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Pelican plugin for automating image processing. Written in Python.

Project description

==============
Image Process
==============

``Image Process`` is a plugin for `Pelican <http://docs.getpelican.com/>`_,
a static site generator written in Python.

``Image Process`` let you automate the processing of images based on their
class attribute. Use this plugin to minimize the overall page weight
and to save you a trip to Gimp or Photoshop each time you include an
image in your post.

``Image Process`` also makes it easy to create responsive images using
the new HTML5 ``srcset`` attribute and ``<picture>`` tag. It does this
by generating multiple derivative images from one or more sources.

``Image Process`` will not overwrite your original images.


Installation
============

The easiest way to install ``Image Process`` is through the use of pip. This
will also install the required dependencies automatically.

.. code-block:: sh

pip install minchin.pelican.plugins.image_process

Then, in your ``pelicanconf.py`` file, add ``Image Process`` to your list of
plugins:

.. code-block:: python

PLUGINS = [
# ...
'minchin.pelican.plugins.image_process',
# ...
]

You will also need to configure your desired transformations (see *Usage*
below) and add the appropriate class to images you want processed.


Requirements
============

``Image Process`` requires Beautiful Soup, Pillow, Six, and Pelican. All
these can be manually installed with pip:

.. code-block:: sh

pip install pillow beautifulsoup4 six pelican

If you encounter errors while processing JPEG files, you may need to install
the JPEG development library:

.. code-block:: sh

pip uninstall pillow
apt-get install libjpeg-dev
pip install pillow


Usage
=====

``Image Process`` scans your content for ``<img>`` tags with special
classes. It then maps the classes to a set of image processing
instructions, computes new images and modifies HTML code according to
the instructions.

Define transformations
----------------------

The first step in using this module is to define some image
transformations in your Pelican configuration file. Transformations
are defined in the ``IMAGE_PROCESS`` dictionary, mapping a
transformation name to a list of operations. There are three kinds of
transformations: image replacement, responsive image and picture set.

Image replacement
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The simplest image processing will replace the original image by a
new, transformed image computed from the original. You may use this,
for example, to ensure that all images are of the same size, or to
compute a thumbnail from a larger image:

.. code-block:: python

IMAGE_PROCESS = {
'article-image': ["scale_in 300 300 True"],
'thumb': ["crop 0 0 50% 50%", "scale_out 150 150 True", "crop 0 0 150 150"],
}

These transformations tell ``Image process`` to transform the image
referred by the ``src`` attribute of an ``<img>`` according to the
list of operations specified and replace the ``src`` attribute by the
URL of the transformed image.

For consistency with the other type of transformations described
below, there is an alternative syntax for the processing instructions:

.. code-block:: python

IMAGE_PROCESS = {
'thumb': {'type': 'image',
'ops': ["crop 0 0 50% 50%", "scale_out 150 150 True", "crop 0 0 150 150"],
}
'article-image': {'type': 'image',
'ops': ["scale_in 300 300 True"],
}
}


To apply image replacement to the images in your articles, you must
add them the special class ``image-process-`` followed by the name of
the transformation you wish to apply. For example, let's pretend you
have defined the transformation described above. If you write your
content in HTML or in Markdown, do something like this:

.. code-block:: html

<img class="image-process-article-image" src="/images/pelican.jpg"/>


In reStructuredText, use the ``:class:`` attribute of the ``image`` or
the ``figure`` directive:

.. code-block:: rst

.. image:: /images/pelican.png
:class: image-process-article-image

.. figure:: /images/pelican.png
:class: image-process-article-image

.. note::

The reStructuredText reader will convert underscores (``_``) to
dashes (``-``) in class names. To make sure everything runs
smoothly, do not use underscores in your transformation names.


Responsive image
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

You can use ``Image process`` to automatically generate a set of
images that will be selected for display by browsers according to the
viewport width or according to the device resolution. To accomplish
this, ``Image process`` will add a ``srcset`` attribute (and maybe a
``media`` and a ``sizes`` attribute) to the ``<img>``.

Note that the ``srcset`` syntax is currently not supported by all
browsers. However, browsers who do not support the ``srcset``
attribute will fall back to a default image specified by the
still-present ``src`` attribute. See `Can I Use`_ for the current
status on ``srcset`` support.

.. _Can I Use: http://caniuse.com/#feat=srcset

HTML5 supports two types of responsive image set. The first one is
device-pixel-ratio-based, selecting higher resolution images for higher
resolution devices; the second one is viewport-based, selecting
images according to the viewport width. If you want to know more about
HTML5 responsive images, I recommend `this article`_ for a gentle
introduction to the ``srcset`` and ``<picture>`` syntaxes.

.. _this article: http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/05/14/responsive-images-done-right-guide-picture-srcset/

To tell ``Image process`` to generate a responsive image, add a
``responsive-image`` transformation to your your ``IMAGE_PROCESS``
dictionary, with the following syntax:

.. code-block:: python

IMAGE_PROCESS = {
'crisp': {'type': 'responsive-image',
'srcset': [('1x', ["scale_in 800 600 True"]),
('2x', ["scale_in 1600 1200 True"]),
('4x', ["scale_in 3200 2400 True"]),
],
'default': '1x',
},
'large-photo': {'type': 'responsive-image',
'sizes': '(min-width: 1200px) 800px, (min-width: 992px) 650px, \
(min-width: 768px) 718px, 100vw',
'srcset': [('600w', ["scale_in 600 450 True"]),
('800w', ["scale_in 800 600 True"]),
('1600w', ["scale_in 1600 1200 True"]),
],
'default': '800w',
},
}

The ``crisp`` transformation is an example of a transformation
enabling device-pixel-ratio-based selection. The ``srcset`` is a list
of tuple, each tuple containing the image description (``'1x'``,
``'2x'``, etc.) and the list of operations to generate the derivative
image from the original image (the original image is the value of the
``src`` attribute of the ``<img>``). Image descriptions are hints
about the resolution of the associated image and must have the suffix
``x``. The ``default`` names the image to use to replace the ``src``
attribute of the image. This is the image that will be displayed by
browsers that do not support the ``srcset`` syntax.

The ``large-photo`` transformation is an example of a transformation
enabling viewport-based selection. The ``sizes`` contains a rule to
compute the width of the displayed image from the width of the
viewport. Once the browser knows the image width, it will select an
image source from the ``srcset``. The ``srcset`` is a list of tuple,
each tuple containing the image description (``'600w'``, ``'800w'``,
etc.) and the list of operations to generate the derivative image from
the original image (the original image is the value of the ``src``
attribute of the ``<img>``). Image descriptions are hints about the
width in pixels of the associated image and must have the suffix
``w``. The ``default`` names the image to use to replace the ``src``
attribute of the image. This is the image that will be displayed by
browsers that do not support the ``srcset`` syntax.

In the two examples above, the ``default`` is a string referring to
one of the images in the ``srcset``. However, the ``default`` value
could also be a list of operations to generate a different derivative
image.

To make the images in your article responsive, you must add them the
special class ``image-process-`` followed by the name of the
transformation you wish to apply, exactly like you would do for the
image replacement case, described above. So, if you write your content
in HTML or in Markdown, do something like this:

.. code-block:: html

<img class="image-process-large-photo" src="/images/pelican.jpg"/>


In reStructuredText, use the ``:class:`` attribute of the ``image`` of
the ``figure`` directive:

.. code-block:: rst

.. image:: /images/pelican.png
:class: image-process-large-photo

.. figure:: /images/pelican.png
:class: image-process-large-photo


Picture set
~~~~~~~~~~~

``Image process`` can be use to generate the images used by a
``<picture>`` tag. The ``<picture>`` syntax allows for more
flexibility in providing a choice of image to the browser. Again, if
you want to know more about HTML5 responsive images, see `this
article`_ for a gentle introduction to the ``srcset`` and
``<picture>`` syntaxes.

.. _this article: http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/05/14/responsive-images-done-right-guide-picture-srcset/

To tell ``Image process`` to generate the images for a ``<picture>``,
add a ``picture`` entry to your ``IMAGE_PROCESS`` dictionary with the
following syntax:

.. code-block:: python

IMAGE_PROCESS = {
'example-pict': {'type': 'picture',
'sources': [{'name': 'default',
'media': '(min-width: 640px)',
'srcset': [('640w', ["scale_in 640 480 True"]),
('1024w', ["scale_in 1024 683 True"]),
('1600w', ["scale_in 1600 1200 True"]),
],
'sizes': '100vw',
},
{'name': 'source-1',
'srcset': [('1x', ["crop 100 100 200 200"]),
('2x', ["crop 100 100 300 300"]),
]
}
],
'default': ('default', '640w'),
},
}

Each of the ``sources`` entry is very similar to the ``responsive
image`` describe above. Here, each source must have a ``name``, which
will be used to find the URL of the original image for this source in
your article. The source may also have a ``media``, which contains a
rule used by the browser to select the active source. The ``default``
names the image to use to replace the ``src`` attribute of the
``<img>`` inside the ``<picture>``. This is the image that will be
displayed by browsers that do not support the ``<picture>`` syntax. In
this example, it will use the image ``640w`` from the source
``default``. A list of operations could have been specified instead of
``640w``.

To generate a responsive ``<picture>`` for the images in your
articles, you must add to your article a pseudo ``<picture>`` tag that
looks like this:

.. code-block:: html

<picture>
<source class="source-1" src="/images/pelican-closeup.jpg"></source>
<img class="image-process-example-pict" src="/images/pelican.jpg"/>
</picture>

Each ``<source>`` tag maps a source name (the ``class`` attribute) to
a file (the ``src`` attribute). The ``<img>`` must have the special
class ``image-process-`` followed by the name of the transformation
you wish to apply. The file referenced by the ``src`` attribute of the
``<img>>`` will be used as the special ``default`` source in your
transformation definition.


The pseudo ``<picture>`` tag above can be used in articles written in
HTML, Markdown or restructuredText. In reStructuredText, however, you
can also use the ``figure`` directive to generate a ``<picture>``. The
figure image file will be used as the special ``default`` source;
other sources must be added in the the legend section of the
``figure`` as ``image`` directives. The figure class must be
``image-process-`` followed by the name of the transformation you wish
to apply, while the other images must have two classes:
``image-process`` and the name of the source they provide an image
for:

.. code-block:: rst

.. figure:: /images/pelican.png
:class: image-process-large-photo

Test picture

.. image:: /images/pelican-closeup.jpg
:class: image-process source-1

The images in the legend section that are used as source for the
``<picture>`` will be removed from the image legend, so that they do
not appear in your final article.


Transformations
---------------

Available operations for transformations are:

crop *top* *left* *right* *bottom*
Crop the image to the box (*left*, *top*)-(*right*, *bottom*). Values
can be absolute (a number) or relative to the size of the image (a
number followed by a percent sign ``%``).

flip_horizontal
Flip the image horizontally.

flip_vertical
Flip the image vertically.

grayscale
Convert the image to grayscale.

resize *width* *height*
Resize the image. This operation does *not* preserve the image aspect
ratio. Values can be absolute (a number) or relative to the
size of the image (a number followed by a percent sign ``%``).

rotate degree
Rotate the image.

scale_in *width* *height* *upscale*
Resize the image. This operation preserves the image aspect ratio
and the resulting image will be no larger than *width* x
*height*. Values can be absolute (a number) or relative to the
size of the image (a number followed by a percent sign ``%``).
If *upscale* is False, smaller images will not be enlarged.

scale_out *width* *height* *upscale*
Resize the image. This operation preserves the image aspect ratio
and the resulting image will be no smaller than *width* x
*height*. Values can be absolute (a number) or relative to the
size of the image (a number followed by a percent sign ``%``).
If *upscale* is False, smaller images will not be enlarged.

blur
Apply the ``pillow.ImageFilter.BLUR`` filter to the image.

contour
Apply the ``pillow.ImageFilter.CONTOUR`` filter to the image.

detail
Apply the ``pillow.ImageFilter.DETAIL`` filter to the image.

edge_enhance
Apply the ``pillow.ImageFilter.EDGE_ENHANCE`` filter to the image.

edge_enhance_more
Apply the ``pillow.ImageFilter.EDGE_ENHANCE_MORE`` filter to the image.

emboss
Apply the ``pillow.ImageFilter.EMBOSS`` filter to the image.

find_edges
Apply the ``pillow.ImageFilter.FIND_EDGES`` filter to the image.

smooth
Apply the ``pillow.ImageFilter.SMOOTH filter`` to the image.

smooth_more
Apply the ``pillow.ImageFilter.SMOOTH_MORE`` filter to the image.

sharpen
Apply the ``pillow.ImageFilter.SHARPEN`` filter to the image.


You can also define your own operations; the only requirement is that
your operation should be a callable object expecting a ``pillow.Image`` as
its first parameter and it should return the transformed image:

.. code-block:: python

def crop_face(image):
"""Detect face in image and crop around it."""
# TODO: Fancy algorithm.
return image

IMAGE_PROCESS = {
'face-thumbnail': [crop_face, "scale_out 150 150 True"]
}


Additional settings
-------------------

Destination directory
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

By default, the new images will be stored in a directory named
``derivative/<TRANSFORMATION_NAME>`` in the output folder at
the same location as the original image.
For example if the original image is located in
the ``content/images`` folder. The computed images will be stored
in the ``output/images/derivative/<TRANSFORMATION_NAME>``.
All the transformations are done in the output directory in order
to avoid confusion with the source files or if we test multiple
transformations.
You can replace ``derivative`` by something else using the
``IMAGE_PROCESS_DIR`` setting in your Pelican configuration file:

.. code-block:: python

IMAGE_PROCESS_DIR = 'derivees'


Force image processing
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

If the transformed image already exists and is newer than the original
image, the plugin assumes that it should not recompute it again. You
can force the plugin to recompute all images by setting
``IMAGE_PROCESS_FORCE`` to ``True`` in your Pelican configuration
file.

.. code-block:: python

IMAGE_PROCESS_FORCE = True


Selecting a HTML parser
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

You may select the HTML parser which is used. The default is the builtin
``html.parser`` but you may also select ``html5lib`` or ``lxml`` by setting
``IMAGE_PROCESS_PARSER`` in your pelican configuration file , e.g.:

.. code-block:: python

IMAGE_PROCESS_PARSER = "html5lib"

For details, refer to the `BeautifulSoup documentation on parsers
<https://www.crummy.com/software/BeautifulSoup/bs4/doc/#installing-a-parser>`_.


File Encoding
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

You may select a different file encoding to be used by BeautifulSoup as it
opens your files. The default is ``uft-8``.

.. code-block:: python

IMAGE_PROCESS_ENCODING = "uft-8"


Known Issues
============

- Pillow, when resizing animated GIF files, does not return an animated file
- the ``setup.py`` file for this project does not run on Python 2.7. However,
wheels of this project are "universal" and so can be generated by Python 3
and subsequently installed by Python 2.7.
- test require access to the ``pelican.tests`` module, which isn't included
in the pelican distribution on PyPI.
- version 1.1.2, as uploaded to PyPI, is broken; use a different version. (see
`issue #2 <(https://github.com/MinchinWeb/minchin.pelican.plugins.image_process/issues/2`_
for details)


Credits
=======

Pelican image in test data by Jon Sullivan. Source:
http://www.pdphoto.org/PictureDetail.php?mat=&pg=5726

Original Plugin developed by the team at
`Whisky Echo Bravo <https://github.com/whiskyechobravo/image_process>`_.

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