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JupyterHub: A multi-user server for Jupyter notebooks

Project description

[Technical Overview](#technical-overview) | [Installation](#installation) | [Configuration](#configuration) | [Docker](#docker) | [Contributing](#contributing) | [License](#license) | [Help and Resources](#help-and-resources)

# [JupyterHub](

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With [JupyterHub]( you can create a multi-user Hub which spawns, manages, and proxies multiple instances of the single-user [Jupyter notebook]( server.

[Project Jupyter]( created JupyterHub to support many users. The Hub can offer notebook servers to a class of students, a corporate data science workgroup, a scientific research project, or a high performance computing group.

## Technical overview

Three main actors make up JupyterHub:

  • multi-user Hub (tornado process)

  • configurable http proxy (node-http-proxy)

  • multiple single-user Jupyter notebook servers (Python/Jupyter/tornado)

Basic principles for operation are:

  • Hub launches a proxy.

  • Proxy forwards all requests to Hub by default.

  • Hub handles login, and spawns single-user servers on demand.

  • Hub configures proxy to forward url prefixes to the single-user notebook servers.

JupyterHub also provides a [REST API]( for administration of the Hub and its users.

## Installation

### Check prerequisites

  • A Linux/Unix based system

  • [Python]( 3.5 or greater

  • [nodejs/npm](

    • If you are using `conda`, the nodejs and npm dependencies will be installed for you by conda.

    • If you are using `pip`, install a recent version of [nodejs/npm]( For example, install it on Linux (Debian/Ubuntu) using:

      ` sudo apt-get install npm nodejs-legacy `

      The nodejs-legacy package installs the node executable and is currently required for npm to work on Debian/Ubuntu.

  • TLS certificate and key for HTTPS communication

  • Domain name

### Install packages

#### Using conda

To install JupyterHub along with its dependencies including nodejs/npm:

`bash conda install -c conda-forge jupyterhub `

If you plan to run notebook servers locally, install the Jupyter notebook or JupyterLab:

`bash conda install notebook conda install jupyterlab `

#### Using pip

JupyterHub can be installed with pip, and the proxy with npm:

`bash npm install -g configurable-http-proxy python3 -m pip install jupyterhub `

If you plan to run notebook servers locally, you will need to install the [Jupyter notebook]( package:

python3 -m pip install –upgrade notebook

### Run the Hub server

To start the Hub server, run the command:


Visit https://localhost:8000 in your browser, and sign in with your unix PAM credentials.

Note: To allow multiple users to sign into the server, you will need to run the jupyterhub command as a privileged user, such as root. The [wiki]( describes how to run the server as a less privileged user, which requires more configuration of the system.

## Configuration

The [Getting Started]( section of the documentation explains the common steps in setting up JupyterHub.

The [JupyterHub tutorial]( provides an in-depth video and sample configurations of JupyterHub.

### Create a configuration file

To generate a default config file with settings and descriptions:

jupyterhub –generate-config

### Start the Hub

To start the Hub on a specific url and port with https:

jupyterhub –ip –port 443 –ssl-key my_ssl.key –ssl-cert my_ssl.cert

### Authenticators

Authenticator | Description |
————————————————————————— | ————————————————- |
PAMAuthenticator | Default, built-in authenticator |
[OAuthenticator]( | OAuth + JupyterHub Authenticator = OAuthenticator |
[ldapauthenticator]( | Simple LDAP Authenticator Plugin for JupyterHub |
[kdcAuthenticator](| Kerberos Authenticator Plugin for JupyterHub |

### Spawners

Spawner | Description |
————————————————————– | ————————————————————————– |
LocalProcessSpawner | Default, built-in spawner starts single-user servers as local processes |
[dockerspawner]( | Spawn single-user servers in Docker containers |
[kubespawner]( | Kubernetes spawner for JupyterHub |
[sudospawner]( | Spawn single-user servers without being root |
[systemdspawner]( | Spawn single-user notebook servers using systemd |
[batchspawner]( | Designed for clusters using batch scheduling software |
[wrapspawner]( | WrapSpawner and ProfilesSpawner enabling runtime configuration of spawners |

## Docker

A starter [docker image for JupyterHub]( gives a baseline deployment of JupyterHub using Docker.

Important: This jupyterhub/jupyterhub image contains only the Hub itself, with no configuration. In general, one needs to make a derivative image, with at least a setting up an Authenticator and/or a Spawner. To run the single-user servers, which may be on the same system as the Hub or not, Jupyter Notebook version 4 or greater must be installed.

The JupyterHub docker image can be started with the following command:

docker run -p 8000:8000 -d –name jupyterhub jupyterhub/jupyterhub jupyterhub

This command will create a container named jupyterhub that you can stop and resume with docker stop/start.

The Hub service will be listening on all interfaces at port 8000, which makes this a good choice for testing JupyterHub on your desktop or laptop.

If you want to run docker on a computer that has a public IP then you should (as in MUST) secure it with ssl by adding ssl options to your docker configuration or by using a ssl enabled proxy.

[Mounting volumes]( will allow you to store data outside the docker image (host system) so it will be persistent, even when you start a new image.

The command docker exec -it jupyterhub bash will spawn a root shell in your docker container. You can use the root shell to create system users in the container. These accounts will be used for authentication in JupyterHub’s default configuration.

## Contributing

If you would like to contribute to the project, please read our [contributor documentation]( and the []( The file explains how to set up a development installation, how to run the test suite, and how to contribute to documentation.

### A note about platform support

JupyterHub is supported on Linux/Unix based systems.

JupyterHub officially does not support Windows. You may be able to use JupyterHub on Windows if you use a Spawner and Authenticator that work on Windows, but the JupyterHub defaults will not. Bugs reported on Windows will not be accepted, and the test suite will not run on Windows. Small patches that fix minor Windows compatibility issues (such as basic installation) may be accepted, however. For Windows-based systems, we would recommend running JupyterHub in a docker container or Linux VM.

[Additional Reference:]( Tornado’s documentation on Windows platform support

## License

We use a shared copyright model that enables all contributors to maintain the copyright on their contributions.

All code is licensed under the terms of the revised BSD license.

## Help and resources

We encourage you to ask questions on the [Jupyter mailing list](!forum/jupyter). To participate in development discussions or get help, talk with us on our JupyterHub [Gitter]( channel.

[Technical Overview](#technical-overview) | [Installation](#installation) | [Configuration](#configuration) | [Docker](#docker) | [Contributing](#contributing) | [License](#license) | [Help and Resources](#help-and-resources)

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