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Store of values created on demand.

Project description

lazystore is a Python package that allows the user to declare objects and relationships between them without really instantiating them. Instantiation happens on demand when the user creates a store and asks for some objects.

Install

pip install lazystore

Usage

lazystore has two different types of stores:

  1. SpecStore: which will hold “specifications” of objects. Those specifications will contain information necessary for later instantiation of objects.
  2. Store: which will hold instantiated objects. Each instantiated object is called an “entry” of the store.

In order to use lazystore you must use both types of stores. The first to declare the entries and the second to create the respective instances.

Creating the spec store

After importing lazystore:

>>> import lazystore

We create the spec store by calling the constructor like below:

>>> specs = lazystore.SpecStore()

With the spec store in place, we can begin declaring entries:

>>> specs.Person('john', name='John Doe')
Person('john')

>>> specs.Person('jane', name='Jane Doe')
Person('jane')

On the lines above:

  • We are declaring two entries of type Person.
  • The id of such entry is passed as the first positional argument ('john'). The id does not have to be a string: any hashable value is valid. The combination of entry type and entry id must be unique across the spec store.
  • The rest of the arguments (positional and keyword) belong to the specification for this entry (we will see later that those arguments are used to instantiate the entry).

You can reference the entry by using the same syntax but using only the id argument. For example, we are referencing John’s entry in the following:

>>> specs.Person('john')
Person('john')

Both calls (with full spec or only referencing) return the same type of object, a ValuePromise. This type implements __getattr__, __getitem__, and __call__ in such a way that you can use the promised value as if it was using the real object:

>>> dialog = [
...    specs.Person('john').say('Hello! My name is John.'),
...    specs.Person('jane').say('Nice to meet you!'),
... ]
>>> dialog
[Person('john').say('Hello! My name is John.'), Person('jane').say('Nice to meet you!')]

Note that no instantiation has taken place yet:

>>> type(dialog[0])
<class 'lazystore._lazystore.ValuePromise'>

Creating resolvers

In order to know how to instantiate a spec, we need to tell lazystore what is the resolver for the respective entry type. The resolver for an entry type must be a callable that accepts all positional and keyword arguments passed to the spec store when creating the spec.

The first thing to do is to create a registry, which will hold the resolvers:

>>> registry = lazystore.Registry()

Then we can define resolvers via registry.add_resolver or the decorator registry.resolver:

>>> @registry.resolver('Person')
... class Person:
...     def __init__(self, store, name):
...         print(f'***Instantiating {name}***')
...         self.name = name
...
...     def say(self, line):
...         return f'{self.name}: {line}'

Note that the resolver can be any type of callable: it could be a function, method, class or any other object that implements the __call__ method. In our example, since we want our generated object to have the method say(), we defined it as a class.

While this is a very simple example, resolvers can be very complex, they could make requests for creating database records and perform other necessary operations. With resolvers, it is possible to encapsulate the “imperative” part of creating an entry and allow definition of entry specs and relationships between them in a more declarative way.

Note that the first positional parameter (discarding self) of Person.__init__ is store which will contain a reference to the store where the entry will be kept. The remaining parameters are what is expected to be received from specs created for the entry type “Person”.

Creating the store and instantiating entries

Now that we have both specs and registry, we can create a store with:

>>> store = lazystore.Store(registry, specs)

Instantiation is done by “resolving” value promises:

>>> john = store.resolve(specs.Person('john'))
***Instantiating John Doe***
>>> john.say('Hi, there!')
'John Doe: Hi, there!'

You can use the __getattr__ shortcut as well. The following is equivalent to the code above:

>>> john = store.Person('john')
>>> john.say('Hi, there!')
'John Doe: Hi, there!'

Note that entries are cached in the store. The same object is returned for the same combination of entry type and entry id:

>>> store.Person('john') is john
True

The method resolve() can accept different forms of objects. In the following example, we use the dialog list created before:

>>> store.resolve(dialog)
***Instantiating Jane Doe***
['John Doe: Hello! My name is John.', 'Jane Doe: Nice to meet you!']

(Note that Jane is instantiated only now, when it was needed. John was already instantiated, so the cached value was returned).

In fact, resolve() can recurse into lists, tuples and dictionaries. In the following example we create a dictionary representing a family:

>>> family_spec = {
...     'father': specs.Person('john'),
...     'mother': specs.Person('jane'),
...     'children': (
...         specs.Person('johnny'),
...         specs.Person('jannet', name='Jannet Doe'),
...     ),
... }

We purposefully used only the reference for Johnny to show that the order the specs are define does not matter. We define it now:

>>> specs.Person('johnny', name='John Doe Junior')
Person('johnny')

With all specs ready, we can get the resolved value:

>>> family = store.resolve(family_spec)
***Instantiating John Doe Junior***
***Instantiating Jannet Doe***

>>> family['father'].name
'John Doe'

>>> family['mother'].name
'Jane Doe'

>>> [c.name for c in family['children']]
['John Doe Junior', 'Jannet Doe']

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