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Provide design-by-contract with informative violation messages.

Project description

icontract

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icontract provides design-by-contract to Python3 with informative violation messages and inheritance.

It also gives a base for a flourishing of a wider ecosystem:

Teasers

We give a couple of teasers here to motivate the library. Please see the documentation available on icontract.readthedocs.io for a full scope of its capabilities.

The script is also available as a repl.it post.

>>> import icontract

>>> @icontract.require(lambda x: x > 3)
... def some_func(x: int, y: int = 5) -> None:
...     pass
...

>>> some_func(x=5)

# Pre-condition violation
>>> some_func(x=1)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
icontract.errors.ViolationError: File <doctest README.rst[1]>, line 1 in <module>:
x > 3: x was 1

# Pre-condition violation with a description
>>> @icontract.require(lambda x: x > 3, "x must not be small")
... def some_func(x: int, y: int = 5) -> None:
...     pass
...
>>> some_func(x=1)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
icontract.errors.ViolationError: File <doctest README.rst[4]>, line 1 in <module>:
x must not be small: x > 3: x was 1

# Pre-condition violation with more complex values
>>> class B:
...     def __init__(self) -> None:
...         self.x = 7
...
...     def y(self) -> int:
...         return 2
...
...     def __repr__(self) -> str:
...         return "instance of B"
...
>>> class A:
...     def __init__(self) -> None:
...         self.b = B()
...
...     def __repr__(self) -> str:
...         return "instance of A"
...
>>> SOME_GLOBAL_VAR = 13
>>> @icontract.require(lambda a: a.b.x + a.b.y() > SOME_GLOBAL_VAR)
... def some_func(a: A) -> None:
...     pass
...
>>> an_a = A()
>>> some_func(an_a)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
icontract.errors.ViolationError: File <doctest README.rst[9]>, line 1 in <module>:
a.b.x + a.b.y() > SOME_GLOBAL_VAR:
SOME_GLOBAL_VAR was 13
a was instance of A
a.b was instance of B
a.b.x was 7
a.b.y() was 2

# Post-condition
>>> @icontract.ensure(lambda result, x: result > x)
... def some_func(x: int, y: int = 5) -> int:
...     return x - y
...
>>> some_func(x=10)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
icontract.errors.ViolationError: File <doctest README.rst[12]>, line 1 in <module>:
result > x:
result was 5
x was 10


# Pre-conditions fail before post-conditions.
>>> @icontract.ensure(lambda result, x: result > x)
... @icontract.require(lambda x: x > 3, "x must not be small")
... def some_func(x: int, y: int = 5) -> int:
...    return x - y
...
>>> some_func(x=3)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
icontract.errors.ViolationError: File <doctest README.rst[14]>, line 2 in <module>:
x must not be small: x > 3: x was 3

# Invariant
>>> @icontract.invariant(lambda self: self.x > 0)
... class SomeClass:
...     def __init__(self) -> None:
...         self.x = -1
...
...     def __repr__(self) -> str:
...         return "some instance"
...
>>> some_instance = SomeClass()
Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
icontract.errors.ViolationError: File <doctest README.rst[16]>, line 1 in <module>:
self.x > 0:
self was some instance
self.x was -1

Installation

  • Install icontract with pip:
pip3 install icontract

Versioning

We follow Semantic Versioning. The version X.Y.Z indicates:

  • X is the major version (backward-incompatible),
  • Y is the minor version (backward-compatible), and
  • Z is the patch version (backward-compatible bug fix).

Project details


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