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Goodtables is a framework to inspect tabular data.

Project Description
goodtables-py
=============

| |Travis|
| |Coveralls|
| |PyPi|
| |Gitter|

Goodtables is a framework to validate tabular data.

Version v1.0 includes various important changes. Please read a
`migration guide <#v10>`__.

Features
--------

- tabular data validation
- general, structure and schema checks
- support for different input data presets
- support various source schemes and formats
- parallel computation for multi-table datasets
- builtin command-line interface

Getting Started
---------------

Installation
~~~~~~~~~~~~

The package use semantic versioning. It means that major versions could
include breaking changes. It's highly recommended to specify
``tabulator`` version range if you use ``setup.py`` or
``requirements.txt`` file e.g. ``goodtables<2.0``.

.. code:: bash

$ pip install goodtables
$ pip install goodtables[ods] # With ods format support

Example
~~~~~~~

Let's start with a simple example. We just run ``validate`` function
against our data table. As a result we get a ``goodtables`` report.

.. code:: python

from goodtables import validate

report = validate('invalid.csv')
report['valid'] # false
report['table-count'] # 1
report['error-count'] # 3
report['tables'][0]['valid'] # false
report['tables'][0]['source'] # 'invalid.csv'
report['tables'][0]['errors'][0]['code'] # 'blank-header'

There is an
`examples <https://github.com/frictionlessdata/goodtables-py/tree/master/examples>`__
directory containing other code listings.

Documentation
-------------

The whole public API of this package is described here and follows
semantic versioning rules. Everything outside of this readme are private
API and could be changed without any notification on any new version.

Validate
~~~~~~~~

Goodtables validates your tabular dataset to find source, structure and
schema errors. Consider you have a file named ``invalid.csv``. Let's
validate it:

.. code:: py

report = validate('invalid.csv')

We could validate not only a local file but also remote link, file-like
object, inline data and even more. And it could be not only CSV but also
XLS, XLSX, ODS, JSON and many more. Under the hood ``goodtables`` use
powerful
`tabulator <https://github.com/frictionlessdata/goodtables-py>`__
library. All schemes and formats supported by ``tabulator`` are
supported by ``goodtables``.

Report
^^^^^^

As a result of validation goodtables returns a report dictionary. It
includes valid flag, count of errors, list of reports per table
including errors etc. Resulting report will be looking like this:

|Report|

Base report errors are standardized and described in `Data Quality
Spec <https://github.com/frictionlessdata/data-quality-spec/blob/master/spec.json>`__.
All errors fails into three base and one additional categories:

- ``source`` - data can't be loaded or parsed
- ``structure`` - general tabular errors like duplicate headers
- ``schema`` - error of checks against `Table
Schema <http://specs.frictionlessdata.io/table-schema/>`__
- ``custom`` - custom checks errors

Checks
^^^^^^

Check is a main validation actor in goodtables. List of checks could be
customized using ``checks`` and ``skip_checks`` arguments. Let's explore
options on an example:

.. code:: python

report = validate('data.csv') # by default structure and schema (if available) checks
report = validate('data.csv', checks=['structure']) # only structure checks
report = validate('data.csv', checks=['schema']) # only schema (if available) checks
report = validate('data.csv', checks=['bad-headers']) # check only 'bad-headers'
report = validate('data.csv', skip_checks=['bad-headers']) # exclude 'bad-headers'

By default a dataset will be validated against all available Data
Quality Spec errors. Some checks could be not available for validation
e.g. if schema is not provided only ``structure`` checks will be done.

Presets
^^^^^^^

With ``goodtables`` different kind of tabular datasets could be
validated. Tabular dataset is a something that could be split to list of
data tables:

|Dataset|

To work with different kind of datasets we use ``preset`` argument for
``validate`` function. By default it will be inferred with ``table`` as
a fallback value. Let's validate a `data
package <http://specs.frictionlessdata.io/data-package/>`__. As a result
we get report of the same form but it will be having more than 1 table
if there are more than 1 resource in data package:

.. code:: py

report = validate('datapackage.json') # implicit preset
report = validate('datapackage.json', preset='datapackage') # explicit preset

To validate list of files we use ``nested`` preset. For nested preset
first argument should be a list containing dictionaries with keys named
after ``validate`` argument names. First argument is a ``source`` and we
talk other arguments in next sections. Technically ``goodtables``
validates list of tables in parallel so it should be effective to do
many tables validation in one run:

.. code:: py

report = validate([{'source': 'data1.csv'}, {'source': 'data2.csv'}]) # implicit preset
report = validate([{'source': 'data1.csv'}, {'source': 'data2.csv'}], preset='nested') # explicit preset

``validate(source, **options)``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

- **Arguments (``preset=table``)**
- ``source (path/url/dict/file-like)`` - validation source containing
data table
- ``preset (str)`` - dataset type could be ``table`` (default),
``datapackage``, ``nested`` or custom. For the most cases preset will
be inferred from the source.
- ``schema (path/url/dict/file-like)`` - Table Schema to validate data
source against
- ``headers (list/int)`` - headers list or source row number containing
headers. If number is given for plain source headers row and all rows
before will be removed and for keyed source no rows will be removed.
- ``scheme (str)`` - source scheme with ``file`` as default. For the
most cases scheme will be inferred from source. See `list of the
supported
schemes <https://github.com/frictionlessdata/tabulator-py#schemes>`__.
- ``format (str)`` - source format with ``None`` (detect) as default.
For the most cases format will be inferred from source. See `list of
the supported
formats <https://github.com/frictionlessdata/tabulator-py#formats>`__.
- ``encoding (str)`` - source encoding with ``None`` (detect) as
default.
- ``skip_rows (int/str[])`` - list of rows to skip by row number or row
comment. Example: ``skip_rows=[1, 2, '#', '//']`` - rows 1, 2 and all
rows started with ``#`` and ``//`` will be skipped.
- ``<name> (<type>)`` - additional options supported by different
schema and format. See `list of schema
options <https://github.com/frictionlessdata/tabulator-py#schemes>`__
and `list of format
options <https://github.com/frictionlessdata/tabulator-py#schemes>`__.
- **Arguments (``preset=datapackage``)**
- ``source (path/url/dict/file-like)`` - validation source containing
data package descriptor
- ``preset (str)`` - dataset type could be ``table`` (default),
``datapackage``, ``nested`` or custom. For the most cases preset will
be inferred from the source.
- ``<name> (<type>)`` - options to pass to Data Package constructor
- **Arguments (``preset=nested``)**
- ``source (dict[])`` - list of dictionaries with keys named after
arguments for corresponding preset
- ``preset (str)`` - dataset type could be ``table`` (default),
``datapackage``, ``nested`` or custom. For the most cases preset will
be inferred from the source.
- **Arguments**
- ``checks (list)`` - checks configuration
- ``skip_checks (list)`` - skip checks configuration
- ``infer_schema (bool)`` - infer schema if not passed
- ``infer_fields (bool)`` - infer schema for columns not presented in
schema
- ``order_fields (bool)`` - order source columns based on schema fields
order
- ``error_limit (int)`` - error limit per table
- ``table_limit (int)`` - table limit for dataset
- ``row_limit (int)`` - row limit per table
- **Raises**
- ``(exceptions.GoodtablesException)`` - raise on any non-tabular error
- **Returns**
- ``(dict)`` - returns a ``goodtables`` report

Validation against source checks
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This checks are enabled by default and can't be skipped.

Every ``validate`` call will checks for this errors.

.. code:: py

report = validate('invalid.csv')

Let's take a look on `Data Quality
Spec <https://github.com/frictionlessdata/data-quality-spec>`__
``source`` checks/errors:

io-error
^^^^^^^^

Data reading error because of IO error.

http-error
^^^^^^^^^^

Data reading error because of HTTP error.

source-error
^^^^^^^^^^^^

Data reading error because of not supported or inconsistent contents.

scheme-error
^^^^^^^^^^^^

Data reading error because of incorrect scheme.

format-error
^^^^^^^^^^^^

Data reading error because of incorrect format.

encoding-error
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Data reading error because of an encoding problem.

Validation against structure checks
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The simplest ``validate`` call will check for structure checks:

.. code:: py

report = validate('invalid.csv')

Let's take a look on `Data Quality
Spec <https://github.com/frictionlessdata/data-quality-spec>`__
``structure`` checks/errors:

blank-header
^^^^^^^^^^^^

A column in the header row is missing a value. Column names should be
provided.

duplicate-header
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Two columns in the header row have the same value. Column names should
be unique.

blank-row
^^^^^^^^^

This row is empty. A row should contain at least one value.

duplicate-row
^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The exact same data has been seen in another row.

extra-value
^^^^^^^^^^^

This row has more values compared to the header row (the first row in
the data source).

missing-value
^^^^^^^^^^^^^

This row has less values compared to the header row (the first row in
the data source).

Validation against schema checks
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

If we run a simple table validation there will not be schema checks
involved:

.. code:: python

report = validate('invalid.csv') # no schema checks

That's because there is no `Table
Schema <http://specs.frictionlessdata.io/table-schema/>`__ to check
against. We have two options:

- provide ``schema`` argument containing Table Schema descriptor
- use ``infer_schema`` option to infer Table Schema from data source

Sometimes we have schema covering data table only partially e.g. table
has headers ``name, age, position`` but schema has only ``name`` and
``age`` fields. In this case we use ``infer_fields`` option:

.. code:: py

# schema will be complemented by `position` field
report = validate('data.csv', schema='schema.json', infer_fields=True)

Other possible discrepancy situation when your schema fields have other
order that data table columns. Options ``order_fieds`` is to rescue:

.. code:: py

# sync source/schema fields order
report = validate('data.csv', schema='schema.json', order_fields=True)

Let's take a look on `Data Quality
Spec <https://github.com/frictionlessdata/data-quality-spec>`__
``schema`` checks/errors:

schema-error
^^^^^^^^^^^^

Provided schema is not valid.

non-matching-header
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

One of the data source headers doesn't match the field name defined in
the schema.

extra-header
^^^^^^^^^^^^

The first row of the data source contains header that doesn't exist in
the schema.

missing-header
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Based on the schema there should be a header that is missing in the
first row of the data source.

type-or-format-error
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The value can't be cast based on the schema type and format for this
field.

required-constraint
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

This field is a required field, but it contains no value.

pattern-constraint
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

This field value should conform to constraint pattern.

unique-constraint
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

This field is a unique field but it contains a value that has been used
in another row.

enumerable-constraint
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

This field value should be equal to one of the values in the enumeration
constraint.

minimum-constraint
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

This field value should be greater or equal than constraint value.

maximum-constraint
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

This field value should be less or equal than constraint value.

minimum-length-constraint
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

A length of this field value should be greater or equal than schema
constraint value.

maximum-length-constraint
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

A length of this field value should be less or equal than schema
constraint value.

Validation against advanced checks
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

In addition to Data Quality Spec checks the library has a builtin
``contrib.checks`` module to provide advanced data quality checks:

blacklisted-value
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Sometimes we have to check for some values we don't want to have in out
dataset. It accepts following options:

- ``column (int/str)`` - column number or name
- ``blacklist (list)`` - list of non-valid values

Consider csv file like this:

.. code:: csv

id,name
1,John
2,bug
3,bad
5,Alex

Let's check the ``name`` column doesn't have ``bug`` and ``bad`` values:

.. code:: python

from goodtables import validate

report = validate('data.csv', checks=[
{'blacklisted-value': {'column': 'id', 'blacklist': ['bug', 'bad']}},
])
# error on row 3 with code "blacklisted-value"
# error on row 4 with code "blacklisted-value"

deviated-value
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

This check helps to find outlines in a column containing positive
numbers. It accepts following options:

- ``column (int/str)`` - column number or name
- ``average (str:mean/median/mode)`` - method to calculate column
average
- ``interval (int)`` - valid values should be inside
``average +/- standard deviation * interval``

Consider csv file like this:

.. code:: csv

temperature
1
-2
7
0
1
2
5
-4
100
8
3

We use ``median`` to get an average of the column values and allow
interval of 3 standard deviations. For our case median is ``2.0`` and
standard deviation is ``29.73`` so all valid values should be inside
``[-87.19, 91.19]`` interval.

.. code:: python

report = validate('data.csv', checks=[
{'deviated-value': {'column': 'temperature', 'average': 'median', 'interval': 3}},
])
# error on row 10 with code "deviated-value"

sequential-value
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

This checks is for pretty common case when a column should have integers
that sequentially increment. It accepts following options:

- ``column (int/str)`` - column number or name

Consider csv file like this:

.. code:: csv

id,name
1,one
2,two
3,three
5,five

Let's check ``id`` column to contain sequential integers:

.. code:: python

from goodtables import validate

report = validate('data.csv', checks=[
{'sequential-value': {'column': 'id'}},
])
# error on row 5 with code "sequential-value"

truncated-value
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Some database or spreadsheet software (like MySQL or Excel) could cutoff
values on saving. There are some well-known heuristics to find this bad
values. See
https://github.com/propublica/guides/blob/master/data-bulletproofing.md
for more detailed information.

Consider csv file like this:

.. code:: csv

id,amount,comment
1,14000000,good
2,2147483647,bad
3,32767,bad
4,234234234,bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbad

To detect all probably truncated values we could use ``truncated-value``
check:

.. code:: python

report = validate('data.csv', checks=[
'truncated-value',
])
# error on row 3 with code "truncated-value"
# error on row 4 with code "truncated-value"
# error on row 5 with code "truncated-value"

custom-constraint
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

With Table Schema we could create constraints for an individual field
but sometimes it's not enough. With a custom constraint check every row
could be checked against given limited python expression in which
variable names resolve to column values. See list of `available
operators <https://github.com/danthedeckie/simpleeval#operators>`__. It
accepts following options:

- ``constraint (str)`` - constraint definition e.g.
``col1 + col2 == col3``

Consider csv file like this:

.. code:: csv

id,name,salary,bonus
1,Alex,1000,200
2,Sam,2500,500
3,Ray,1350,500
4,John,5000,1000

Let's say our business rule is to be shy on bonuses:

.. code:: python

report = validate('data.csv', checks=[
{'custom-constraint': {'constraint': 'salary > bonus * 4'}},
])
# error on row 4 with code "custom-constraint"

Validation against custom checks
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

To create a custom check user could use a ``check`` decorator. This way
the builtin check could be overridden (use the spec error code like
``duplicate-row``) or could be added a check for a custom error (use
``type``, ``context`` and ``position`` arguments):

.. code:: python

from goodtables import validate, check

@check('custom-check', type='custom', context='body')
def custom_check(errors, cells, row_number):
for cell in cells:
errors.append({
'code': 'custom-error',
'message': 'Custom error',
'row-number': row_number,
'column-number': cell['number'],
})
cells.remove(cell)

report = validate('data.csv', checks=['custom-check'])

For now this documentation section is incomplete. Please see builtin
checks to learn more about checking protocol.

Validation of custom data sources
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

To create a custom preset user could use a ``preset`` decorator. This
way the builtin preset could be overridden or could be added a custom
preset.

.. code:: python

from tabulator import Stream
from tableschema import Schema
from goodtables import validate

@preset('custom-preset')
def custom_preset(source, **options):
warnings = []
tables = []
for table in source:
try:
tables.append({
'source': str(source),
'stream': Stream(...),
'schema': Schema(...),
'extra': {...},
})
except Exception:
warnings.append('Warning message')
return warnings, tables

report = validate(source, preset='custom-preset')

For now this documentation section is incomplete. Please see builtin
presets to learn more about the dataset extraction protocol.

Validation limits
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

If we need to save time/resources we could limit validation. By default
limits have some reasonable values but it could be set to any values by
user. Let's see on the available limits:

- errors per table limit
- tables per dataset limit
- rows per table limit

The most common cast is stopping on the first error found:

.. code:: py

report = validate('data.csv', error_limit=1)

Spec
~~~~

Data Quality Spec is shipped with the library:

.. code:: py

from goodtables import spec

spec['version'] # spec version
spec['errors'] # list of errors

``spec``
^^^^^^^^

- ``(dict)`` - returns Data Quality Spec

Exceptions
~~~~~~~~~~

``exceptions.GoodtablesException``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Base class for all ``goodtables`` exceptions.

CLI
~~~

It’s a provisional API. If you use it as a part of other program
please pin concrete ``goodtables`` version to your requirements
file.

All common goodtables tasks could be done using a command-line
interface. For example write a following command to the shell to inspect
a data table or a data package:

::

$ goodtables data.csv
$ goodtables datapackage.json

And the ``goodtables`` report will be printed to the standard output in
nicely-formatted way.

``$ goodtables``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

::

Usage: cli.py [OPTIONS] SOURCE

https://github.com/frictionlessdata/goodtables-py#cli

Options:
--preset TEXT
--schema TEXT
--checks TEXT
--skip-checks TEXT
--infer-schema
--infer-fields
--order-fields
--error-limit INTEGER
--table-limit INTEGER
--row-limit INTEGER
--json
--version Show the version and exit.
--help Show this message and exit.

Inspector
~~~~~~~~~

This API could be deprecated in the future. It's recommended to use
``validate`` counterpart.

``Inspector(**settings)``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

``inspector.inspect(source, **source_options)``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Contributing
------------

The project follows the `Open Knowledge International coding
standards <https://github.com/okfn/coding-standards>`__.

| Recommended way to get started is to create and activate a project
virtual environment.
| To install package and development dependencies into active
environment:

::

$ make install

To run tests with linting and coverage:

.. code:: bash

$ make test

| For linting ``pylama`` configured in ``pylama.ini`` is used. On this
stage it's already
| installed into your environment and could be used separately with more
fine-grained control
| as described in documentation -
https://pylama.readthedocs.io/en/latest/.

For example to sort results by error type:

.. code:: bash

$ pylama --sort <path>

| For testing ``tox`` configured in ``tox.ini`` is used.
| It's already installed into your environment and could be used
separately with more fine-grained control as described in documentation
- https://testrun.org/tox/latest/.

| For example to check subset of tests against Python 2 environment with
increased verbosity.
| All positional arguments and options after ``--`` will be passed to
``py.test``:

.. code:: bash

tox -e py27 -- -v tests/<path>

| Under the hood ``tox`` uses ``pytest`` configured in ``pytest.ini``,
``coverage``
| and ``mock`` packages. This packages are available only in tox
environments.

Changelog
---------

Here described only breaking and the most important changes. The full
changelog and documentation for all released versions could be found in
nicely formatted `commit
history <https://github.com/frictionlessdata/goodtables-py/commits/master>`__.

v1.4
~~~~

Improved behaviour:

- rebased on Data Quality Spec v1
- rebased on Data Package Spec v1
- rebased on Table Schema Spec v1
- treat primary key as required/unique field

v1.3
~~~~

New advanced checks added:

- ``blacklisted-value``
- ``custom-constraint``
- ``deviated-value``
- ``sequential-value``
- ``truncated-value``

v1.2
~~~~

New API added:

- ``report.preset``
- ``report.tables[].schema``

v1.1
~~~~

New API added:

- ``report.tables[].scheme``
- ``report.tables[].format``
- ``report.tables[].encoding``

v1.0
~~~~

This version includes various big changes. A migration guide is under
development and will be published here.

v0.6
~~~~

First version of ``goodtables``.

.. |Travis| image:: https://img.shields.io/travis/frictionlessdata/goodtables-py/master.svg
:target: https://travis-ci.org/frictionlessdata/goodtables-py
.. |Coveralls| image:: http://img.shields.io/coveralls/frictionlessdata/goodtables-py.svg?branch=master
:target: https://coveralls.io/r/frictionlessdata/goodtables-py?branch=master
.. |PyPi| image:: https://img.shields.io/pypi/v/goodtables.svg
:target: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/goodtables
.. |Gitter| image:: https://img.shields.io/gitter/room/frictionlessdata/chat.svg
:target: https://gitter.im/frictionlessdata/chat
.. |Report| image:: http://i.imgur.com/fZkc2OI.png
.. |Dataset| image:: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/frictionlessdata/goodtables-py/master/data/dataset.png

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