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Hubble's Shuttle

Project description

Hubble Shuttle 🚀

CircleCI build status

Note: This project is pre-1.0 release. We are still working on integrating it in production systems here at HubbleHQ, and as a result, the API is not stable and might change before 1.0 release. This also means that not all HTTP features are currently supported (for example, cookies), but we are actively adding support for these.

Hubble Shuttle is an abstraction layer that makes it easy to write REST API clients.

It enbraces convention over configuration, and abstracts a lot of common patterns to simplify writing API clients.

For example, writing a simple client for a sample user service is as simple as:

class UserAPI(ShuttleAPI):

    api_endpoint = "https://user-service.example.com/"
    query = {
        "api_key": "my_api_key"
    }

    def get_user(self, user_id):
        # Returns a dict object `{ "id": 123, ... }`
        return self.http_get(f"/users/{user_id}").data

Shuttle will take care of building the full URL of the resource, inject API keys, parse the response from the server based on content type, extracts the response based on content encoding, and handles HTTP and networking errors.

Installation

pip install hubble_shuttle

Supported Python versions

Shuttle is build and tested with Python 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, and 3.8.

Client-level configuration

Creating an API client only requires you to extend the ShuttleAPI class, and provide some configuration parameters:

class MyClientAPI(ShuttleAPI):

    # The root endpoint for our API.
    api_endpoint = "https://myservice/"

    # Headers to send with every request to the API, for example, authorization headers.
    headers = {
      "Header-Name": "header value"
    }

    # Query parameters to send with every request to the API, for example, API keys.
    query = {
      "query_param": "param value"
    }

Making HTTP requests

The ShuttleAPI class provides methods to allow you to make HTTP requests against you API, in the form of http_X instance methods, where X is the HTTP verb you'd like to use.

A simple GET request can be made like so:

def get_user(self, user_id):
    response = self.http_get(f"/users/{id}")
    return response.data

If the HTTP server returns a successful (2xx) status code, the http_X methods will return a response object. If the server returns a client error (4xx) or server error (5xx), the http_X methods will raise a HTTPError.

When making an individual request, it is possible to override any client-level header or query parameter that was set on the class. For example:

class ConflictingHeaderAPI(ShuttleAPI):

    api_endpoint = "https://user-service.example.com/"
    headers = { "Authorization": "Bearer default_api_key" }

    def get_user_profile(self, user_auth_token):
        # The request will contain the user_auth_token, overriding the default set at the client level
        return self.http_get("/me", headers={ "Authorization": f"Bearer {user_auth_token}" })

Sending a request body

When making a POST, PUT, or PATCH request, it is possible to embed a request body. The request body will be automatically encoded based on request content type, if it is set. If the content type isn't explicitely set, application/x-www-form-urlencoded is used as a default.

def create_user(self):
    # Sends a POST request to `/users` with body `username=foo&email=foo@example.com`
    self.http_post("/users", data={"username": "foo", "email": "foo@example.com"})

You can also send the body in another format if you prefer:

def create_user(self):
    # Sends a POST request to `/users` with body `{"username":"foo","email":"foo@example.com"}`
    self.http_post("/users", content_type="application/json", data={"username": "foo", "email": "foo@example.com"})

Shuttle supports the following content types for sending a request body:

  • application/x-www-form-urlencoded (default)
  • application/json

Specifying an unknown content type will result in a ValueError being raised.

If the API you are contacting always expects the request body to be another content type than the default application/x-www-form-urlencoded, it is possible to change it for a whole client too:

class UserAPI(ShuttleAPI):

    request_content_type = "application/json"

    def create_user(self):
        # Sends a POST request to `/users` with body `{"username":"foo","email":"foo@example.com"}`
        self.http_post("/users", data={"username": "foo", "email": "foo@example.com"})

Response format

The response object contains information returned by the HTTP backend. You can access:

  • data: the body of the HTTP response, parsed based on its content type. Shuttle supports:
    • text/plain: response.data will be a Unicode string, containing the response body.
    • application/json: response.data will be a Python dict or array representing the JSON object.
    • For any other content type, Shuttle will return a binary string containing the raw response body.
  • status_code: the status code from the HTTP response.

Error handling

For any client error (4xx) or server error (5xx) status code, Shuttle will raise an error of type HTTPError instead of returning a response object.

Depending on the status code, Shuttle will return a subclass of HTTPError to make it easier to respond to specific status codes. For example, returning None when the server returns a 404 (Not found) error is straight-forward:

def get_user(self, user_id):
    try:
        return self.http_get(f"/users/{id}").data
    except NotFoundError:
        return None

The errors class tree is as follows:

  • HTTPError (representing either 4xx or 5xx HTTP error)
    • HTTPClientError (representing any type of 4xx error)
      • BadRequestError (400 HTTP error)
      • NotFoundError (404 HTTP error)
    • HTTPServerError (representing any type of 5xx error)
      • InternalServerError (500 HTTP error)

For non-HTTP error (networking, DNS resolution errors, ...), Shuttle will return an APIError.

All errors are in the hubble_shuttle.exceptions module.

Contributing

Pull requests in Github are accepted and the best way to contribute to Shuttle.

Testing

We require pull requests to have comprehensive tests coverage, and for all the tests to be passing.

Tests are run against all the supported Python versions, using Docker. You can run the test suite using Docker:

# Builds and sets up the Docker containers
make dev-build

# Runs the test suite inside Docker
make dev-test

Releasing

When Shuttle is ready for a new release, the steps to follow to publish the new version of the package are:

  • Merge all pull requests that need to be part of the release, and switch to the master branch. All releases should be made against master.
  • Increase the version number in setup.py. We aim to use semantic versioning as closely as possible.
  • Tag the commit you are packaging Shuttle from in Git, with the following format: release-VERSION.
  • Push the tags to Github.
  • Run make dev-package to create the distribution artifacts.
  • Upload the distribution artifacts to pip.

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