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Toolbox for Time Series analysis and integration with Machine Learning.

Project description



Machine learning based time series forecasting tools for python.


giotto-time is a time series forecasting library in Python. The main novelties compared to traditional time series libraries are the following:

  • Feature creation, model selection, model assessment and prediction pipeline for time series models.
  • Plug-and-play availability of any scikit-learn-compatible (i.e., in the fit-transform framework) regression or classification models for forecasting.
  • Minimization of standard and custom loss functions for time series (SMAPE, max error, etc..).
  • Easy-to-use scikit-learn-familiar and pandas-familiar API.
  • Additionally we provide a causality tests with a scikit-learn-like transformer interface.

Time Series Forecasting Model

Giotto-time provide the GAR class (Generalize Auto Regressive model). It operates in a similar way to the standard AR, but with an arbitrary number of features and with an arbitrary underlying regression model.

This model allows the full force of machine learning regressors (compatible with the fit-transform framework ok scikit-learn) to be combined with advanced feature creation stratagies to forecast time series in a convienent api.

>>> from giottotime.feature_creation import FeaturesCreation
>>> from giottotime.feature_creation.index_independent_features import ShiftFeature, MovingAverageFeature
>>> from giottotime.model_selection.train_test_splitter import TrainTestSplitter
>>> from giottotime.regressors import LinearRegressor
>>> from giottotime.models.time_series_models import GAR
>>> time_series = get_time_series()
>>> features_creation = FeaturesCreation(
>>>     horizon=4,
>>>     features = [ShiftFeature(1), ShiftFeature(2), MovingAverageFeature(5)]
>>> )
>>> train_test_splitter = TrainTestSplitter()
>>> time_series_model = GAR(base_model=LinearRegressor())
>>> X, y = features_creation.transform(time_series)
>>> X_train, y_train, X_test, y_test = train_test_splitter.transform(X, y)
>>>, y_train)
>>> predictions = time_series_model.predict(X_test)

Time Series Preparation

To transform an input array-like structure into a DataFrame with a PeriodIndex we provide the classes:

  • TimeSeriesPreparation
  • TimeSeriesConversion
  • SequenceToTimeIndexSeries
  • PandasSeriesToTimeIndexSeries
  • TimeIndexSeriesToPeriodIndexSeries

Feature Creation

The following time series features are currently supported:

  • CalendarFeature
  • PeriodicSeasonalFeature
  • ShiftFeature
  • MovingAverageFeature
  • ConstantFeature
  • PolynomialFeature
  • ExogenousFeature
  • CustomFeature

These features all have a scikit-learn-like interface and behave as transformers.

The class FeatureCreation wraps a list of features together and returns the X and y matrices from a time series given as input.

Time Series Trend Model

We provide main classes to analyze and remove trends from time series in order to create trend stationary time series.

Specifically, giotto-time includes ExponentialTrend, PolynomialTrend model classes and de-trending transformers.

>>> import numpy as np
>>> import pandas as pd
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> from giottotime.models.regressors.linear_regressor import LinearRegressor
>>> from giottotime.loss_functions.loss_functions import max_error, smape
>>> from giottotime.models.trend_models.polynomial_trend import PolynomialTrend
>>> from math import pi
>>> d = pd.read_csv('trend.csv', index_col=0, parse_dates=True)
>>> tm = PolynomialTrend(order=3)
>>> d.plot(figsize=(10, 10))
>>> detrended = tm.transform(d)
>>> detrended.plot(figsize=(10, 10))

imga imgb

Before the detrending tranformer, a clear quadratic trend is present in the data. For additional information on trend stationarity, see: Trend stationarity: Wikipedia -

Custom Regressors

LinearRegressor is a linear regressor class that minimizes a custom loss function (compatitble with all scikit-learn metrics).

In time series forecasting, it can be essential to minimize error metrics other than the standard R squared. Using this regressor class, it is possible to fit smape, max error and a range of other time series forecasting metrics easily with a simple interface via the GAR class.

>>> from giottotime.models.regressors.linear_regressor import LinearRegressor
>>> from giottotime.loss_functions import max_error
>>> import numpy as np
>>> import pandas as pd
>>> X = np.random.random((100, 10))
>>> y = np.random.random(100)
>>> lr = LinearRegressor(loss=max_error)
>>> X_train, y_train = X[:90], y[:90]
>>> X_test, y_test = X[90:], y[90:]
>>> x0 = [0]*11
>>>, y_train, x0=x0)
>>> y_pred = lr.predict(X_test)

Causality Tests

We provide two tests: ShiftedLinearCoefficient and ShiftedPearsonCorrelation.

These tests (which are impliemnted as scikit-learn compatible transformers) determine which shift of each time series maximizes the correlation to each other input time series. This is a very similar construction tothe granger test.

An example use is shown below.

>>> from giottotime.causality_tests.shifted_linear_coefficient import ShiftedLinearCoefficient
>>> import pandas.util.testing as testing
>>> data = testing.makeTimeDataFrame(freq="s")
>>> slc = ShiftedLinearCoefficient(target_col="A")
>>> slc.best_shifts_
y  A  B  C  D
A  3  6  8  5
B  9  9  4  1
C  8  2  4  9
D  3  9  4  3
>>> slc.max_corrs_
y         A         B         C         D
A  0.460236  0.420005  0.339370  0.267143
B  0.177856  0.300350  0.367150  0.550490
C  0.484860  0.263036  0.456046  0.251342
D  0.580068  0.344688  0.253626  0.256220

The target-col input variable to the constructor is used in the transform method. It determins which set of shifts are applied to all inputs. For example, if ‘A’ is selected, each column will be transform by a shift corresponding to the ‘A’ row of the best_shifts pivot table.

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