Skip to main content

The next generation HTTP client.

Project description

HTTPX

HTTPX - A next-generation HTTP client for Python.

Test Suite Package version

HTTPX is a fully featured HTTP client for Python 3, which provides sync and async APIs, and support for both HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/2.

Note: HTTPX should be considered in beta. We believe we've got the public API to a stable point now, but would strongly recommend pinning your dependencies to the 0.13.* release, so that you're able to properly review API changes between package updates. A 1.0 release is expected to be issued sometime around mid-2020.


Let's get started...

>>> import httpx
>>> r = httpx.get('https://www.example.org/')
>>> r
<Response [200 OK]>
>>> r.status_code
200
>>> r.headers['content-type']
'text/html; charset=UTF-8'
>>> r.text
'<!doctype html>\n<html>\n<head>\n<title>Example Domain</title>...'

Or, using the async API...

Use IPython or Python 3.8+ with python -m asyncio to try this code interactively.

>>> import httpx
>>> async with httpx.AsyncClient() as client:
>>>     r = await client.get('https://www.example.org/')
>>> r
<Response [200 OK]>

Features

HTTPX builds on the well-established usability of requests, and gives you:

Plus all the standard features of requests...

  • International Domains and URLs
  • Keep-Alive & Connection Pooling
  • Sessions with Cookie Persistence
  • Browser-style SSL Verification
  • Basic/Digest Authentication
  • Elegant Key/Value Cookies
  • Automatic Decompression
  • Automatic Content Decoding
  • Unicode Response Bodies
  • Multipart File Uploads
  • HTTP(S) Proxy Support
  • Connection Timeouts
  • Streaming Downloads
  • .netrc Support
  • Chunked Requests

Installation

Install with pip:

$ pip install httpx

HTTPX requires Python 3.6+.

Documentation

Project documentation is available at https://www.python-httpx.org/.

For a run-through of all the basics, head over to the QuickStart.

For more advanced topics, see the Advanced Usage section, the async support section, or the HTTP/2 section.

The Developer Interface provides a comprehensive API reference.

To find out about tools that integrate with HTTPX, see Third Party Packages.

Contribute

If you want to contribute with HTTPX check out the Contributing Guide to learn how to start.

Dependencies

The HTTPX project relies on these excellent libraries:

  • httpcore - The underlying transport implementation for httpx.
    • h11 - HTTP/1.1 support.
    • h2 - HTTP/2 support.
  • certifi - SSL certificates.
  • chardet - Fallback auto-detection for response encoding.
  • hstspreload - determines whether IDNA-encoded host should be only accessed via HTTPS.
  • idna - Internationalized domain name support.
  • rfc3986 - URL parsing & normalization.
  • sniffio - Async library autodetection.
  • urllib3 - Support for the httpx.URLLib3Transport class. (Optional)
  • brotlipy - Decoding for "brotli" compressed responses. (Optional)

A huge amount of credit is due to requests for the API layout that much of this work follows, as well as to urllib3 for plenty of design inspiration around the lower-level networking details.

— ⭐️ —

HTTPX is BSD licensed code. Designed & built in Brighton, England.

Changelog

All notable changes to this project will be documented in this file.

The format is based on Keep a Changelog.

0.13.3 (May 29th, 2020)

Fixed

  • Include missing keepalive expiry configuration. (Pull #1005)
  • Improved error message when URL redirect has a custom scheme. (Pull #1002)

0.13.2 (May 27th, 2020)

Fixed

  • Include explicit "Content-Length: 0" on POST, PUT, PATCH if no request body is used. (Pull #995)
  • Add http2 option to httpx.Client. (Pull #982)
  • Tighten up API typing in places. (Pull #992, #999)

0.13.1 (May 22nd, 2020)

Fixed

  • Fix pool options deprecation warning. (Pull #980)
  • Include httpx.URLLib3ProxyTransport in top-level API. (Pull #979)

0.13.0 (May 22nd, 2020)

This release switches to httpcore for all the internal networking, which means:

  • We're using the same codebase for both our sync and async clients.
  • HTTP/2 support is now available with the sync client.
  • We no longer have a urllib3 dependency for our sync client, although there is still an optional URLLib3Transport class.

It also means we've had to remove our UDS support, since maintaining that would have meant having to push back our work towards a 1.0 release, which isn't a trade-off we wanted to make.

We also now have a public "Transport API", which you can use to implement custom transport implementations against. This formalises and replaces our previously private "Dispatch API".

Changed

  • Use httpcore for underlying HTTP transport. Drop urllib3 requirement. (Pull #804, #967)
  • Rename pool limit options from soft_limit/hard_limit to max_keepalive/max_connections. (Pull #968)
  • The previous private "Dispatch API" has now been promoted to a public "Transport API". When customizing the transport use transport=.... The ASGIDispatch and WSGIDispatch class naming is deprecated in favour of ASGITransport and WSGITransport. (Pull #963)

Added

  • Added URLLib3Transport class for optional urllib3 transport support. (Pull #804, #963)
  • Streaming multipart uploads. (Pull #857)
  • Logging via HTTPCORE_LOG_LEVEL and HTTPX_LOG_LEVEL environment variables and TRACE level logging. (Pull encode/httpcore#79)

Fixed

  • Performance improvement in brotli decoder. (Pull #906)
  • Proper warning level of deprecation notice in Response.stream and Response.raw. (Pull #908)
  • Fix support for generator based WSGI apps. (Pull #887)
  • Reuse of connections on HTTP/2 in close concurrency situations. (Pull encode/httpcore#81)
  • Honor HTTP/2 max concurrent streams settings (Pull encode/httpcore#89, encode/httpcore#90)
  • Fix bytes support in multipart uploads. (Pull #974)
  • Improve typing support for files=.... (Pull #976)

Removed

  • Dropped support for Client(uds=...) (Pull #804)

0.13.0.dev2 (May 12th, 2020)

The 0.13.0.dev2 is a pre-release version. To install it, use pip install httpx --pre.

Added

  • Logging via HTTPCORE_LOG_LEVEL and HTTPX_LOG_LEVEL environment variables and TRACE level logging. (HTTPCore Pull #79)

Fixed

  • Reuse of connections on HTTP/2 in close concurrency situations. (HTTPCore Pull #81)
  • When using an app=<ASGI app> observe neater disconnect behaviour instead of sending empty body messages. (Pull #919)

0.13.0.dev1 (May 6th, 2020)

The 0.13.0.dev1 is a pre-release version. To install it, use pip install httpx --pre.

Fixed

  • Passing http2 flag to proxy dispatchers. (Pull #934)
  • Use httpcore v0.8.3 which addresses problems in handling of headers when using proxies.

0.13.0.dev0 (April 30th, 2020)

The 0.13.0.dev0 is a pre-release version. To install it, use pip install httpx --pre.

This release switches to httpcore for all the internal networking, which means:

  • We're using the same codebase for both our sync and async clients.
  • HTTP/2 support is now available with the sync client.
  • We no longer have a urllib3 dependency for our sync client, although there is still an optional URLLib3Dispatcher class.

It also means we've had to remove our UDS support, since maintaining that would have meant having to push back our work towards a 1.0 release, which isn't a trade-off we wanted to make.

Changed

  • Use httpcore for underlying HTTP transport. Drop urllib3 requirement. (Pull #804)

Added

  • Added URLLib3Dispatcher class for optional urllib3 transport support. (Pull #804)
  • Streaming multipart uploads. (Pull #857)

Fixed

  • Performance improvement in brotli decoder. (Pull #906)
  • Proper warning level of deprecation notice in Response.stream and Response.raw. (Pull #908)
  • Fix support for generator based WSGI apps. (Pull #887)

Removed

  • Dropped support for Client(uds=...) (Pull #804)

0.12.1 (March 19th, 2020)

Fixed

  • Resolved packaging issue, where additional files were being included.

0.12.0 (March 9th, 2020)

The 0.12 release tightens up the API expectations for httpx by switching to private module names to enforce better clarity around public API.

All imports of httpx should import from the top-level package only, such as from httpx import Request, rather than importing from privately namespaced modules such as from httpx._models import Request.

Added

  • Support making response body available to auth classes with .requires_response_body. (Pull #803)
  • Export NetworkError exception. (Pull #814)
  • Add support for NO_PROXY environment variable. (Pull #835)

Changed

  • Switched to private module names. (Pull #785)
  • Drop redirect looping detection and the RedirectLoop exception, instead using TooManyRedirects. (Pull #819)
  • Drop backend=... parameter on AsyncClient, in favour of always autodetecting trio/asyncio. (Pull #791)

Fixed

  • Support basic auth credentials in proxy URLs. (Pull #780)
  • Fix httpx.Proxy(url, mode="FORWARD_ONLY") configuration. (Pull #788)
  • Fallback to setting headers as UTF-8 if no encoding is specified. (Pull #820)
  • Close proxy dispatches classes on client close. (Pull #826)
  • Support custom cert parameters even if verify=False. (Pull #796)
  • Don't support invalid dict-of-dicts form data in data=.... (Pull #811)

0.11.1 (January 17th, 2020)

Fixed

  • Fixed usage of proxies=... on Client(). (Pull #763)
  • Support both zlib and deflate style encodings on Content-Encoding: deflate. (Pull #758)
  • Fix for streaming a redirect response body with allow_redirects=False. (Pull #766)
  • Handle redirect with malformed Location headers missing host. (Pull #774)

0.11.0 (January 9th, 2020)

The 0.11 release reintroduces our sync support, so that httpx now supports both a standard thread-concurrency API, and an async API.

Existing async httpx users that are upgrading to 0.11 should ensure that:

  • Async codebases should always use a client instance to make requests, instead of the top-level API.
  • The async client is named as httpx.AsyncClient(), instead of httpx.Client().
  • When instantiating proxy configurations use the httpx.Proxy() class, instead of the previous httpx.HTTPProxy(). This new configuration class works for configuring both sync and async clients.

We believe the API is now pretty much stable, and are aiming for a 1.0 release sometime on or before April 2020.

Changed

  • Top level API such as httpx.get(url, ...), httpx.post(url, ...), httpx.request(method, url, ...) becomes synchronous.
  • Added httpx.Client() for synchronous clients, with httpx.AsyncClient being used for async clients.
  • Switched to proxies=httpx.Proxy(...) for proxy configuration.
  • Network connection errors are wrapped in httpx.NetworkError, rather than exposing lower-level exception types directly.

Removed

  • The request.url.origin property and httpx.Origin class are no longer available.
  • The per-request cert, verify, and trust_env arguments are escalated from raising errors if used, to no longer being available. These arguments should be used on a per-client instance instead, or in the top-level API.
  • The stream argument has escalated from raising an error when used, to no longer being available. Use the client.stream(...) or httpx.stream() streaming API instead.

Fixed

  • Redirect loop detection matches against (method, url) rather than url. (Pull #734)

0.10.1 (December 31st, 2019)

Fixed

  • Fix issue with concurrent connection acquiry. (Pull #700)
  • Fix write error on closing HTTP/2 connections. (Pull #699)

0.10.0 (December 29th, 2019)

The 0.10.0 release makes some changes that will allow us to support both sync and async interfaces.

In particular with streaming responses the response.read() method becomes response.aread(), and the response.close() method becomes response.aclose().

If following redirects explicitly the response.next() method becomes response.anext().

Fixed

  • End HTTP/2 streams immediately on no-body requests, rather than sending an empty body message. (Pull #682)
  • Improve typing for Response.request: switch from Optional[Request] to Request. (Pull #666)
  • Response.elapsed now reflects the entire download time. (Pull #687, #692)

Changed

  • Added AsyncClient as a synonym for Client. (Pull #680)
  • Switch to response.aread() for conditionally reading streaming responses. (Pull #674)
  • Switch to response.aclose() and client.aclose() for explicit closing. (Pull #674, #675)
  • Switch to response.anext() for resolving the next redirect response. (Pull #676)

Removed

  • When using a client instance, the per-request usage of verify, cert, and trust_env have now escalated from raising a warning to raising an error. You should set these arguments on the client instead. (Pull #617)
  • Removed the undocumented request.read(), since end users should not require it.

0.9.5 (December 20th, 2019)

Fixed

  • Fix Host header and HSTS rewrites when an explicit :80 port is included in URL. (Pull #649)
  • Query Params on the URL string are merged with any params=... argument. (Pull #653)
  • More robust behavior when closing connections. (Pull #640)
  • More robust behavior when handling HTTP/2 headers with trailing whitespace. (Pull #637)
  • Allow any explicit Content-Type header to take precedence over the encoding default. (Pull #633)

0.9.4 (December 12th, 2019)

Fixed

  • Added expiry to Keep-Alive connections, resolving issues with acquiring connections. (Pull #627)
  • Increased flow control windows on HTTP/2, resolving download speed issues. (Pull #629)

0.9.3 (December 7th, 2019)

Fixed

  • Fixed HTTP/2 with autodetection backend. (Pull #614)

0.9.2 (December 7th, 2019)

  • Released due to packaging build artifact.

0.9.1 (December 6th, 2019)

  • Released due to packaging build artifact.

0.9.0 (December 6th, 2019)

The 0.9 releases brings some major new features, including:

  • A new streaming API.
  • Autodetection of either asyncio or trio.
  • Nicer timeout configuration.
  • HTTP/2 support off by default, but can be enabled.

We've also removed all private types from the top-level package export.

In order to ensure you are only ever working with public API you should make sure to only import the top-level package eg. import httpx, rather than importing modules within the package.

Added

  • Added concurrency backend autodetection. (Pull #585)
  • Added Client(backend='trio') and Client(backend='asyncio') API. (Pull #585)
  • Added response.stream_lines() API. (Pull #575)
  • Added response.is_error API. (Pull #574)
  • Added support for timeout=Timeout(5.0, connect_timeout=60.0) styles. (Pull #593)

Fixed

  • Requests or Clients with timeout=None now correctly always disable timeouts. (Pull #592)
  • Request 'Authorization' headers now have priority over .netrc authentication info. (Commit 095b691)
  • Files without a filename no longer set a Content-Type in multipart data. (Commit ed94950)

Changed

  • Added httpx.stream() API. Using stream=True now results in a warning. (Pull #600, #610)
  • HTTP/2 support is switched to "off by default", but can be enabled explicitly. (Pull #584)
  • Switched to Client(http2=True) API from Client(http_versions=["HTTP/1.1", "HTTP/2"]). (Pull #586)
  • Removed all private types from the top-level package export. (Pull #608)
  • The SSL configuration settings of verify, cert, and trust_env now raise warnings if used per-request when using a Client instance. They should always be set on the Client instance itself. (Pull #597)
  • Use plain strings "TUNNEL_ONLY" or "FORWARD_ONLY" on the HTTPProxy proxy_mode argument. The HTTPProxyMode enum still exists, but its usage will raise warnings. (#610)
  • Pool timeouts are now on the timeout configuration, not the pool limits configuration. (Pull #563)
  • The timeout configuration is now named httpx.Timeout(...), not httpx.TimeoutConfig(...). The old version currently remains as a synonym for backwards compatability. (Pull #591)

0.8.0 (November 27, 2019)

Removed

  • The synchronous API has been removed, in order to allow us to fundamentally change how we approach supporting both sync and async variants. (See #588 for more details.)

0.7.8 (November 17, 2019)

Added

  • Add support for proxy tunnels for Python 3.6 + asyncio. (Pull #521)

0.7.7 (November 15, 2019)

Fixed

  • Resolve an issue with cookies behavior on redirect requests. (Pull #529)

Added

  • Add request/response DEBUG logs. (Pull #502)
  • Use TRACE log level for low level info. (Pull #500)

0.7.6 (November 2, 2019)

Removed

  • Drop proxies parameter from the high-level API. (Pull #485)

Fixed

  • Tweak multipart files: omit null filenames, add support for str file contents. (Pull #482)
  • Cache NETRC authentication per-client. (Pull #400)
  • Rely on getproxies for all proxy environment variables. (Pull #470)
  • Wait for the asyncio stream to close when closing a connection. (Pull #494)

0.7.5 (October 10, 2019)

Added

  • Allow lists of values to be passed to params. (Pull #386)
  • ASGIDispatch, WSGIDispatch are now available in the httpx.dispatch namespace. (Pull #407)
  • HTTPError is now available in the httpx namespace. (Pull #421)
  • Add support for start_tls() to the Trio concurrency backend. (Pull #467)

Fixed

  • Username and password are no longer included in the Host header when basic authentication credentials are supplied via the URL. (Pull #417)

Removed

  • The .delete() function no longer has json, data, or files parameters to match the expected semantics of the DELETE method. (Pull #408)
  • Removed the trio extra. Trio support is detected automatically. (Pull #390)

0.7.4 (September 25, 2019)

Added

  • Add Trio concurrency backend. (Pull #276)
  • Add params parameter to Client for setting default query parameters. (Pull #372)
  • Add support for SSL_CERT_FILE and SSL_CERT_DIR environment variables. (Pull #307)
  • Add debug logging to calls into ASGI apps. (Pull #371)
  • Add debug logging to SSL configuration. (Pull #378)

Fixed

  • Fix a bug when using Client without timeouts in Python 3.6. (Pull #383)
  • Propagate Client configuration to HTTP proxies. (Pull #377)

0.7.3 (September 20, 2019)

Added

  • HTTP Proxy support. (Pulls #259, #353)
  • Add Digest authentication. (Pull #332)
  • Add .build_request() method to Client and AsyncClient. (Pull #319)
  • Add .elapsed property on responses. (Pull #351)
  • Add support for SSLKEYLOGFILE in Python 3.8b4+. (Pull #301)

Removed

  • Drop NPN support for HTTP version negotiation. (Pull #314)

Fixed

  • Fix distribution of type annotations for mypy (Pull #361).
  • Set Host header when redirecting cross-origin. (Pull #321)
  • Drop Content-Length headers on GET redirects. (Pull #310)
  • Raise KeyError if header isn't found in Headers. (Pull #324)
  • Raise NotRedirectResponse in response.next() if there is no redirection to perform. (Pull #297)
  • Fix bug in calculating the HTTP/2 maximum frame size. (Pull #153)

0.7.2 (August 28, 2019)

  • Enforce using httpx.AsyncioBackend for the synchronous client. (Pull #232)
  • httpx.ConnectionPool will properly release a dropped connection. (Pull #230)
  • Remove the raise_app_exceptions argument from Client. (Pull #238)
  • DecodeError will no longer be raised for an empty body encoded with Brotli. (Pull #237)
  • Added http_versions parameter to Client. (Pull #250)
  • Only use HTTP/1.1 on short-lived connections like httpx.get(). (Pull #284)
  • Convert Client.cookies and Client.headers when set as a property. (Pull #274)
  • Setting HTTPX_DEBUG=1 enables debug logging on all requests. (Pull #277)

0.7.1 (August 18, 2019)

  • Include files with source distribution to be installable. (Pull #233)

0.7.0 (August 17, 2019)

  • Add the trust_env property to BaseClient. (Pull #187)
  • Add the links property to BaseResponse. (Pull #211)
  • Accept ssl.SSLContext instances into SSLConfig(verify=...). (Pull #215)
  • Add Response.stream_text() with incremental encoding detection. (Pull #183)
  • Properly updated the Host header when a redirect changes the origin. (Pull #199)
  • Ignore invalid Content-Encoding headers. (Pull #196)
  • Use ~/.netrc and ~/_netrc files by default when trust_env=True. (Pull #189)
  • Create exception base class HTTPError with request and response properties. (Pull #162)
  • Add HSTS preload list checking within BaseClient to upgrade HTTP URLs to HTTPS. (Pull #184)
  • Switch IDNA encoding from IDNA 2003 to IDNA 2008. (Pull #161)
  • Expose base classes for alternate concurrency backends. (Pull #178)
  • Improve Multipart parameter encoding. (Pull #167)
  • Add the headers proeprty to BaseClient. (Pull #159)
  • Add support for Google's brotli library. (Pull #156)
  • Remove deprecated TLS versions (TLSv1 and TLSv1.1) from default SSLConfig. (Pull #155)
  • Fix URL.join(...) to work similarly to RFC 3986 URL joining. (Pull #144)

0.6.8 (July 25, 2019)

  • Check for disconnections when searching for an available connection in ConnectionPool.keepalive_connections (Pull #145)
  • Allow string comparison for URL objects (Pull #139)
  • Add HTTP status codes 418 and 451 (Pull #135)
  • Add support for client certificate passwords (Pull #118)
  • Enable post-handshake client cert authentication for TLSv1.3 (Pull #118)
  • Disable using commonName for hostname checking for OpenSSL 1.1.0+ (Pull #118)
  • Detect encoding for Response.json() (Pull #116)

0.6.7 (July 8, 2019)

  • Check for connection aliveness on re-acquiry (Pull #111)

0.6.6 (July 3, 2019)

  • Improve USER_AGENT (Pull #110)
  • Add Connection: keep-alive by default to HTTP/1.1 connections. (Pull #110)

0.6.5 (June 27, 2019)

  • Include Host header by default. (Pull #109)
  • Improve HTTP protocol detection. (Pull #107)

0.6.4 (June 25, 2019)

  • Implement read and write timeouts (Pull #104)

0.6.3 (June 24, 2019)

  • Handle early connection closes (Pull #103)

0.6.2 (June 23, 2019)

  • Use urllib3's DEFAULT_CIPHERS for the SSLConfig object. (Pull #100)

0.6.1 (June 21, 2019)

  • Add support for setting a base_url on the Client.

0.6.0 (June 21, 2019)

  • Honor local_flow_control_window for HTTP/2 connections (Pull #98)

Project details


Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Files for httpx, version 0.13.3
Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes
Filename, size httpx-0.13.3-py3-none-any.whl (55.1 kB) File type Wheel Python version py3 Upload date Hashes View
Filename, size httpx-0.13.3.tar.gz (59.4 kB) File type Source Python version None Upload date Hashes View

Supported by

Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Google Google Object Storage and Download Analytics Sentry Sentry Error logging AWS AWS Cloud computing DataDog DataDog Monitoring Fastly Fastly CDN DigiCert DigiCert EV certificate StatusPage StatusPage Status page