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The next generation HTTP client.

Project description


HTTPX - A next-generation HTTP client for Python.

Test Suite Package version

HTTPX is a fully featured HTTP client library for Python 3. It includes an integrated command line client, has support for both HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/2, and provides both sync and async APIs.

Note: The 0.21 release includes some improvements to the integrated command-line client. This latest version integrates against a re-designed version of httpcore. Both packages ought to automatically update to the required versions, but if you are seeing any issues then you should ensure that you have httpx==0.21.* and httpcore==0.14.* installed. See the CHANGELOG for more details.

Install HTTPX using pip:

$ pip install httpx

Now, let's get started:

>>> import httpx
>>> r = httpx.get('')
>>> r
<Response [200 OK]>
>>> r.status_code
>>> r.headers['content-type']
'text/html; charset=UTF-8'
>>> r.text
'<!doctype html>\n<html>\n<head>\n<title>Example Domain</title>...'

Or, using the command-line client.

$ pip install 'httpx[cli]'  # The command line client is an optional dependency.

Which now allows us to use HTTPX directly from the command-line...

httpx --help

Sending a request...



HTTPX builds on the well-established usability of requests, and gives you:

Plus all the standard features of requests...

  • International Domains and URLs
  • Keep-Alive & Connection Pooling
  • Sessions with Cookie Persistence
  • Browser-style SSL Verification
  • Basic/Digest Authentication
  • Elegant Key/Value Cookies
  • Automatic Decompression
  • Automatic Content Decoding
  • Unicode Response Bodies
  • Multipart File Uploads
  • HTTP(S) Proxy Support
  • Connection Timeouts
  • Streaming Downloads
  • .netrc Support
  • Chunked Requests


Install with pip:

$ pip install httpx

Or, to include the optional HTTP/2 support, use:

$ pip install httpx[http2]

HTTPX requires Python 3.6+.


Project documentation is available at

For a run-through of all the basics, head over to the QuickStart.

For more advanced topics, see the Advanced Usage section, the async support section, or the HTTP/2 section.

The Developer Interface provides a comprehensive API reference.

To find out about tools that integrate with HTTPX, see Third Party Packages.


If you want to contribute with HTTPX check out the Contributing Guide to learn how to start.


The HTTPX project relies on these excellent libraries:

  • httpcore - The underlying transport implementation for httpx.
    • h11 - HTTP/1.1 support.
  • certifi - SSL certificates.
  • charset_normalizer - Charset auto-detection.
  • rfc3986 - URL parsing & normalization.
    • idna - Internationalized domain name support.
  • sniffio - Async library autodetection.

As well as these optional installs:

  • h2 - HTTP/2 support. (Optional, with httpx[http2])
  • socksio - SOCKS proxy support. (Optional, with httpx[socks])
  • rich - Rich terminal support. (Optional, with httpx[cli])
  • click - Command line client support. (Optional, with httpx[cli])
  • brotli or brotlicffi - Decoding for "brotli" compressed responses. (Optional, with httpx[brotli])
  • async_generator - Backport support for contextlib.asynccontextmanager. (Only required for Python 3.6)

A huge amount of credit is due to requests for the API layout that much of this work follows, as well as to urllib3 for plenty of design inspiration around the lower-level networking details.

— ⭐️ —

HTTPX is BSD licensed code. Designed & built in Brighton, England.


All notable changes to this project will be documented in this file.

The format is based on Keep a Changelog.

0.22.0 (26th January, 2022)



  • Don't perform unreliable close/warning on __del__ with unclosed clients. (#2026)
  • Fix Headers.update(...) to correctly handle repeated headers (#2038)

0.21.3 (6th January, 2022)


  • Fix streaming uploads using SyncByteStream or AsyncByteStream. Regression in 0.21.2. (#2016)

0.21.2 (5th January, 2022)


  • HTTP/2 support for tunnelled proxy cases. (#2009)
  • Improved the speed of large file uploads. (#1948)

0.21.1 (16th November, 2021)


  • The response.url property is now correctly annotated as URL, instead of Optional[URL]. (#1940)

0.21.0 (15th November, 2021)

The 0.21.0 release integrates against a newly redesigned httpcore backend.

Both packages ought to automatically update to the required versions, but if you are seeing any issues, you should ensure that you have httpx==0.21.* and httpcore==0.14.* installed.


  • The command-line client will now display connection information when -v/--verbose is used.
  • The command-line client will now display server certificate information when -v/--verbose is used.
  • The command-line client is now able to properly detect if the outgoing request should be formatted as HTTP/1.1 or HTTP/2, based on the result of the HTTP/2 negotiation.


  • Curio support is no longer currently included. Please get in touch if you require this, so that we can assess priorities.

0.20.0 (13th October, 2021)

The 0.20.0 release adds an integrated command-line client, and also includes some design changes. The most notable of these is that redirect responses are no longer automatically followed, unless specifically requested.

This design decision prioritises a more explicit approach to redirects, in order to avoid code that unintentionally issues multiple requests as a result of misconfigured URLs.

For example, previously a client configured to send requests to would end up sending every API request twice, as each request would be redirected to

If you do want auto-redirect behaviour, you can enable this either by configuring the client instance with Client(follow_redirects=True), or on a per-request basis, with .get(..., follow_redirects=True).

This change is a classic trade-off between convenience and precision, with no "right" answer. See discussion #1785 for more context.

The other major design change is an update to the Transport API, which is the low-level interface against which requests are sent. Previously this interface used only primitive datastructures, like so...

(status_code, headers, stream, extensions) = transport.handle_request(method, url, headers, stream, extensions)

Now the interface is much simpler...

response = transport.handle_request(request)


  • The allow_redirects flag is now follow_redirects and defaults to False.
  • The raise_for_status() method will now raise an exception for any responses except those with 2xx status codes. Previously only 4xx and 5xx status codes would result in an exception.
  • The low-level transport API changes to the much simpler response = transport.handle_request(request).
  • The client.send() method no longer accepts a timeout=... argument, but the client.build_request() does. This required by the signature change of the Transport API. The request timeout configuration is now stored on the request instance, as request.extensions['timeout'].


  • Added the httpx command-line client.
  • Response instances now include .is_informational, .is_success, .is_redirect, .is_client_error, and .is_server_error properties for checking 1xx, 2xx, 3xx, 4xx, and 5xx response types. Note that the behaviour of .is_redirect is slightly different in that it now returns True for all 3xx responses, in order to allow for a consistent set of properties onto the different HTTP status code types. The response.has_redirect_location location may be used to determine responses with properly formed URL redirects.


  • response.iter_bytes() no longer raises a ValueError when called on a response with no content. (Pull #1827)
  • The 'wsgi.error' configuration now defaults to sys.stderr, and is corrected to be a TextIO interface, not a BytesIO interface. Additionally, the WSGITransport now accepts a wsgi_error configuration. (Pull #1828)
  • Follow the WSGI spec by properly closing the iterable returned by the application. (Pull #1830)

0.19.0 (19th August, 2021)


  • Add support for Client(allow_redirects=<bool>). (Pull #1790)
  • Add automatic character set detection, when no charset is included in the response Content-Type header. (Pull #1791)


  • Event hooks are now also called for any additional redirect or auth requests/responses. (Pull #1806)
  • Strictly enforce that upload files must be opened in binary mode. (Pull #1736)
  • Strictly enforce that client instances can only be opened and closed once, and cannot be re-opened. (Pull #1800)
  • Drop mode argument from httpx.Proxy(..., mode=...). (Pull #1795)

0.18.2 (17th June, 2021)


  • Support for Python 3.10. (Pull #1687)
  • Expose httpx.USE_CLIENT_DEFAULT, used as the default to auth and timeout parameters in request methods. (Pull #1634)
  • Support HTTP/2 "prior knowledge", using httpx.Client(http1=False, http2=True). (Pull #1624)


  • Clean up some cases where warnings were being issued. (Pull #1687)
  • Prefer Content-Length over Transfer-Encoding: chunked for content=<file-like> cases. (Pull #1619)

0.18.1 (29th April, 2021)


  • Update brotli support to use the brotlicffi package (Pull #1605)
  • Ensure that Request(..., stream=...) does not auto-generate any headers on the request instance. (Pull #1607)


  • Pass through timeout=... in top-level function. (Pull #1613)
  • Map httpcore transport close exceptions to httpx exceptions. (Pull #1606)

0.18.0 (27th April, 2021)

The 0.18.x release series formalises our low-level Transport API, introducing the base classes httpx.BaseTransport and httpx.AsyncBaseTransport.

See the "Writing custom transports" documentation and the httpx.BaseTransport.handle_request() docstring for more complete details on implementing custom transports.

Pull request #1522 includes a checklist of differences from the previous httpcore transport API, for developers implementing custom transports.

The following API changes have been issuing deprecation warnings since 0.17.0 onwards, and are now fully deprecated...

  • You should now use consistently instead of httpx.StatusCodes.
  • Use limits=... instead of pool_limits=....
  • Use proxies={"http://": ...} instead of proxies={"http": ...} for scheme-specific mounting.


  • Transport instances now inherit from httpx.BaseTransport or httpx.AsyncBaseTransport, and should implement either the handle_request method or handle_async_request method. (Pull #1522, #1550)
  • The response.ext property and Response(ext=...) argument are now named extensions. (Pull #1522)
  • The recommendation to not use data=<bytes|str|bytes (a)iterator> in favour of content=<bytes|str|bytes (a)iterator> has now been escalated to a deprecation warning. (Pull #1573)
  • Drop Response(on_close=...) from API, since it was a bit of leaking implementation detail. (Pull #1572)
  • When using a client instance, cookies should always be set on the client, rather than on a per-request basis. We prefer enforcing a stricter API here because it provides clearer expectations around cookie persistence, particularly when redirects occur. (Pull #1574)
  • The runtime exception httpx.ResponseClosed is now named httpx.StreamClosed. (#1584)
  • The httpx.QueryParams model now presents an immutable interface. There is a discussion on the design and motivation here. Use client.params = client.params.merge(...) instead of client.params.update(...). The basic query manipulation methods are query.set(...), query.add(...), and query.remove(). (#1600)


  • The Request and Response classes can now be serialized using pickle. (#1579)
  • Handle data={"key": [None|int|float|bool]} cases. (Pull #1539)
  • Support httpx.URL(**kwargs), for example httpx.URL(scheme="https", host="", path="/'), or httpx.URL("", username="", password="123 456"). (Pull #1601)
  • Support url.copy_with(params=...). (Pull #1601)
  • Add url.params parameter, returning an immutable QueryParams instance. (Pull #1601)
  • Support query manipulation methods on the URL class. These are url.copy_set_param(), url.copy_add_param(), url.copy_remove_param(), url.copy_merge_params(). (Pull #1601)
  • The httpx.URL class now performs port normalization, so :80 ports are stripped from http URLs and :443 ports are stripped from https URLs. (Pull #1603)
  • The property returns unicode strings for internationalized domain names. The URL.raw_host property returns byte strings with IDNA escaping applied. (Pull #1590)


  • Fix Content-Length for cases of files=... where unicode string is used as the file content. (Pull #1537)
  • Fix some cases of merging relative URLs against Client(base_url=...). (Pull #1532)
  • The request.content attribute is now always available except for streaming content, which requires an explicit .read(). (Pull #1583)

0.17.1 (March 15th, 2021)


  • Type annotation on CertTypes allows keyfile and password to be optional. (Pull #1503)
  • Fix httpcore pinned version. (Pull #1495)

0.17.0 (February 28th, 2021)


  • Add httpx.MockTransport(), allowing to mock out a transport using pre-determined responses. (Pull #1401, Pull #1449)
  • Add httpx.HTTPTransport() and httpx.AsyncHTTPTransport() default transports. (Pull #1399)
  • Add mount API support, using httpx.Client(mounts=...). (Pull #1362)
  • Add chunk_size parameter to iter_raw(), iter_bytes(), iter_text(). (Pull #1277)
  • Add keepalive_expiry parameter to httpx.Limits() configuration. (Pull #1398)
  • Add repr to httpx.Cookies to display available cookies. (Pull #1411)
  • Add support for params=<tuple> (previously only params=<list> was supported). (Pull #1426)


  • Add missing raw_path to ASGI scope. (Pull #1357)
  • Tweak create_ssl_context defaults to use trust_env=True. (Pull #1447)
  • Properly URL-escape WSGI PATH_INFO. (Pull #1391)
  • Properly set default ports in WSGI transport. (Pull #1469)
  • Properly encode slashes when using base_url. (Pull #1407)
  • Properly map exceptions in request.aclose(). (Pull #1465)

0.16.1 (October 8th, 2020)


  • Support literal IPv6 addresses in URLs. (Pull #1349)
  • Force lowercase headers in ASGI scope dictionaries. (Pull #1351)

0.16.0 (October 6th, 2020)


  • Preserve HTTP header casing. (Pull #1338, encode/httpcore#216, python-hyper/h11#104)
  • Drop and response.anext() methods in favour of response.next_request attribute. (Pull #1339)
  • Closed clients now raise a runtime error if attempting to send a request. (Pull #1346)


  • Add Python 3.9 to officially supported versions.
  • Type annotate __enter__/__exit__/__aenter__/__aexit__ in a way that supports subclasses of Client and AsyncClient. (Pull #1336)

0.15.5 (October 1st, 2020)


  • Add response.next_request (Pull #1334)

0.15.4 (September 25th, 2020)


  • Support direct comparisons between Headers and dicts or lists of two-tuples. Eg. assert response.headers == {"Content-Length": 24} (Pull #1326)


  • Fix automatic .read() when Response instances are created with content=<str> (Pull #1324)

0.15.3 (September 24th, 2020)


  • Fixed connection leak in async client due to improper closing of response streams. (Pull #1316)

0.15.2 (September 23nd, 2020)


  • Fixed response.elapsed property. (Pull #1313)
  • Fixed client authentication interaction with .stream(). (Pull #1312)

0.15.1 (September 23nd, 2020)


  • ASGITransport now properly applies URL decoding to the path component, as-per the ASGI spec. (Pull #1307)

0.15.0 (September 22nd, 2020)


  • Added support for curio. (Pull
  • Added support for event hooks. (Pull #1246)
  • Added support for authentication flows which require either sync or async I/O. (Pull #1217)
  • Added support for monitoring download progress with response.num_bytes_downloaded. (Pull #1268)
  • Added Request(content=...) for byte content, instead of overloading Request(data=...) (Pull #1266)
  • Added support for all URL components as parameter names when using url.copy_with(...). (Pull #1285)
  • Neater split between automatically populated headers on Request instances, vs default client.headers. (Pull #1248)
  • Unclosed AsyncClient instances will now raise warnings if garbage collected. (Pull #1197)
  • Support Response(content=..., text=..., html=..., json=...) for creating usable response instances in code. (Pull #1265, #1297)
  • Support instantiating requests from the low-level transport API. (Pull #1293)
  • Raise errors on invalid URL types. (Pull #1259)


  • Cleaned up expected behaviour for URL escaping. url.path is now URL escaped. (Pull #1285)
  • Cleaned up expected behaviour for bytes vs str in URL components. url.userinfo and url.query are not URL escaped, and so return bytes. (Pull #1285)
  • Drop url.authority property in favour of url.netloc, since "authority" was semantically incorrect. (Pull #1285)
  • Drop url.full_path property in favour of url.raw_path, for better consistency with other parts of the API. (Pull #1285)
  • No longer use the chardet library for auto-detecting charsets, instead defaulting to a simpler approach when no charset is specified. (#1269)


  • Swapped ordering of redirects and authentication flow. (Pull #1267)
  • .netrc lookups should use host, not host+port. (Pull #1298)


  • The URLLib3Transport class no longer exists. We've published it instead as an example of a custom transport class. (Pull #1182)
  • Drop request.timer attribute, which was being used internally to set response.elapsed. (Pull #1249)
  • Drop response.decoder attribute, which was being used internally. (Pull #1276)
  • Request.prepare() is now a private method. (Pull #1284)
  • The Headers.getlist() method had previously been deprecated in favour of Headers.get_list(). It is now fully removed.
  • The QueryParams.getlist() method had previously been deprecated in favour of QueryParams.get_list(). It is now fully removed.
  • The URL.is_ssl property had previously been deprecated in favour of URL.scheme == "https". It is now fully removed.
  • The httpx.PoolLimits class had previously been deprecated in favour of httpx.Limits. It is now fully removed.
  • The max_keepalive setting had previously been deprecated in favour of the more explicit max_keepalive_connections. It is now fully removed.
  • The verbose httpx.Timeout(5.0, connect_timeout=60.0) style had previously been deprecated in favour of httpx.Timeout(5.0, connect=60.0). It is now fully removed.
  • Support for instantiating a timeout config missing some defaults, such as httpx.Timeout(connect=60.0), had previously been deprecated in favour of enforcing a more explicit style, such as httpx.Timeout(5.0, connect=60.0). This is now strictly enforced.

0.14.3 (September 2nd, 2020)


  • http.Response() may now be instantiated without a request=... parameter. Useful for some unit testing cases. (Pull #1238)
  • Add 103 Early Hints and 425 Too Early status codes. (Pull #1244)


  • DigestAuth now handles responses that include multiple 'WWW-Authenticate' headers. (Pull #1240)
  • Call into transport __enter__/__exit__ or __aenter__/__aexit__ when client is used in a context manager style. (Pull #1218)

0.14.2 (August 24th, 2020)


  • Support client.get(..., auth=None) to bypass the default authentication on a clients. (Pull #1115)
  • Support client.auth = ... property setter. (Pull #1185)
  • Support httpx.get(..., proxies=...) on top-level request functions. (Pull #1198)
  • Display instances with nicer import styles. (Eg. <httpx.ReadTimeout ...>) (Pull #1155)
  • Support cookies=[(key, value)] list-of-two-tuples style usage. (Pull #1211)


  • Ensure that automatically included headers on a request may be modified. (Pull #1205)
  • Allow explicit Content-Length header on streaming requests. (Pull #1170)
  • Handle URL quoted usernames and passwords properly. (Pull #1159)
  • Use more consistent default for HEAD requests, setting allow_redirects=True. (Pull #1183)
  • If a transport error occurs while streaming the response, raise an httpx exception, not the underlying httpcore exception. (Pull #1190)
  • Include the underlying httpcore traceback, when transport exceptions occur. (Pull #1199)

0.14.1 (August 11th, 2020)


  • The httpx.URL(...) class now raises httpx.InvalidURL on invalid URLs, rather than exposing the underlying rfc3986 exception. If a redirect response includes an invalid 'Location' header, then a RemoteProtocolError exception is raised, which will be associated with the request that caused it. (Pull #1163)


  • Handling multiple Set-Cookie headers became broken in the 0.14.0 release, and is now resolved. (Pull #1156)

0.14.0 (August 7th, 2020)

The 0.14 release includes a range of improvements to the public API, intended on preparing for our upcoming 1.0 release.

  • Our HTTP/2 support is now fully optional. You now need to use pip install httpx[http2] if you want to include the HTTP/2 dependencies.
  • Our HSTS support has now been removed. Rewriting URLs from http to https if the host is on the HSTS list can be beneficial in avoiding roundtrips to incorrectly formed URLs, but on balance we've decided to remove this feature, on the principle of least surprise. Most programmatic clients do not include HSTS support, and for now we're opting to remove our support for it.
  • Our exception hierarchy has been overhauled. Most users will want to stick with their existing httpx.HTTPError usage, but we've got a clearer overall structure now. See for more details.

When upgrading you should be aware of the following public API changes. Note that deprecated usages will currently continue to function, but will issue warnings.

  • You should now use consistently instead of httpx.StatusCodes.
  • Usage of httpx.Timeout() should now always include an explicit default. Eg. httpx.Timeout(None, pool=5.0).
  • When using httpx.Timeout(), we now have more concisely named keyword arguments. Eg. read=5.0, instead of read_timeout=5.0.
  • Use httpx.Limits() instead of httpx.PoolLimits(), and limits=... instead of pool_limits=....
  • The httpx.Limits(max_keepalive=...) argument is now deprecated in favour of a more explicit httpx.Limits(max_keepalive_connections=...).
  • Keys used with Client(proxies={...}) should now be in the style of {"http://": ...}, rather than {"http": ...}.
  • The multidict methods Headers.getlist() and QueryParams.getlist() are deprecated in favour of more consistent .get_list() variants.
  • The URL.is_ssl property is deprecated in favour of URL.scheme == "https".
  • The URL.join(relative_url=...) method is now URL.join(url=...). This change does not support warnings for the deprecated usage style.

One notable aspect of the 0.14.0 release is that it tightens up the public API for httpx, by ensuring that several internal attributes and methods have now become strictly private.

The following previously had nominally public names on the client, but were all undocumented and intended solely for internal usage. They are all now replaced with underscored names, and should not be relied on or accessed.

These changes should not affect users who have been working from the httpx documentation.

  • .merge_url(), .merge_headers(), .merge_cookies(), .merge_queryparams()
  • .build_auth(), .build_redirect_request()
  • .redirect_method(), .redirect_url(), .redirect_headers(), .redirect_stream()
  • .send_handling_redirects(), .send_handling_auth(), .send_single_request()
  • .init_transport(), .init_proxy_transport()
  • .proxies, .transport, .netrc, .get_proxy_map()

See pull requests #997, #1065, #1071.

Some areas of API which were already on the deprecation path, and were raising warnings or errors in 0.13.x have now been escalated to being fully removed.

  • Drop ASGIDispatch, WSGIDispatch, which have been replaced by ASGITransport, WSGITransport.
  • Drop dispatch=...`` on client, which has been replaced by transport=...``
  • Drop soft_limit, hard_limit, which have been replaced by max_keepalive and max_connections.
  • Drop and Response.raw, which have been replaced by ``.aiter_bytes and .aiter_raw.
  • Drop proxies=<transport instance> in favor of proxies=httpx.Proxy(...).

See pull requests #1057, #1058.


  • Added dedicated exception class httpx.HTTPStatusError for .raise_for_status() exceptions. (Pull #1072)
  • Added httpx.create_ssl_context() helper function. (Pull #996)
  • Support for proxy exlcusions like proxies={"": None}. (Pull #1099)
  • Support QueryParams(None) and client.params = None. (Pull #1060)


  • Use consistently in favour of httpx.StatusCodes which is placed into deprecation. (Pull #1088)
  • Usage of httpx.Timeout() should now always include an explicit default. Eg. httpx.Timeout(None, pool=5.0). (Pull #1085)
  • Switch to more concise httpx.Timeout() keyword arguments. Eg. read=5.0, instead of read_timeout=5.0. (Pull #1111)
  • Use httpx.Limits() instead of httpx.PoolLimits(), and limits=... instead of pool_limits=.... (Pull #1113)
  • Keys used with Client(proxies={...}) should now be in the style of {"http://": ...}, rather than {"http": ...}. (Pull #1127)
  • The multidict methods Headers.getlist and QueryParams.getlist are deprecated in favour of more consistent .get_list() variants. (Pull #1089)
  • URL.port becomes Optional[int]. Now only returns a port if one is explicitly included in the URL string. (Pull #1080)
  • The URL(..., allow_relative=[bool]) parameter no longer exists. All URL instances may be relative. (Pull #1073)
  • Drop unnecessary url.full_path = ... property setter. (Pull #1069)
  • The URL.join(relative_url=...) method is now URL.join(url=...). (Pull #1129)
  • The URL.is_ssl property is deprecated in favour of URL.scheme == "https". (Pull #1128)


  • Add missing method. (Pull #1055)
  • Ensure all exception classes are exposed as public API. (Pull #1045)
  • Support multiple items with an identical field name in multipart encodings. (Pull #777)
  • Skip HSTS preloading on single-label domains. (Pull #1074)
  • Fixes for Response.iter_lines(). (Pull #1033, #1075)
  • Ignore permission errors when accessing .netrc files. (Pull #1104)
  • Allow bare hostnames in HTTP_PROXY etc... environment variables. (Pull #1120)
  • Settings app=... or transport=... bypasses any environment based proxy defaults. (Pull #1122)
  • Fix handling of .base_url when a path component is included in the base URL. (Pull #1130)

0.13.3 (May 29th, 2020)


  • Include missing keepalive expiry configuration. (Pull #1005)
  • Improved error message when URL redirect has a custom scheme. (Pull #1002)

0.13.2 (May 27th, 2020)


  • Include explicit "Content-Length: 0" on POST, PUT, PATCH if no request body is used. (Pull #995)
  • Add http2 option to httpx.Client. (Pull #982)
  • Tighten up API typing in places. (Pull #992, #999)

0.13.1 (May 22nd, 2020)


  • Fix pool options deprecation warning. (Pull #980)
  • Include httpx.URLLib3ProxyTransport in top-level API. (Pull #979)

0.13.0 (May 22nd, 2020)

This release switches to httpcore for all the internal networking, which means:

  • We're using the same codebase for both our sync and async clients.
  • HTTP/2 support is now available with the sync client.
  • We no longer have a urllib3 dependency for our sync client, although there is still an optional URLLib3Transport class.

It also means we've had to remove our UDS support, since maintaining that would have meant having to push back our work towards a 1.0 release, which isn't a trade-off we wanted to make.

We also now have a public "Transport API", which you can use to implement custom transport implementations against. This formalises and replaces our previously private "Dispatch API".


  • Use httpcore for underlying HTTP transport. Drop urllib3 requirement. (Pull #804, #967)
  • Rename pool limit options from soft_limit/hard_limit to max_keepalive/max_connections. (Pull #968)
  • The previous private "Dispatch API" has now been promoted to a public "Transport API". When customizing the transport use transport=.... The ASGIDispatch and WSGIDispatch class naming is deprecated in favour of ASGITransport and WSGITransport. (Pull #963)


  • Added URLLib3Transport class for optional urllib3 transport support. (Pull #804, #963)
  • Streaming multipart uploads. (Pull #857)
  • Logging via HTTPCORE_LOG_LEVEL and HTTPX_LOG_LEVEL environment variables and TRACE level logging. (Pull encode/httpcore#79)


  • Performance improvement in brotli decoder. (Pull #906)
  • Proper warning level of deprecation notice in and Response.raw. (Pull #908)
  • Fix support for generator based WSGI apps. (Pull #887)
  • Reuse of connections on HTTP/2 in close concurrency situations. (Pull encode/httpcore#81)
  • Honor HTTP/2 max concurrent streams settings (Pull encode/httpcore#89, encode/httpcore#90)
  • Fix bytes support in multipart uploads. (Pull #974)
  • Improve typing support for files=.... (Pull #976)


  • Dropped support for Client(uds=...) (Pull #804)

0.13.0.dev2 (May 12th, 2020)

The 0.13.0.dev2 is a pre-release version. To install it, use pip install httpx --pre.


  • Logging via HTTPCORE_LOG_LEVEL and HTTPX_LOG_LEVEL environment variables and TRACE level logging. (HTTPCore Pull #79)


  • Reuse of connections on HTTP/2 in close concurrency situations. (HTTPCore Pull #81)
  • When using an app=<ASGI app> observe neater disconnect behaviour instead of sending empty body messages. (Pull #919)

0.13.0.dev1 (May 6th, 2020)

The 0.13.0.dev1 is a pre-release version. To install it, use pip install httpx --pre.


  • Passing http2 flag to proxy dispatchers. (Pull #934)
  • Use httpcore v0.8.3 which addresses problems in handling of headers when using proxies.

0.13.0.dev0 (April 30th, 2020)

The 0.13.0.dev0 is a pre-release version. To install it, use pip install httpx --pre.

This release switches to httpcore for all the internal networking, which means:

  • We're using the same codebase for both our sync and async clients.
  • HTTP/2 support is now available with the sync client.
  • We no longer have a urllib3 dependency for our sync client, although there is still an optional URLLib3Dispatcher class.

It also means we've had to remove our UDS support, since maintaining that would have meant having to push back our work towards a 1.0 release, which isn't a trade-off we wanted to make.


  • Use httpcore for underlying HTTP transport. Drop urllib3 requirement. (Pull #804)


  • Added URLLib3Dispatcher class for optional urllib3 transport support. (Pull #804)
  • Streaming multipart uploads. (Pull #857)


  • Performance improvement in brotli decoder. (Pull #906)
  • Proper warning level of deprecation notice in and Response.raw. (Pull #908)
  • Fix support for generator based WSGI apps. (Pull #887)


  • Dropped support for Client(uds=...) (Pull #804)

0.12.1 (March 19th, 2020)


  • Resolved packaging issue, where additional files were being included.

0.12.0 (March 9th, 2020)

The 0.12 release tightens up the API expectations for httpx by switching to private module names to enforce better clarity around public API.

All imports of httpx should import from the top-level package only, such as from httpx import Request, rather than importing from privately namespaced modules such as from httpx._models import Request.


  • Support making response body available to auth classes with .requires_response_body. (Pull #803)
  • Export NetworkError exception. (Pull #814)
  • Add support for NO_PROXY environment variable. (Pull #835)


  • Switched to private module names. (Pull #785)
  • Drop redirect looping detection and the RedirectLoop exception, instead using TooManyRedirects. (Pull #819)
  • Drop backend=... parameter on AsyncClient, in favour of always autodetecting trio/asyncio. (Pull #791)


  • Support basic auth credentials in proxy URLs. (Pull #780)
  • Fix httpx.Proxy(url, mode="FORWARD_ONLY") configuration. (Pull #788)
  • Fallback to setting headers as UTF-8 if no encoding is specified. (Pull #820)
  • Close proxy dispatches classes on client close. (Pull #826)
  • Support custom cert parameters even if verify=False. (Pull #796)
  • Don't support invalid dict-of-dicts form data in data=.... (Pull #811)

0.11.1 (January 17th, 2020)


  • Fixed usage of proxies=... on Client(). (Pull #763)
  • Support both zlib and deflate style encodings on Content-Encoding: deflate. (Pull #758)
  • Fix for streaming a redirect response body with allow_redirects=False. (Pull #766)
  • Handle redirect with malformed Location headers missing host. (Pull #774)

0.11.0 (January 9th, 2020)

The 0.11 release reintroduces our sync support, so that httpx now supports both a standard thread-concurrency API, and an async API.

Existing async httpx users that are upgrading to 0.11 should ensure that:

  • Async codebases should always use a client instance to make requests, instead of the top-level API.
  • The async client is named as httpx.AsyncClient(), instead of httpx.Client().
  • When instantiating proxy configurations use the httpx.Proxy() class, instead of the previous httpx.HTTPProxy(). This new configuration class works for configuring both sync and async clients.

We believe the API is now pretty much stable, and are aiming for a 1.0 release sometime on or before April 2020.


  • Top level API such as httpx.get(url, ...),, ...), httpx.request(method, url, ...) becomes synchronous.
  • Added httpx.Client() for synchronous clients, with httpx.AsyncClient being used for async clients.
  • Switched to proxies=httpx.Proxy(...) for proxy configuration.
  • Network connection errors are wrapped in httpx.NetworkError, rather than exposing lower-level exception types directly.


  • The request.url.origin property and httpx.Origin class are no longer available.
  • The per-request cert, verify, and trust_env arguments are escalated from raising errors if used, to no longer being available. These arguments should be used on a per-client instance instead, or in the top-level API.
  • The stream argument has escalated from raising an error when used, to no longer being available. Use the or streaming API instead.


  • Redirect loop detection matches against (method, url) rather than url. (Pull #734)

0.10.1 (December 31st, 2019)


  • Fix issue with concurrent connection acquiry. (Pull #700)
  • Fix write error on closing HTTP/2 connections. (Pull #699)

0.10.0 (December 29th, 2019)

The 0.10.0 release makes some changes that will allow us to support both sync and async interfaces.

In particular with streaming responses the method becomes response.aread(), and the response.close() method becomes response.aclose().

If following redirects explicitly the method becomes response.anext().


  • End HTTP/2 streams immediately on no-body requests, rather than sending an empty body message. (Pull #682)
  • Improve typing for Response.request: switch from Optional[Request] to Request. (Pull #666)
  • Response.elapsed now reflects the entire download time. (Pull #687, #692)


  • Added AsyncClient as a synonym for Client. (Pull #680)
  • Switch to response.aread() for conditionally reading streaming responses. (Pull #674)
  • Switch to response.aclose() and client.aclose() for explicit closing. (Pull #674, #675)
  • Switch to response.anext() for resolving the next redirect response. (Pull #676)


  • When using a client instance, the per-request usage of verify, cert, and trust_env have now escalated from raising a warning to raising an error. You should set these arguments on the client instead. (Pull #617)
  • Removed the undocumented, since end users should not require it.

0.9.5 (December 20th, 2019)


  • Fix Host header and HSTS rewrites when an explicit :80 port is included in URL. (Pull #649)
  • Query Params on the URL string are merged with any params=... argument. (Pull #653)
  • More robust behavior when closing connections. (Pull #640)
  • More robust behavior when handling HTTP/2 headers with trailing whitespace. (Pull #637)
  • Allow any explicit Content-Type header to take precedence over the encoding default. (Pull #633)

0.9.4 (December 12th, 2019)


  • Added expiry to Keep-Alive connections, resolving issues with acquiring connections. (Pull #627)
  • Increased flow control windows on HTTP/2, resolving download speed issues. (Pull #629)

0.9.3 (December 7th, 2019)


  • Fixed HTTP/2 with autodetection backend. (Pull #614)

0.9.2 (December 7th, 2019)

  • Released due to packaging build artifact.

0.9.1 (December 6th, 2019)

  • Released due to packaging build artifact.

0.9.0 (December 6th, 2019)

The 0.9 releases brings some major new features, including:

  • A new streaming API.
  • Autodetection of either asyncio or trio.
  • Nicer timeout configuration.
  • HTTP/2 support off by default, but can be enabled.

We've also removed all private types from the top-level package export.

In order to ensure you are only ever working with public API you should make sure to only import the top-level package eg. import httpx, rather than importing modules within the package.


  • Added concurrency backend autodetection. (Pull #585)
  • Added Client(backend='trio') and Client(backend='asyncio') API. (Pull #585)
  • Added response.stream_lines() API. (Pull #575)
  • Added response.is_error API. (Pull #574)
  • Added support for timeout=Timeout(5.0, connect_timeout=60.0) styles. (Pull #593)


  • Requests or Clients with timeout=None now correctly always disable timeouts. (Pull #592)
  • Request 'Authorization' headers now have priority over .netrc authentication info. (Commit 095b691)
  • Files without a filename no longer set a Content-Type in multipart data. (Commit ed94950)


  • Added API. Using stream=True now results in a warning. (Pull #600, #610)
  • HTTP/2 support is switched to "off by default", but can be enabled explicitly. (Pull #584)
  • Switched to Client(http2=True) API from Client(http_versions=["HTTP/1.1", "HTTP/2"]). (Pull #586)
  • Removed all private types from the top-level package export. (Pull #608)
  • The SSL configuration settings of verify, cert, and trust_env now raise warnings if used per-request when using a Client instance. They should always be set on the Client instance itself. (Pull #597)
  • Use plain strings "TUNNEL_ONLY" or "FORWARD_ONLY" on the HTTPProxy proxy_mode argument. The HTTPProxyMode enum still exists, but its usage will raise warnings. (#610)
  • Pool timeouts are now on the timeout configuration, not the pool limits configuration. (Pull #563)
  • The timeout configuration is now named httpx.Timeout(...), not httpx.TimeoutConfig(...). The old version currently remains as a synonym for backwards compatibility. (Pull #591)

0.8.0 (November 27, 2019)


  • The synchronous API has been removed, in order to allow us to fundamentally change how we approach supporting both sync and async variants. (See #588 for more details.)

0.7.8 (November 17, 2019)


  • Add support for proxy tunnels for Python 3.6 + asyncio. (Pull #521)

0.7.7 (November 15, 2019)


  • Resolve an issue with cookies behavior on redirect requests. (Pull #529)


  • Add request/response DEBUG logs. (Pull #502)
  • Use TRACE log level for low level info. (Pull #500)

0.7.6 (November 2, 2019)


  • Drop proxies parameter from the high-level API. (Pull #485)


  • Tweak multipart files: omit null filenames, add support for str file contents. (Pull #482)
  • Cache NETRC authentication per-client. (Pull #400)
  • Rely on getproxies for all proxy environment variables. (Pull #470)
  • Wait for the asyncio stream to close when closing a connection. (Pull #494)

0.7.5 (October 10, 2019)


  • Allow lists of values to be passed to params. (Pull #386)
  • ASGIDispatch, WSGIDispatch are now available in the httpx.dispatch namespace. (Pull #407)
  • HTTPError is now available in the httpx namespace. (Pull #421)
  • Add support for start_tls() to the Trio concurrency backend. (Pull #467)


  • Username and password are no longer included in the Host header when basic authentication credentials are supplied via the URL. (Pull #417)


  • The .delete() function no longer has json, data, or files parameters to match the expected semantics of the DELETE method. (Pull #408)
  • Removed the trio extra. Trio support is detected automatically. (Pull #390)

0.7.4 (September 25, 2019)


  • Add Trio concurrency backend. (Pull #276)
  • Add params parameter to Client for setting default query parameters. (Pull #372)
  • Add support for SSL_CERT_FILE and SSL_CERT_DIR environment variables. (Pull #307)
  • Add debug logging to calls into ASGI apps. (Pull #371)
  • Add debug logging to SSL configuration. (Pull #378)


  • Fix a bug when using Client without timeouts in Python 3.6. (Pull #383)
  • Propagate Client configuration to HTTP proxies. (Pull #377)

0.7.3 (September 20, 2019)


  • HTTP Proxy support. (Pulls #259, #353)
  • Add Digest authentication. (Pull #332)
  • Add .build_request() method to Client and AsyncClient. (Pull #319)
  • Add .elapsed property on responses. (Pull #351)
  • Add support for SSLKEYLOGFILE in Python 3.8b4+. (Pull #301)


  • Drop NPN support for HTTP version negotiation. (Pull #314)


  • Fix distribution of type annotations for mypy (Pull #361).
  • Set Host header when redirecting cross-origin. (Pull #321)
  • Drop Content-Length headers on GET redirects. (Pull #310)
  • Raise KeyError if header isn't found in Headers. (Pull #324)
  • Raise NotRedirectResponse in if there is no redirection to perform. (Pull #297)
  • Fix bug in calculating the HTTP/2 maximum frame size. (Pull #153)

0.7.2 (August 28, 2019)

  • Enforce using httpx.AsyncioBackend for the synchronous client. (Pull #232)
  • httpx.ConnectionPool will properly release a dropped connection. (Pull #230)
  • Remove the raise_app_exceptions argument from Client. (Pull #238)
  • DecodeError will no longer be raised for an empty body encoded with Brotli. (Pull #237)
  • Added http_versions parameter to Client. (Pull #250)
  • Only use HTTP/1.1 on short-lived connections like httpx.get(). (Pull #284)
  • Convert Client.cookies and Client.headers when set as a property. (Pull #274)
  • Setting HTTPX_DEBUG=1 enables debug logging on all requests. (Pull #277)

0.7.1 (August 18, 2019)

  • Include files with source distribution to be installable. (Pull #233)

0.7.0 (August 17, 2019)

  • Add the trust_env property to BaseClient. (Pull #187)
  • Add the links property to BaseResponse. (Pull #211)
  • Accept ssl.SSLContext instances into SSLConfig(verify=...). (Pull #215)
  • Add Response.stream_text() with incremental encoding detection. (Pull #183)
  • Properly updated the Host header when a redirect changes the origin. (Pull #199)
  • Ignore invalid Content-Encoding headers. (Pull #196)
  • Use ~/.netrc and ~/_netrc files by default when trust_env=True. (Pull #189)
  • Create exception base class HTTPError with request and response properties. (Pull #162)
  • Add HSTS preload list checking within BaseClient to upgrade HTTP URLs to HTTPS. (Pull #184)
  • Switch IDNA encoding from IDNA 2003 to IDNA 2008. (Pull #161)
  • Expose base classes for alternate concurrency backends. (Pull #178)
  • Improve Multipart parameter encoding. (Pull #167)
  • Add the headers property to BaseClient. (Pull #159)
  • Add support for Google's brotli library. (Pull #156)
  • Remove deprecated TLS versions (TLSv1 and TLSv1.1) from default SSLConfig. (Pull #155)
  • Fix URL.join(...) to work similarly to RFC 3986 URL joining. (Pull #144)

0.6.8 (July 25, 2019)

  • Check for disconnections when searching for an available connection in ConnectionPool.keepalive_connections (Pull #145)
  • Allow string comparison for URL objects (Pull #139)
  • Add HTTP status codes 418 and 451 (Pull #135)
  • Add support for client certificate passwords (Pull #118)
  • Enable post-handshake client cert authentication for TLSv1.3 (Pull #118)
  • Disable using commonName for hostname checking for OpenSSL 1.1.0+ (Pull #118)
  • Detect encoding for Response.json() (Pull #116)

0.6.7 (July 8, 2019)

  • Check for connection aliveness on re-acquiry (Pull #111)

0.6.6 (July 3, 2019)

  • Improve USER_AGENT (Pull #110)
  • Add Connection: keep-alive by default to HTTP/1.1 connections. (Pull #110)

0.6.5 (June 27, 2019)

  • Include Host header by default. (Pull #109)
  • Improve HTTP protocol detection. (Pull #107)

0.6.4 (June 25, 2019)

  • Implement read and write timeouts (Pull #104)

0.6.3 (June 24, 2019)

  • Handle early connection closes (Pull #103)

0.6.2 (June 23, 2019)

  • Use urllib3's DEFAULT_CIPHERS for the SSLConfig object. (Pull #100)

0.6.1 (June 21, 2019)

  • Add support for setting a base_url on the Client.

0.6.0 (June 21, 2019)

  • Honor local_flow_control_window for HTTP/2 connections (Pull #98)

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