evproc.StopProcessing exception initialized with a retval, in which case it returns the exception’s retval.

Stop Processing

It may be necessary for one event processor to stop all event processing. This could, for instance, be used by a processor that performs an authorization check if the event fails that check. To allow this, an event processor may raise the evproc.StopProcessing exception. When an event processor raises a StopProcessing exception, no additional event processors will be called for that event. If the StopProcessing exception is raised without a retval, yet-unprocessed events returned by prior event processors will still be processed. If the StopProcessing exception is raised with a retval (even if None), Processor.process() will immediately return the exception’s retval, and yet-unprocessed events returned by prior event processors will not be processed.

Conclusion

EvProc provides an easy to extend event processing framework, capable of not only calling event handler functions, but of ensuring certain ordering constraints and limited inter-handler communication. The ability to use setuptools entrypoints allows new event handlers to be inserted into the event processing loop easily without having to modify the original application, and the ordering constraints can allow such inserted event handlers to interact with the existing ones just as easily.

Release History

Release History

0.2.0

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