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Exact Online REST API Library in Python

Project description

Exact Online REST API Library in Python
=======================================

.. image:: https://bettercodehub.com/edge/badge/ossobv/exactonline
.. image:: http://api.travis-ci.org/ossobv/exactonline.svg

Exact Online provides accounting software in a Software-as-a-Service
delivery model. It implements an API through a REST interface. This
library aims to ease its use.



Quick jump
----------

* `Usage by example`_
* `Using element adapters`_
* `Setting up the link`_
* `Implemented resources`_
* `Other benefits`_
* `License`_
* `TODO`_
* `Further reading`_



Usage by example
----------------

Set up the basics:

.. code-block:: python

from exactonline.api import ExactApi
from exactonline.exceptions import ObjectDoesNotExist
from exactonline.resource import GET, POST, PUT, DELETE
from exactonline.storage import IniStorage

# Create a function to get the api with your own storage backend.
def get_api():
storage = IniStorage('/path/to/config.ini')
return ExactApi(storage=storage)
api = get_api()

Get an invoice:

.. code-block:: python

# Get an invoice by your own invoice number (YourRef).
# Returns a dictionary, or raises ObjectDoesNotExist.
invoice = api.invoices.get(invoice_number='F0005555')

It looks somewhat like this:

.. code-block:: python

invoice == {
u'AmountDC': 50.8,
u'AmountFC': 50.8,
# ...
u'SalesEntryLines': [
{u'AmountDC': 41.98,
u'AmountFC': 41.98,
# ...
u'Description': u'Omzet backups',
u'VATBaseAmountDC': 41.98,
u'VATBaseAmountFC': 41.98},
],
# ...
u'VATAmountDC': 8.82,
u'VATAmountFC': 8.82,
u'YourRef': u'F0005555',
u'__metadata': {u'type': u'Exact.Web.Api.Models.SalesEntry',
u'uri': u"https://start.exactonline.nl/api/v1/..."},
}

Get relations:

.. code-block:: python

relations_limit_2 = api.relations.filter(top=2)
# that was cheaper than: api.relations.all()[0:2]

relations_limit_2 == [
{u'Code': u' 1068',
u'ID': u'11111111-2222-3333-4444-555555555555',
u'Name': u'ACME Corporation',
u'__metadata': {u'type': u'Exact.Web.Api.Models.Account',
u'uri': u"https://start.exactonline.nl/api/v1/...')"}},
{u'Code': u' 555',
u'ID': u'22222222-3333-4444-5555-666666666666',
u'Name': u'Daffy Duck Ltd.',
u'__metadata': {u'type': u'Exact.Web.Api.Models.Account',
u'uri': u"https://start.exactonline.nl/api/v1/...')"}}
]

Update a relation:

.. code-block:: python

daffy_duck = api.relations.get(relation_code='555')
api.relations.update(daffy_duck['ID'], {'Name': 'Daffy Duck and sons'})

Delete a relation:

.. code-block:: python

daffy_duck = api.relations.get(relation_code='555')
api.relations.delete(daffy_duck['ID'])

Create an invoice:

.. code-block:: python

customer_data = api.relations.get(relation_code='123') # local relation_code
customer_guid = customer_data['ID']
invoice_data = {
'AmountDC': str(amount_with_vat), # DC = default currency
'AmountFC': str(amount_with_vat), # FC = foreign currency
'EntryDate': invoice_date.strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%SZ'), # pretend we're in UTC
'Customer': customer_guid,
'Description': u'Invoice description',
'Journal': remote_journal, # 70 "Verkoopboek"
'ReportingPeriod': invoice_date.month,
'ReportingYear': invoice_date.year,
'SalesEntryLines': [],
'VATAmountDC': str(vat_amount),
'VATAmountFC': str(vat_amount),
'YourRef': local_invoice_number,
# must start uniquely at the start of a year, defaults to:
# YYJJ0001 where YY=invoice_date.year, and JJ=remote_journal
'InvoiceNumber': '%d%d%04d' % (invoice_date.year, remote_journal,
int(local_invoice_number)),
}
# The SalesEntryLines need to be filled with a bunch of dictionaries
# with these keys: AmountDC, AmountFC, Description, GLAccount,
# VATCode where GLAccount holds the Journal remote GUID, and the
# amounts are without VAT.

api.invoices.create(invoice_dict)

You may need to play around a bit to find out which fields are
mandatory, and what kind of values the fields need. The `Exact Online
REST resources list`_ isn't always clear on that.



Using element adapters
----------------------

Using the above works, but it's not really object oriented. If
available, you may be better off using one of the adaptable classes in
``exactonline.elements`` and subclassing that.

For example, this is how you could create your own interface to an Exact
Online customer.

.. code-block:: python

# Assuming you have a MyRelation that looks like this:
class MyRelation(object):
relcode = 12345
first_name = 'John'
last_name = 'Doe'
billing_address = None
# ...

# You could create an adapter subclass of ExactCustomer like this:
class MyExactCustomer(ExactCustomer):
def __init__(self, my_relation=None, **kwargs):
super(MyExactCustomer, self).__init__(**kwargs)
self._my_relation = my_relation

def get_code(self):
return str(self._my_relation.relcode)

def get_name(self):
return ' '.join([
self._my_relation.first_name,
self._my_relation.last_name])

def get_address(self):
address = self._my_relation.billing_address
if address:
return {
'AddressLine1': address.street_and_number(),
'Postcode': address.zipcode,
'City': address.city.name,
}
return {}

If you have the above set up, and have unique customer codes, then
writing/updating an Exact Online relation is as convenient as this:

.. code-block:: python

johndoe = MyRelation(...)
exactonline_relation = MyExactCustomer(my_relation=johndoe, api=api)
ret = exactonline_relation.commit()

These adaptable elements are currently implemented for writing customers
(ExactCustomer) and invoices (ExactInvoice). See the files in
``exactonline/elements/`` for more info.



Setting up the link
-------------------

You'll need a storage backend. The default ``IniStorage`` can be taken from
``exactonline.storage``.

.. code-block:: python

from exactonline.storage import IniStorage

class MyIniStorage(IniStorage):
def get_response_url(self):
"Configure your custom response URL."
return self.get_base_url() + '/oauth/success/'

storage = MyIniStorage('/path/to/config.ini')

(Note that you're not tied to using ``.ini`` files. See
``exactonline/storage.py`` if you want to use a different storage
backend.)

You need to set up access to your Exact Online SaaS instance, by creating an
export link. See `creating Exact Online credentials`_ for more info.

Take that info, and configure it in your ``config.ini``.

.. code-block:: ini

[server]
auth_url = https://start.exactonline.co.uk/api/oauth2/auth
rest_url = https://start.exactonline.co.uk/api
token_url = https://start.exactonline.co.uk/api/oauth2/token

[application]
base_url = https://example.com
client_id = {12345678-abcd-1234-abcd-0123456789ab}
client_secret = ZZZ999xxx000

Create an initial URL:

.. code-block:: python

api = ExactApi(storage=storage)
url = api.create_auth_request_url()

The URL will look like this; redirect the user there so he may
authenticate and allow your application access to Exact Online (this is
OAuth)::

https://start.exactonline.nl/api/oauth2/auth?
client_id=%7B12345678-abcd-1234-abcd-0123456789ab%7D&
redirect_uri=https%3A//example.com/oauth/success/&
response_type=code

After authentication he will get redirected back to::

https://example.com/oauth/success/?code=...

You should implement a view on that URL, that does basically this:

.. code-block:: python

api.request_token(code)

At this point, you should configure your default division, if you
haven't already:

.. code-block:: python

division_choices, current_division = api.get_divisions()
api.set_division(division_choices[0][0]) # select ID of first division

Now you're all set!



Implemented resources
---------------------

View ``exactonline/api/__init__.py`` to see which resource helpers are
implemented.

Currently, it looks like this:

.. code-block:: python

contacts = Contacts.as_property()
invoices = Invoices.as_property()
ledgeraccounts = LedgerAccounts.as_property()
receivables = Receivables.as_property()
relations = Relations.as_property()
vatcodes = VatCodes.as_property()

But you can call resources which don't have a helper directly. The
following two three are equivalent:

.. code-block:: python

api.relations.all()
api.restv1(GET('crm/Accounts'))
api.rest(GET('v1/%d/crm/Accounts' % selected_division))

As are the following three:

.. code-block:: python

api.relations.filter(top=2)
api.restv1(GET('crm/Accounts?$top=2'))
api.rest(GET('v1/%d/crm/Accounts?$top=2' % selected_division))

And these:

.. code-block:: python

api.invoices.filter(filter="EntryDate gt datetime'2015-01-01'")
api.restv1(GET('salesentry/SalesEntries?' +
'$filter=EntryDate%20gt%20datetime%272015-01-01%27'))
api.rest(GET('v1/%d/salesentry/SalesEntries?' +
'$filter=EntryDate%%20gt%%20datetime%%272015-01-01%%27' %
selected_division)
# convinced yet that the helpers are useful?

See the `Exact Online REST resources list`_ for all available resources.



Other benefits
--------------

The ExactApi class ensures that:

* Tokens are refreshed as needed (see: ``exactonline/api/autorefresh.py``).
* Paginated lists are automatically downloaded in full (see:
``exactonline/api/unwrap.py``).



Creating Exact Online credentials
---------------------------------

Previously, one could create an API from the Exact Online interface directly.
This was removed at some point between 2014 and 2015.

According to the `"how can I create an application key?" FAQ entry`_
you must now create one through the App Center.

*Why am I unable to see the Register an API link and how can I
create an application key?*

All registrations are now configured through the App Center.
Previously you were able to generate an Application Key and/or create an
OAuth registration within your Exact Online.

In Exact Online you can create an app registration for private use
(customer account) or an app registration for commercial use (partner
account). Go to Target groups and site maps for more information.

If the Register API Key link is not visible in the App Center
menu you do not have the correct rights to view it. To make the
link visible go to, Username > My Exact Online > Rights and
select Manage subscription.

Log into the `Exact Online App Center`_, click MANAGE APPS (APPS BEHEREN);
it should be a large link visible on the Top Right. Make sure the redirect
URI has the same transport+domainname as the site that you wish to connect.

For sites with an internal URI only, you may need to alter the hostname
temporarily when registering. Generate the register URL with
``api.create_auth_request_url`` and alter it as appropriate.

After creating the App, you can go back and fetch the the *Client ID*
and the *Client secret*.



License
-------

Exact Online REST API Library in Python is free software: you can
redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser
General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation,
version 3 or any later version.



TODO
----

* Fix so file Copyright headers are auto-populated (and date-updated).



Further reading
---------------

* `Exact Online REST API`_.
* `Exact Online REST resources list`_.
* `Tips by Bas van Beek`_.

.. _`Exact Online App Center`: https://apps.exactonline.com/
.. _`Exact Online REST API`: https://developers.exactonline.com/#RestIntro.html%3FTocPath%3DExact%2520Online%2520REST%2520API%7C_____0
.. _`Exact Online REST resources list`: https://start.exactonline.co.uk/docs/HlpRestAPIResources.aspx?SourceAction=10
.. _`Tips by Bas van Beek`: http://www.basvanbeek.nl/exact-online-tips/

.. _`"how can I create an application key?" FAQ entry`: https://developers.exactonline.com/#FAQ_General.htm%3FTocPath%3DApp%2520Center%7C_____5



Changes
-------

* v0.3.3:

- Additions to ExactInvoice element:
+ Add optional "month" to get_ledger_lines() for accrued/deferred
income.
+ Add get_vatcode_for_ledger_line() for customizable VATCodes.

* v0.3.2:

- Fix ConfigParser deprecationwarning.
- Add VatCodes API support. Thanks Stani Michiels (@stanim). Closes
#12.

* v0.3.1:

- Add Contacts API support. Thanks @Imperatus. Closes #8 and #11.

* v0.3.0:

- Refactor code to use fewer arguments. This makes the BetterCodeHub
checks happy and that makes me happy. This is a BACKWARDS
INCOMPATIBLE CHANGE. All your code that looked like this::

ret = self.rest('GET', 'v1/current/Me?$select=CurrentDivision')

will have to be changed to this::

from exactonline.resource import GET
ret = self.rest(GET('v1/current/Me?$select=CurrentDivision'))

Closes #7.

- Add IniStorage default return value for get_default_url(), returning
get_base_url(). This makes life easier for those who did not read
the README. Closes #6.

* v0.2.5:

- Fix set_tokens() bug in Python3; make sure json.loads() gets an
unistr. Reported by @Imperatus, @LordGaav. Closes #9 and #10.

* v0.2.4:

- Improve HTTP functions for better error reporting and better Py23
compatibility.

* v0.2.3:

- Add api.invoices.filter(invoice_number__in=LIST) filter.
- Iterate over resultsets instead of using recursion (api.unwrap).
- Fix python3 compatibility issue: bytestring found on autorefresh.
Thanks @wpxgit.

* v0.2.2:

- Correct RST source in CHANGES file. Did not display properly on
PyPI.

* v0.2.1:

- Correct example Python code in docs. Thanks @alexBaizeau.
- Add ``exactonline.elements`` that were missing in the 0.2.0
distributed package. Thanks @hcwsegers.
- Add overridable ``get_ledger_code_to_guid_maps()`` helper to the
invoices elements class.

* v0.2.0:

- Update build/PyPI info: move to Stable, add Python 3.4 and 3.5
version, fix Python 3 compatibility.
- Fix a few README RST issues. Update OAuth documentation.
- Add initial ``exactonline.elements`` to use for easier object
oriented data submissions.
- Add and improve SSL, API and Python3 tests.

* v0.1.3:

- Add ``receivables`` manager to the API. This manager allows you to
build a list similar to the *Outstanding Receivables* page of
*Financial Reporting*.
- Add ``api.invoices.map_exact2foreign_invoice_numbers`` and
``api.invoices.map_foreign2exact_invoice_numbers`` methods to
quickly get a mapping between our own and the ExactOnline invoice
numbers.
- Python3 compatibility.
- Minor fixes.

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