LE-Utils contains shared constants used in Kolibri, Ricecooker, and Kolibri Studio.
le-utils package contains shared constants used by Ricecooker, Kolibri, and
Kolibri Studio. This package is not meant to be installed or used directly, but
plays an important role in all Learning Equality products.
The Python files in the le_utils/constants/ are used to
define constants (usually in
ALL_CAPS form) to be used from Python code.
The same constants and naming conventions are also provided in JSON format in the
folder le_utils/resources/ for use in frontend code.
This means, adding a new constant may require editing multiple files: the Python
constant-defining file, the JSON-file, and any associated tests.
The file le_utils/constants/languages.py and the lookup table in le_utils/resources/languagelookup.json define the internal representation for languages codes used by Ricecooker, Kolibri, and Kolibri Studio to identify educational content in different languages.
The internal representation uses a mixture of two-letter codes (e.g.
two-letter-and-country code (e.g.
pt-BR for Brazilian Portuguese),
and three-letter codes (e.g.,
zul for Zulu).
In order to make sure you have the correct language code when interfacing with
the Kolibri ecosystem (e.g. when uploading new content to Kolibri Studio), you
must lookup the language object using the helper method
>>> from le_utils.constants.languages import getlang >>> language_obj = getlang('en') # lookup language using language code >>> language_obj Language(native_name='English', primary_code='en', subcode=None, name='English', ka_name=None)
getlang will return
None if the lookup fails. In such cases, you
can try lookup by name or lookup by alpha2 code (ISO_639-1) methods defined below.
Once you've successfully looked up the language object, you can obtain the internal
representation language code from the language object's
>>> language_obj.code 'en'
The Ricecooker API expects these internal representation language codes will be
supplied for all
language attributes (channel language, node language, and files language).
More lookup helper methods
The helper method
getlang_by_name allows you to lookup a language by name:
>>> from le_utils.constants.languages import getlang_by_name >>> language_obj = getlang_by_name('English') # lookup language by name >>> language_obj Language(native_name='English', primary_code='en', subcode=None, name='English', ka_name=None)
le_utils.constants.languages defines two other language lookup methods:
getlang_by_native_namefor lookup up names by native language name, e.g., you look for 'Français' to find French.
getlang_by_alpha2to perform lookups using the standard two-letter codes defined in ISO_639-1 that are supported by the
The following websites are usful for researching language codes:
All content nodes within Kolibri and Kolibri Studio must have a license. The file
le_utils/constants/licenses.py contains the
constants used to identify the license types. These constants are meant to be
used in conjunction with the helper method
To initialize a license object, you must specify the license type and the
copyright_holder (str) which identifies a person or an organization. For example:
from ricecooker.classes.licenses import get_license from le_utils.constants import licenses license = get_license(licenses.CC_BY, copyright_holder="Khan Academy")
copyright_holder field is required for all License types except for
the public domain license for which
copyright_holder can be None.
Content kinds (ContentNode subclasses)
Content items throughout the Kolibri ecosystem come in several kinds. The
attribute of each object can be one of ("topic", "video", "audio", "exercise"
"document", or "html5".
See constants/content_kinds.py for latest list.
The currently supported content kinds are:
- Topic node (folder)
- Video content nodes backed by a video files and subtitles
- Audio content nodes backed by an audio files
- Document content nodes backed by a document files (PDF or ePub)
- HTML5 app content nodes backed by a HTML5 zip files
- Slideshow content nodes
- Exercise content nodes
kind attribute identifies a subclass of the base content node class within
the data model, which differs on Ricecooker, Studio, and Kolibri:
- ricecooker.classes.nodes.ContentNode: in-memory content node used to store metadata needed to upload new content to Kolibri Studio
- contentcuration.contentcuration.models.ContentNode: node within one of the trees associated with a Kolibri Studio channel.
- kolibri.core.content.models.ContentNode: node within tree for a particular version of a channel on Kolibri.
For a detailed description of the common and different model attributes available on content nodes in each part of the platform see this doc.
File formats (extensions)
These are low-level constant that represents what type of file and are essentially
synonymous with file extensions. The file format
MP4 is simply a convenient
proxy for the file extension
Format presets (ContentNode-File relation)
ContentNode is associated with one or more
File objects and nature of
this association is represented though the
format_preset attribute of the file.
format_preset is the role the file is playing in the content node,
e.g., thumbnail, high resolution video, or low resolution video.
Note that format presets are represented redundantly as python string in
and as json resources/presetlookup.json.
You can think of the different format presets on a content node as different "slots"
to be filled in by files, with certain slots being required while other optional.
For examples, for a VideoNode (kind=
video) to be a valid content node, it must
have at least one video file associated with it filling either the
slot or the
low_res_video slot. Certain slots can have multiple files in them,
video_subtitle preset, since a VideoNode can have multiple subtitles
associated with it for different languages.
The figure below illustrates the structure between content nodes, files, and format presets.
In the Sample shown, the Video Node is of content kind
video and has three
files associated with it:
- The first file has file format
mp4and format preset
- The second file is also in
mp4format but the relation to the content node is that
- A third file with format
vttis associated with the content node with a format preset of
Format presets play a crucial role throughout the Kolibri content ecosystem and govern such things as content validation rules applied by Ricecooker, Kolibri Studio edit rules, and the rendering logic on Kolibri.
File types (ricecooker.files.File subclasses)
Used on Ricecooker as identifiers to represents what type of file when serializing things to JSON as part of the content import process. Note that file types constants are internal to ricecooker operations and are not used in Kolibri Studio or Kolibri.
The file le_utils/constants/exercises.py contains identifiers for different question types and mastery models.
Proquint Channel Tokens
The file le_utils/proquint.py contains helper methods
for generating proquint identifiers for content channels. These are short strings
that are easy to enter on devices without a full keyboard, e.g.
role constants are used for Role-based access control (RBAC) within the
Kolibri platform. Currently, only two levels of visibility are supported:
learner(default): content nodes are visible to all Kolibri users
coach: content nodes are only visible to Kolibri coaches and administrators
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