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RDBMS access via IPython

Project description

Author: Catherine Devlin, http://catherinedevlin.blogspot.com

Introduces a %sql (or %%sql) magic.

Connect to a database, using SQLAlchemy URL connect strings, then issue SQL commands within IPython or IPython Notebook.

screenshot of ipython-sql in the Notebook

Examples

In [1]: %load_ext sql

In [2]: %%sql postgresql://will:longliveliz@localhost/shakes
   ...: select * from character
   ...: where abbrev = 'ALICE'
   ...:
Out[2]: [(u'Alice', u'Alice', u'ALICE', u'a lady attending on Princess Katherine', 22)]

In [3]: result = _

In [4]: print(result)
charid   charname   abbrev                description                 speechcount
=================================================================================
Alice    Alice      ALICE    a lady attending on Princess Katherine   22

In [4]: result.keys
Out[5]: [u'charid', u'charname', u'abbrev', u'description', u'speechcount']

In [6]: result[0][0]
Out[6]: u'Alice'

In [7]: result[0].description
Out[7]: u'a lady attending on Princess Katherine'

After the first connection, connect info can be omitted:

In [8]: %sql select count(*) from work
Out[8]: [(43L,)]

Connections to multiple databases can be maintained. You can refer to an existing connection by username@database

In [9]: %%sql will@shakes
   ...: select charname, speechcount from character
   ...: where  speechcount = (select max(speechcount)
   ...:                       from character);
   ...:
Out[9]: [(u'Poet', 733)]

In [10]: print(_)
charname   speechcount
======================
Poet       733

If no connect string is supplied, %sql will provide a list of existing connections; however, if no connections have yet been made and the environment variable DATABASE_URL is available, that will be used.

For secure access, you may dynamically access your credentials (e.g. from your system environment or getpass.getpass) to avoid storing your password in the notebook itself. Use the $ before any variable to access it in your %sql command.

In [11]: user = os.getenv('SOME_USER')
   ....: password = os.getenv('SOME_PASSWORD')
   ....: connection_string = "postgresql://{user}:{password}@localhost/some_database".format(user=user, password=password)
   ....: %sql $connection_string
Out[11]: u'Connected: some_user@some_database'

You may use multiple SQL statements inside a single cell, but you will only see any query results from the last of them, so this really only makes sense for statements with no output

In [11]: %%sql sqlite://
   ....: CREATE TABLE writer (first_name, last_name, year_of_death);
   ....: INSERT INTO writer VALUES ('William', 'Shakespeare', 1616);
   ....: INSERT INTO writer VALUES ('Bertold', 'Brecht', 1956);
   ....:
Out[11]: []

As a convenience, dict-style access for result sets is supported, with the leftmost column serving as key, for unique values.

In [12]: result = %sql select * from work
43 rows affected.

In [13]: result['richard2']
Out[14]: (u'richard2', u'Richard II', u'History of Richard II', 1595, u'h', None, u'Moby', 22411, 628)

Results can also be retrieved as an iterator of dictionaries (result.dicts()) or a single dictionary with a tuple of scalar values per key (result.dict())

Variable substitution

Bind variables (bind parameters) can be used in the “named” (:x) style. The variable names used should be defined in the local namespace.

In [15]: name = 'Countess'

In [16]: %sql select description from character where charname = :name
Out[16]: [(u'mother to Bertram',)]

In [17]: %sql select description from character where charname = '{name}'
Out[17]: [(u'mother to Bertram',)]

Alternately, $variable_name or {variable_name} can be used to inject variables from the local namespace into the SQL statement before it is formed and passed to the SQL engine. (Using $ and {} together, as in ${variable_name}, is not supported.)

Bind variables are passed through to the SQL engine and can only be used to replace strings passed to SQL. $ and {} are substituted before passing to SQL and can be used to form SQL statements dynamically.

Assignment

Ordinary IPython assignment works for single-line %sql queries:

In [18]: works = %sql SELECT title, year FROM work
43 rows affected.

The << operator captures query results in a local variable, and can be used in multi-line %%sql:

In [19]: %%sql works << SELECT title, year
    ...: FROM work
    ...:
43 rows affected.
Returning data to local variable works

Connecting

Connection strings are SQLAlchemy URL standard.

Some example connection strings:

mysql+pymysql://scott:tiger@localhost/foo
oracle://scott:tiger@127.0.0.1:1521/sidname
sqlite://
sqlite:///foo.db
mssql+pyodbc://username:password@host/database?driver=SQL+Server+Native+Client+11.0

Note that mysql and mysql+pymysql connections (and perhaps others) don’t read your client character set information from .my.cnf. You need to specify it in the connection string:

mysql+pymysql://scott:tiger@localhost/foo?charset=utf8

Note that an impala connection with impyla for HiveServer2 requires disabling autocommit:

%config SqlMagic.autocommit=False
%sql impala://hserverhost:port/default?kerberos_service_name=hive&auth_mechanism=GSSAPI

Connection arguments not whitelisted by SQLALchemy can be provided as a flag with (-a|–connection_arguments)the connection string as a JSON string. See SQLAlchemy Args.

%sql –connection_arguments {“timeout”:10,”mode”:”ro”} sqlite:// SELECT * FROM work; %sql -a ‘{“timeout”:10, “mode”:”ro”}’ sqlite:// SELECT * from work;

DSN connections

Alternately, you can store connection info in a configuration file, under a section name chosen to refer to your database.

For example, if dsn.ini contains

[DB_CONFIG_1] drivername=postgres host=my.remote.host port=5433 database=mydatabase username=myuser password=1234

then you can

%config SqlMagic.dsn_filename=’./dsn.ini’ %sql –section DB_CONFIG_1

Configuration

Query results are loaded as lists, so very large result sets may use up your system’s memory and/or hang your browser. There is no autolimit by default. However, autolimit (if set) limits the size of the result set (usually with a LIMIT clause in the SQL). displaylimit is similar, but the entire result set is still pulled into memory (for later analysis); only the screen display is truncated.

In [2]: %config SqlMagic
SqlMagic options
--------------
SqlMagic.autocommit=<Bool>
    Current: True
    Set autocommit mode
SqlMagic.autolimit=<Int>
    Current: 0
    Automatically limit the size of the returned result sets
SqlMagic.autopandas=<Bool>
    Current: False
    Return Pandas DataFrames instead of regular result sets
SqlMagic.column_local_vars=<Bool>
    Current: False
    Return data into local variables from column names
SqlMagic.displaycon=<Bool>
    Current: False
    Show connection string after execute
SqlMagic.displaylimit=<Int>
    Current: None
    Automatically limit the number of rows displayed (full result set is still
    stored)
SqlMagic.dsn_filename=<Unicode>
    Current: 'odbc.ini'
    Path to DSN file. When the first argument is of the form [section], a
    sqlalchemy connection string is formed from the matching section in the DSN
    file.
SqlMagic.feedback=<Bool>
    Current: False
    Print number of rows affected by DML
SqlMagic.short_errors=<Bool>
    Current: True
    Don't display the full traceback on SQL Programming Error
SqlMagic.style=<Unicode>
    Current: 'DEFAULT'
    Set the table printing style to any of prettytable's defined styles
    (currently DEFAULT, MSWORD_FRIENDLY, PLAIN_COLUMNS, RANDOM)

In[3]: %config SqlMagic.feedback = False

Please note: if you have autopandas set to true, the displaylimit option will not apply. You can set the pandas display limit by using the pandas max_rows option as described in the pandas documentation.

Pandas

If you have installed pandas, you can use a result set’s .DataFrame() method

In [3]: result = %sql SELECT * FROM character WHERE speechcount > 25

In [4]: dataframe = result.DataFrame()

The --persist argument, with the name of a DataFrame object in memory, will create a table name in the database from the named DataFrame. Or use --append to add rows to an existing table by that name.

In [5]: %sql --persist dataframe

In [6]: %sql SELECT * FROM dataframe;

Graphing

If you have installed matplotlib, you can use a result set’s .plot(), .pie(), and .bar() methods for quick plotting

In[5]: result = %sql SELECT title, totalwords FROM work WHERE genretype = 'c'

In[6]: %matplotlib inline

In[7]: result.pie()
pie chart of word count of Shakespeare's comedies

Dumping

Result sets come with a .csv(filename=None) method. This generates comma-separated text either as a return value (if filename is not specified) or in a file of the given name.

In[8]: result = %sql SELECT title, totalwords FROM work WHERE genretype = 'c'

In[9]: result.csv(filename='work.csv')

PostgreSQL features

psql-style “backslash” meta-commands commands (\d, \dt, etc.) are provided by PGSpecial. Example:

In[9]: %sql \d

Installing

Install the lastest release with:

pip install ipython-sql

or download from https://github.com/catherinedevlin/ipython-sql and:

cd ipython-sql
sudo python setup.py install

Credits

  • Matthias Bussonnier for help with configuration
  • Olivier Le Thanh Duong for %config fixes and improvements
  • Distribute
  • Buildout
  • modern-package-template
  • Mike Wilson for bind variable code
  • Thomas Kluyver and Steve Holden for debugging help
  • Berton Earnshaw for DSN connection syntax
  • Bruno Harbulot for DSN example
  • Andrés Celis for SQL Server bugfix
  • Michael Erasmus for DataFrame truth bugfix
  • Noam Finkelstein for README clarification
  • Xiaochuan Yu for << operator, syntax colorization
  • Amjith Ramanujam for PGSpecial and incorporating it here
  • Alexander Maznev for better arg parsing, connections accepting specified creator
  • Jonathan Larkin for configurable displaycon
  • Jared Moore for connection-arguments support
  • Gilbert Brault for --append
  • Lucas Zeer for multi-line bugfixes for var substitution, <<
  • vkk800 for --file

News

0.1

Release date: 21-Mar-2013

  • Initial release

0.1.1

Release date: 29-Mar-2013

  • Release to PyPI
  • Results returned as lists
  • print(_) to get table form in text console
  • set autolimit and text wrap in configuration

0.1.2

Release date: 29-Mar-2013

  • Python 3 compatibility
  • use prettyprint package
  • allow multiple SQL per cell

0.2.0

Release date: 30-May-2013

  • Accept bind variables (Thanks Mike Wilson!)

0.2.1

Release date: 15-June-2013

  • Recognize socket connection strings
  • Bugfix - issue 4 (remember existing connections by case)

0.2.2

Release date: 30-July-2013

Converted from an IPython Plugin to an Extension for 1.0 compatibility

0.2.2.1

Release date: 01-Aug-2013

Deleted Plugin import left behind in 0.2.2

0.2.3

Release date: 20-Sep-2013

  • Contributions from Olivier Le Thanh Duong:
    • SQL errors reported without internal IPython error stack
    • Proper handling of configuration
  • Added .DataFrame(), .pie(), .plot(), and .bar() methods to result sets

0.3.0

Release date: 13-Oct-2013

  • displaylimit config parameter
  • reports number of rows affected by each query
  • test suite working again
  • dict-style access for result sets by primary key

0.3.1

  • Reporting of number of rows affected configurable with feedback
  • Local variables usable as SQL bind variables

0.3.2

  • .csv(filename=None) method added to result sets

0.3.3

  • Python 3 compatibility restored
  • DSN access supported (thanks Berton Earnshaw)

0.3.4

  • PERSIST pseudo-SQL command added

0.3.5

  • Indentations visible in HTML cells
  • COMMIT each SQL statement immediately - prevent locks

0.3.6

  • Fixed issue #30, commit failures for sqlite (thanks stonebig, jandot)

0.3.7

  • New column_local_vars config option submitted by darikg
  • Avoid contaminating user namespace from locals (thanks alope107)

0.3.7.1

  • Avoid “connection busy” error for SQL Server (thanks Andrés Celis)

0.3.8

  • Stop warnings for deprecated use of IPython 3 traitlets in IPython 4 (thanks graphaelli; also stonebig, aebrahim, mccahill)
  • README update for keeping connection info private, from eshilts

0.3.9

  • Fix truth value of DataFrame error (thanks michael-erasmus)
  • << operator (thanks xiaochuanyu)
  • added README example (thanks tanhuil)
  • bugfix in executing column_local_vars (thanks tebeka)
  • pgspecial installation optional (thanks jstoebel and arjoe)
  • conceal passwords in connection strings (thanks jstoebel)

0.3.9

  • Restored Python 2 compatibility (thanks tokenmathguy)

0.4.0

  • Changed most non-SQL commands to argparse arguments (thanks pik)
  • User can specify a creator for connections (thanks pik)
  • Bogus pseudo-SQL command PERSIST removed, replaced with –persist arg
  • Turn off echo of connection information with displaycon in config
  • Consistent support for {} variables (thanks Lucas)

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