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A Python module that aids filtering, formatting, and transforming JSON-like objects

Project description

JTools

JTools is a robust library for interacting with JSON-like objects, focusing on providing an easy way to filter, format, and extract fields from JSON-like data.

Changelog

  • 1.0.5
    • Query strings can now start with specials to allow operations on the entire object being passed.
    • Bug fixes and more unit tests
  • 1.0.4
    • Added new specials, mostly relating to time
      • $parse_timestamp
      • $datetime
      • $strptime
      • $strftime
    • Added not filtering and the interval and !interval operators
    • Made Filter consistent with Getter by removing .filter() and adding .single() and .many()
    • Added fallback to Getter
    • added numerous unit tests
  • 1.0.3
    • Rename Getter.get to Getter.single
    • Add Getter.many
    • Support getting multiple fields at once by changing Getter to allow Getter(<field>) and Getter([<field>, <field>, ...])
    • Change Filter's before for when there are no filters. Now, by default, all items will be returned unless Filter(..., empty_filters_response=False)

Glossary

Installation

pip install jtools

# import
from jtools import Getter, Filter, Key, Condition, Formatter

Getter

Getter one the surface is very simple: you give it a field query string (or several) and it returns the value (or values) at that path(s) from a given an item or list of items. Example: Getter("name").single({"name": "John"}) will return "John". However, there are many more cool features, like supporting dot-notation, having the ability to transform values with specials, and even the ability to drill down into lists. Below is a fuller list of the features.

  • .single(item) can be used to get field(s) from a single item, or .many(items) can be used to get field(s) from a list of items
  • Multiple fields can be gotten at once by passing a list of query strings. Getter(["name", "age"]). Resulting values from .single and .many will be lists of corresponding length
  • Dot-notation is supported and can be used to access nested values. For example, meta.id can be used to get the id field from the item {"meta": {"id": 1}}, resulting in the value of 1.
  • Integer paths can be used to index lists as long as Getter(..., convert_ints=True), which is set to True by default. This allows paths like friends.0.
  • Specials can be can be used to transform the queried valued, and multiple specials can be used back to back, with the output of one being used in the next. Specials are included in the field path and prefixed with $. For example, if you have {"long_number": 3.1415926}, you can use long_number.$round to round it to 2 decimal places, returning 3.14.
  • Arguments can be passed into these specials! For example, if you have {"email": "john_doe@gmail.com"} and you want to get just the email provider, then email.$split("@").$index(-1) can be used, which will return gmail.com. Equally, email.$split("@").1 could be used. Arguments can be anything that can be represented in JSON. Note: JSON requires strings to be double-quoted, so email.$split('@') would not work and email.$split("@") would have to be used instead.
  • You don't have to use () at the end of a special if there aren't any arguments, or the default arguments are acceptable.
  • More specials can be added! Use the class attribute .register_special() like so: Getter.register_special(<name>, <func>). The function should take at least one argument, which is the current value in the query string.

Specials

General

  • $length -> int

Maps

  • $keys -> list
  • $values -> list
  • $items -> List[tuple]

Type Conversions

  • $set -> set
  • $float -> float
  • $string -> str
  • $int -> int
  • $not -> bool: Returns !value
  • $fallback(fallback) -> value or fallback: If the value is None, then it will be replaced with fallback.
  • $ternary(if_true, if_false, strict=False) -> Any: Return if_true if the value is truish, otherwise, return if_false. Pass True for strict if the value must be True and not just truish.

Datetime

  • $parse_timestamp -> datetime: Take a Unix timestamp in seconds and return a corresponding datetime object
  • $datetime(attr) -> int: Get a specific attribute of a datetime object. For example. 'dt.$parse_timestamp.$datetime("year")' The options are
    • year
    • month
    • day
    • hour
    • minute
    • second
    • microsecond
  • $strptime(fmt=None) -> datetime: Parse a datetime string and return a corresponding datetime object. If fmt=None, then common formats will be tried. Refer to https://docs.python.org/3/library/datetime.html#strftime-strptime-behavior for formatting instructions
  • $timestamp -> float: Dump a datetime object to a UTC timestamp as a float
  • $strftime(fmt="%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%SZ":) -> str: Format a datetime object as a string using fmt. Refer to https://docs.python.org/3/library/datetime.html#strftime-strptime-behavior for formatting instructions

Math / Numbers

  • $add(num) -> Union[int, float]
  • $subtract(num) -> Union[int, float]
  • $multiply(num) -> Union[int, float]
  • $divide(num) -> float
  • $pow(num) -> Union[int, float]
  • $abs(num) -> Union[int, float]
  • $distance(other) -> float: Euler distance in N-dimensions
  • $math(attr) -> Any: Returns math.<attr>(value), which can be used for operations like floor, cos, sin, etc.
  • $round(n=2) -> float

Strings

  • $prefix(prefix) -> str: Prefix the value with the specified string
  • $suffix(suffix) -> str: Concatenate a string to the end of the value
  • $strip -> str: Strip leading and trailing whitespace
  • $replace(old, new) -> str: Replace all occurrences of a string
  • $trim(length=50, suffix="...") -> str: Trim the length of a string
  • $split(on=" ") -> List[str]: Split a string

Lists

  • $sum -> Union[float, int]: Return the sum of the items in the value
  • $join(sep=", ") -> str: Join a list using the specified separator
  • $index(index) -> Any: Index a list. Negative indices are allowed.
  • $range(start, end=None) ->: Get a sublist. Defaults to value[start:], but an end value can be specified. Negative indices are allowed.
  • $map(special, *args) -> list: Apply special to every element in the value. Arguments can be passed through to the special being used.

Formatter

Formatter allows fields to be taken from an object and then formatted into a string. The basic usage is Formatter(<spec>).format(<item>). Fields to be replaced should be wrapped in {{}} and any valid field query string for Getter can be used. For example, Formatter('Name: {{name}}').format({"name": "John Smith"}) results in Name: John Smith. Below are some specific details.

  • The field specifications from Getter are valid here, so the above example could instead be 'First Name: [{name.$split(" ").0]}' to get First Name: John instead.
  • Field paths can be nested!!!! - this allows values from one field to be passed as the arguments in another, complex queries to be made and formatted. For example, Formatter("Balance: ${{balance.$subtract({{pending_charges}})}}").format({"balance": 1000, "pending_charges": 250}) which results in Balance: $750.
  • Whitespace is allowed inside of the curly braces before and after the field query string. {{ a }} is just as valid as {{a}}.
  • IMPORTANT: Nested fields that return strings which are then used as arguments must be manually double-quoted. For example, lets say we want to replace the domain gmail with <domain> in item = {"email": "john_doe@gmail.com"}. We want to determine the current domain, which we can do with email.$split("@").1.$split(".").0, and then we want to pass that as an argument into $replace. To do so, we need to surround the nested field with double-quotes so it will be properly recognized as an argument in the replace special. Formatter('Generic Email: {{ email.$replace("{{ email.$split("@").1.$split(".").0 }}", "<domain>") }}').format(item)"
  • IMPORTANT: Pay attention when using f-strings and Formatter as f"{{field}}" becomes "{field}". If you have to use an f-string, then you'll need to escape the braces with another brace, so f"{{{{field}}}}" becomes "{{field}}".

Example (flattening operations):

errors = {
    "errors": {
        "Process Error": "Could not communicate with the subprocess",
        "Connection Error": "Could not connect with the database instance"
    }
}

Formatter('{errors.$items.$map("join", ": \\n\\t").$join("\\n")}').format(errors)
# Process Error: 
#   Could not communicate with the subprocess
# Connection Error: 
#   Could not connect with the database instance

The above example shows a powerful usage of flattening errors into its items, then joining each item; splitting the error name and message between lines, then joining all the errors together.

Example (nested replacement):

item = {
    "x1": 1,
    "y1": 1,
    "x2": 12,
    "y2": 54
}

Formatter(
    "Midpoint: [{{x2.$subtract({{x1}}).$divide(2)}}, {y2.$subtract({{y1}}).$divide(2)}}]"
)
# Midpoint: [5.5, 26.5]

Additionally, the speed of formatting is very quick. The above statement can be preformed 10,000 times in around 0.75 seconds.

Filter

Filter takes the field querying capabilities of Getter and combines them with filtering conditions to allow lists of items to be filtered down to just those of interest. The basic usage is: Filter(<filters>).many(<list of items>), although .single can also be used to get a boolean answer of whether the item matches the filter or not. The filters can be manually built, or the Key and Condition classes can be used to simplify your code.

Filter Schema:

[
    {"field": <field>, "operator": <op>, "value": <value>},

    OR

    {"or": <nested outer structure>},

    OR

    {"not": <nested outer structure>},

    ...
]
<field>: anything Getter accepts
<op>: See list below
<value>: Anything that makes sense for the operator

Note on or:

{"or": [ 
    [ {filter1}, {filter2} ], 
    {filter3} 
]}

is the same as (filter1 AND filter2) OR filter3. Nesting in an or will cause those filters to be AND'd and then everything in the toplevel of that or will be OR'd.

Operators:

  • >
  • <
  • >=
  • <=
  • ==
  • !=
  • in: <field> in <value>
  • !in
  • contains: <value> in <field>
  • !contains
  • interval: <field> in interval [value[0], value[1]] (closed/inclusive interval)
  • !interval: <field> not in interval [value[0], value[1]]
  • startswith
  • endswith
  • null
  • !null

Key

Intended to simplify having to write {"field": <field>, "operator": <operator>, "value": value} a lot. The basic usage is: Key(<field>).<op>(<value>), or for the first six operators, the actual Python operators can be used, so Key(<field>) <op> <value>. For example: Key("meta.id").eq(12) is the same as Key("meta.id") == 12, which is the same as {"field": "meta.id", "operator": "==", "value": 12}.

Operators:

underlying operator Key function Python operator
> gt >
< lt <
<= lte <=
>= gte >=
== eq ==
!= ne !=
in in_ N/A
!in nin N/A
contains contains N/A
!contains not_contains N/A
interval interval N/A
!interval not_interval N/A
startswith startswith N/A
endswith endswith N/A
null none N/A
!null not_none N/A

Condition

Intended to be used in combination with Key to make creating filters easier than manually creating the JSON. There are three conditions supported: and, or, and not. They can be manually accessed via and_(*args), or_*args), and not_(), or the overloaded operators &, |, and ~ can be used, respectively.

Caution: & and | bind tighter than the comparisons operators and ~ binds the tightest Key("first_name") == "John" | Key("first_name") == "Bill" is actually (Key("first_name") == ("John" | Key("first_name"))) == "Bill", not (Key("first_name") == "John") | (Key("first_name") == "Bill")

Examples

Key("state").eq("Texas") | Key("city").eq("New York")
(Key("gender") == "male") & (Key("age") >= 18) & (Key("selective_service") == False)

Key('creation_time.$parse_timestamp.$datetime("year")').lt(2005).or_(
    Key('creation_time.$parse_timestamp.$datetime("year")').gt(2015)
).and_(
    Key("product_id") == 15
)

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