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A command line tool that makes it easy to run modular Trino environments locally.

Project description

Minitrino

A command line tool that makes it easy to run modular Trino environments locally. Compatible with Staburst version 354-e and later.

PyPI version Build Status Trino Slack


Latest Stable Release: 2.0.2


Overview


Requirements

  • Docker 19.03.0+
  • Docker Compose (1.29.0+)
  • Python 3.8+
  • Pip
  • Linux or Mac OS

Installation

End Users

Minitrino is available on PyPI and the library is available for public download on GitHub. To install the Minitrino CLI, run pip install minitrino. To install the library, run minitrino lib_install.

Developers

In the project's root, run ./install.sh to install the Minitrino CLI. If you encounter errors during installation, try running sudo -H ./install.sh -v.


CLI

Minitrino is built with Click, a popular, open-source toolkit used to build Python-based CLIs.

All Minitrino commands/options are documented below. Note that many command options can be specified with a shorthand alternative, which is the first letter of each option, i.e. --module can be -m.

Top-Level CLI Options

You can get help, enable verbose output, and change the runtime library directory for any command.

Usage: minitrino [OPTIONS] COMMAND [ARGS]...

Options:
  -v, --verbose   Enable verbose output.
  -e, --env TEXT  Add or override environment variables.

                  Environment variables are sourced from the Minitrino
                  library's root 'minitrino.env' file as well as the user 
                  config file in '~/.minitrino/minitrino.cfg'. Variables 
                  supplied by this option will override values from either 
                  of those sources. The variables will also be passed to the
                  environment of the shell executing commands during the
                  'provision' command.

  --help          Show this message and exit.

Provisioning Environments

You can provision an environment via the provision command.

Usage: minitrino provision [OPTIONS]

  Provision an environment based on specified modules. All options are
  optional and can be left empty.

Options:
  -m, --module TEXT         A specific module to provision.
  -n, --no-rollback         Do not rollback provisioned resources in the event
                            of an error.

  -d, --docker-native TEXT  Appends native docker-compose commands to the
                            generated docker-compose shell command. Run
                            `docker-compose up --help` to see all available
                            options.

                            Example: minitrino provision --docker-native
                            --build

                            Example: minitrino provision --docker-native '--
                            remove-orphans --force-recreate'

  --help                    Show this message and exit.

Notes:

  • If no options are passed in, the CLI will provision a standalone Trino container.
  • The command cannot currently be used to append additional modules to an active environment. To modify an environment, first shut it down, then re-provision with the needed modules.

Sample provision commands:

minitrino provision \
  --module hive-s3 \
  --module elasticsearch \
  --module ldap \
  --docker-native '--build --force-recreate'

minitrino provision -m hive-s3 -m elasticsearch -m ldap

minitrino --env STARBURST_VER=332-e.6 provision

The provision command constructs a Docker Compose command and executes it in the host shell. The commands look similar to:

ENV_VAR_1=SOMETHING ENV_VAR_2=SOMETHING ENV_VAR_3=${ENV_VAR_3} ... \
docker-compose -f docker-compose.yml \
  -f modules/catalog/elasticsearch/elasticsearch.yml \
  -f modules/catalog/hive-s3/hive-s3.yml \
  -f modules/security/ldap/ldap.yml \
  up -d

Using the structure of the Minitrino library, it is able to merge multiple Docker Compose files together.

Environment Variables

Environment variables passed to Docker containers are sourced through two locations. The first is from the minitrino.env file in the library root. These variables define the versions of the provisioned Docker services. The second is from from variables set in the [MODULES] section of the minitrino.cfg file. These variables can contain sensitive information like access credentials, so their values are intentionally left out of library files.

Any existing environment variable can be overridden with the top-level --env option, and any unset variable can be set with it.

Using Licensed Starburst Features

If you are using licensed features, you will need to provide a path to a valid Starburst license. This can be set via minitrino config or provided via the --env option at command runtime. The variable for this is STARBURST_LIC_PATH.

Additionally, you need to uncomment the volume mount in the library's root docker-compose.yml file:

  # Uncomment this to enable the volume mount. The variable should point to a
  # valid SEP license. 
  volumes:
    - "${STARBURST_LIC_PATH}:/etc/starburst/starburstdata.license:ro"

Removing Resources

You can remove resources with the remove command.

Usage: minitrino remove [OPTIONS]

  Remove Minitrino resources.

Options:
  -i, --images      Remove Minitrino images.
  -v, --volumes     Remove Minitrino container volumes.
  -l, --label TEXT  Target specific labels for removal (format: key-value
                    pair(s)).

  -f, --force       Force the removal of Minitrino resources. Normal Docker
                    removal restrictions apply.

  --help            Show this message and exit.

Notes:

  • Named volumes tied to any existing container cannot be forcibly removed, neither by Minitrino nor by the Docker CLI/SDK.
  • Images tied to stopped containers can be forcibly removed, but any image tied to a running container cannot be forcibly removed, neither by Minitrino nor by the Docker CLI.
  • You can find a module's label key by looking at the module's docker-compose.yml file in the Minitrino library.

Sample remove command:

minitrino -v remove \
  --volumes \
  --label com.starburst.tests.module.postgres=catalog-postgres \
  --force

This will only remove volumes associated to the Postgres catalog module.

Shutting Down Environments

You can shut down an active environment with the down command.

Usage: minitrino down [OPTIONS]

  Bring down running Minitrino containers. This command follows the
  behavior of `docker-compose down` where containers are both stopped and
  removed.

Options:
  -k, --keep  Does not remove containers; instead, containers will only be
              stopped.

  --sig-kill  Stop Minitrino containers without a grace period.
  --help      Show this message and exit.

Sample down command:

minitrino -v down

Taking Environment Snapshots

You can capture snapshots for both active and inactive environments with the snapshot command.

Usage: minitrino snapshot [OPTIONS]

  Create a snapshot of a Minitrino environment. A tarball is placed in the
  Minitrino `lib/snapshots/` directory.

  To take a snapshot of an active environment, leave the `--module` and
  option out of the command.

  To take a snapshot of modules whether they are active or not, specify the
  modules via the `--module` option.

Options:
  -m, --module TEXT     A specific module to snapshot.
  -n, --name TEXT       Basename of the resulting snapshot tarball file.
                        Allowed characters: alphanumerics, hyphens, and
                        underscores.  [required]

  -d, --directory PATH  Directory to save the resulting snapshot file in.
                        Defaults to the snapshots directory in the Minitrino
                        library.

  -f, --force           Overwrite the file if it already exists.
  --no-scrub            Do not scrub sensitive data from user config file.

                        WARNING: all sensitive information (passwords and
                        keys) will be kept in the user config file added to
                        the snapshot. Only use this if you are prepared to
                        share those secrets with another person.

  --help                Show this message and exit.

Notes:

  • Minitrino records the original provision command and places it in the snapshot file as provision-snapshot.sh; this can be directly executed. This makes it easier for others to reuse the environment and provision it identically.

Sample snapshot commands:

# Take a snapshot of an active environment (this will create a tarball 
# called `snapshot-t2533.tar.gz` in the library's `snapshots/` directory):
minitrino snapshot --name t-2533

# Take a snapshot of specific modules:
minitrino snapshot -n super-cool-env -m hive-s3 -m elasticsearch -m ldap

Manage User Configuration

You can manage Minitrino configuration with the config command.

Usage: minitrino config [OPTIONS]

  Edit the Minitrino user configuration file.

Options:
  -r, --reset  Reset the Minitrino user configuration file and create a new
               config file from a template.

               WARNING: This will remove your configuration file (if it
               exists) and replace it with a template.

  --help       Show this message and exit.

Install the Library

You can install the Minitrino library with the lib_install command. Note that it is best practice to have the library version match the CLI version. You can check these versions with minitrino version.

Usage: minitrino lib_install [OPTIONS]

  Install the Minitrino library.

Options:
  -v, --version TEXT  The version of the library to install.
  --help              Show this message and exit.

Display Module Metadata

You can see Minitrino module metadata with the modules command.

Usage: minitrino modules [OPTIONS]

  Display module metadata.

Options:
  -m, --module TEXT  A specific module to display metadata for.
  -j, --json         Print the resulting metadata in JSON form (shows
                     additional module metadata).

  -r, --running      Print metadata for all running modules.
  --help             Show this message and exit.

Display Minitrino Versions

You can display the Minitrino CLI and library versions with the version command.

Usage: minitrino version [OPTIONS]

  Display Minitrino CLI and library versions.

Options:
  --help  Show this message and exit.

Pointing the CLI to the Minitrino Library

The Minitrino CLI should always point to a compatible library with the expected structure. The library directory can be set one of four ways, listed below in the order of precedence:

  1. Passing the LIB_PATH variable to the CLI's --env option sets the library directory for the current command.
  2. The minitrino.cfg file's LIB_PATH variable sets the library directory if present.
  3. The path ~/.minitrino/lib/ is used as the default lib path if the LIB_PATH var is not found.
  4. As a last resort, Minitrino will check to see if the library exists in relation to the positioning of the components.py file and assumes the project is being run out of a cloned repository.

If you not running out of a cloned repository, it is advisable to provide a pointer to the library in Minitrino's configuration via the LIB_PATH config.


Minitrino Configuration File

Sticky configuration is set in ~/.minitrino/minitrino.cfg. The sections in this file each serve a separate purpose.

[CLI] Section

These configs allow the user to customize the behavior of Minitrino.

  • LIB_PATH: The filesystem path of the Minitrino library (specifically to the lib/ directory).
  • TEXT_EDITOR: The text editor to use with the config command, e.g. "vi", "nano", etc. Defaults to the shell's default editor.

[DOCKER] Section

These configs allow the user to customize how Minitrino uses Docker.

  • DOCKER_HOST: A URL pointing to an accessible Docker host. This is automatically detected by Docker otherwise.

[TRINO] Section

These configs allow the user to propagate config to the Trino container. Since many modules can append to Trino's core files, the supported way to make propagate changes to these Trino files is with these configs.

  • CONFIG: Configuration for Trino's config.properties file.
  • JVM_CONFIG: Configuration for Trino's jvm.config file.

A multiline example of this section (note the indentation):

[TRINO]
CONFIG=
    query.max-memory-per-node=500MB
    query.max-total-memory-per-node=500MB
JVM_CONFIG=
    -Dsun.security.krb5.debug=true

[MODULES] Section

This section sets environment variables passed to containers provisioned by Minitrino. Environment variables are only passed to a container if the variable is specified in the module's docker-compose.yml file.

Variables propagated to the Trino container are supported by Trino secrets.

  • STARBURST_LIC_PATH: Required if using licensed Starburst Enterprise Trino features. It can point to any valid license on your filesystem.
  • S3_ENDPOINT
  • S3_ACCESS_KEY
  • S3_SECRET_KEY
  • AWS_REGION
  • SNOWFLAKE_DIST_CONNECT_URL
  • SNOWFLAKE_DIST_CONNECT_USER
  • SNOWFLAKE_DIST_CONNECT_PASSWORD
  • SNOWFLAKE_DIST_WAREHOUSE
  • SNOWFLAKE_DIST_DB
  • SNOWFLAKE_DIST_STAGE_SCHEMA
  • SNOWFLAKE_JDBC_CONNECT_URL
  • SNOWFLAKE_JDBC_CONNECT_USER
  • SNOWFLAKE_JDBC_CONNECT_PASSWORD
  • SNOWFLAKE_JDBC_WAREHOUSE
  • SNOWFLAKE_JDBC_DB
  • SNOWFLAKE_JDBC_STAGE_SCHEMA

Project Structure

The library is built around Docker Compose files and utilizes Docker's ability to extend Compose files.

The Starburst Trino service is defined in a Compose file at the library root, and all other services look up in the directory tree to reference the parent Trino service. In Compose files, the fully-qualified path––relative to the library's root docker-compose.yml file––must be provided for Docker to locate resources.

A simplified library structure:

lib
├── Dockerfile
├── docker-compose.yml
├── minitrino.env
├── modules
│   ├── catalog
│   │   └── postgres
│   │       ├── metadata.json
│   │       ├── postgres.yml
│   │       ├── readme.md
│   │       └── resources
│   │           ├── postgres
│   │           │   └── postgres.env
│   │           └── trino
│   │               └── postgres.properties
│   ├── resources
│   │   └── wait-for-it.sh
│   └── security
│       └── event-logger
│           ├── event-logger.yml
│           ├── metadata.json
│           ├── readme.md
│           └── resources
│               ├── event-logger
│               │   └── postgres.env
│               └── trino
│                   ├── event-listener.properties
│                   └── postgres_event_logger.properties
├── snapshots
└── version

And the contents of a docker-compose.yml file (postgres.yml):

version: "3.8"
services:

  trino:
    volumes:
      - "./modules/catalog/postgres/resources/trino/postgres.properties:/etc/starburst/catalog/postgres.properties"

  postgres:
    image: "postgres:${POSTGRES_VER}"
    container_name: "postgres"
    labels:
      - "com.starburst.tests=minitrino"
      - "com.starburst.tests.module.postgres=catalog-postgres"
    env_file:
      - "./modules/catalog/postgres/resources/postgres/postgres.env"

Notice that the volume mount is not relative to the lib/modules/catalog/postgres/ directory––it is relative to the parent directory which houses the top-level docker-compose.yml file. Also, notice the labels––these labels will be used to identify Docker resources tied to Minitrino modules so that the CLI commands actually work.

Trino Dockerfile

Minitrino modifies the Starburst Trino Docker image by adding the Trino CLI to the image as well as by providing sudo to the trino user. This is required for certain bootstrap scripts (i.e. using yum to install packages in a Trino container for a module). This image is compatible with Starburst Trino images back to Starburst Trino version 332-e.0.


Adding New Modules (Tutorial)

Adding new modules is relatively simple, but there are a few important guidelines to follow to ensure compatibility with the Minitrino CLI. The design rules are the same for both catalogs and security modules. The example below demonstrates the process of creating a new catalog module for a Postgres service.

Create the Module Directory

Create the module's directory in the lib/modules/catalog/ directory:

mkdir lib/modules/catalog/postgres/
cd lib/modules/catalog/postgres/

Add Trino Resources

All resources for a module go inside of a resources/ directory within the module. Inside this directory, place Trino-specific resources into a trino/ directory, then mount the resources to the Trino service defined in the root docker-compose.yml file.

mkdir -p resources/trino/

In the newly-created resources/trino/ directory, add a properties file.

bash -c "cat << EOF > postgres.properties
connector.name=postgresql
connection-url=jdbc:postgresql://postgres:5432/minitrino
connection-user=admin
connection-password=trinoRocks15
EOF"

Note: Passwords should always be trinoRocks15 for consistency throughout modules.


Add the Docker Compose YAML

In lib/modules/catalog/postgres/, add a Docker Compose file:

touch postgres.yml

Notice the naming convention: postgres.yml. Giving the same root name of "postgres" to both the parent directory postgres/ and to the Docker Compose file postgres.yml will allow Minitrino to find our new catalog module.

Next, add an environment file for the Postgres service. Non-Trino resources should go into their own directory, so create one for postgres:

mkdir resources/postgres/

In the newly-created directory, add an environment file which will register the variables in the Postgres container when it is provisioned:

bash -c "cat << EOF > postgres.env
POSTGRES_USER=admin
POSTGRES_PASSWORD=trinoRocks15
POSTGRES_DB=minitrino
EOF"

This file will initialize Postgres with a database minitrino, a user trino, and a password trinoRocks15.

Add a Metadata File

The metadata.json file allows Minitrino to obtain key information for the module. It is required for a module to work with the CLI.

In lib/modules/catalog/postgres/, add the metadata.json file:

bash -c 'cat << EOF > metadata.json
{
  "description": "Creates a Postgres catalog using the standard Postgres connector.",
  "incompatibleModules": []
}
EOF'

The metadata file is presentable to the user via the modules command, and the incompatibleModules key restricts certain modules from being provisioned alongside the given module. The * wildcard is a supported convention if the module is incompatible with all other modules.

Add a Readme File

This step is not required for personal development, but it is required to commit a module to the Minitrino repository.

In lib/modules/catalog/postgres/, add the readme.md file:

touch readme.md

This file should contain an overview of the module.

Review Progress

The resulting directory tree should look like this (from the /modules/catalog/ directory):

postgres
├── metadata.json
├── postgres.yml
├── readme.md
└── resources
    ├── postgres
    │   └── postgres.env
    └── trino
        └── postgres.properties

Configure the Docker Compose YAML File

We will now define the postgres.yml Docker Compose file. Set it up as follows, and read the important notes after:

version: "3.8"
services:

  trino:
    volumes:
    # Always place Trino files in `/etc/starburst/` as symbolic links can change between versions
      - "./modules/catalog/postgres/resources/trino/postgres.properties:/etc/starburst/catalog/postgres.properties"

  postgres:
    image: "postgres:${POSTGRES_VER}"
    container_name: "postgres"
    labels:
      - "com.starburst.tests=minitrino"
      - "com.starburst.tests.module.postgres=catalog-postgres"
    env_file:
      - "./modules/catalog/postgres/resources/postgres/postgres.env"

Important Implementation Details: Paths and Labels

We can observe a few things about the Compose file we just defined.

Path References for Volumes and Build Contexts

First, the volumes we mount are not relative to the Compose file itself, they are relative to the base docker-compose.yml file in the library root. This is because the CLI extends Compose files, meaning that all path references in child Compose files need to be relative to the positioning of the parent Compose file.

The base Compose file is determined when you execute a Docker Compose command––the first Compose file referenced in the command becomes the base file, and that happens to be the docker-compose.yml file in the library root. This is how Minitrino constructs these commands.

If this is confusing, you can read more about extending Compose files on the Docker docs.

Minitrino Docker Labels

Secondly, notice how we applied sets of labels to the Postgres service. These labels tell the CLI which resources to target when executing commands.

In general, there is no need to apply labels to the Trino service since they are already applied in the parent Compose file unless the module is an extension of the Trino service itself (i.e. the Snowflake modules). Labels should always be applied to:

  • Docker services (AKA the resulting container)
  • Named volumes
  • Images built from a Dockerfile

Labels should be defined in pairs of two. The convention is:

  • The standard Minitrino resource label: com.starburst.tests=minitrino
  • A module-specific resource label: com.starburst.tests.module.<module-name>=<module-type>-<module-name>
    • For this label, the module-type should be either catalog or security
    • This applies a unique label to the module, allowing it to be an isolated component when necessary.

In Compose files where multiple services are defined, all services should be labeled with the same label sets (see hive-s3.yml for an example).


Note: A named volume is defined explicitly in the Compose file, and these should always have label sets applied to them. Below is an example of the Compose file we just created with a named volume.


version: "3.8"
services:

  trino:
    volumes:
      - "./modules/catalog/postgres/resources/trino/postgres.properties:/etc/starburst/catalog/postgres.properties"

  postgres:
    image: "postgres:${POSTGRES_VER}"
    container_name: "postgres"
    labels: # These labels are applied to the service/container
      - "com.starburst.tests=minitrino"
      - "com.starburst.tests.module.postgres=catalog-postgres"
    env_file:
      - "./modules/catalog/postgres/resources/postgres/postgres.env"

volumes:
  postgres-data:
    labels: # These labels are applied to the named volume
      - "com.starburst.tests=minitrino"
      - "com.starburst.tests.module.postgres=catalog-postgres"

Note: Certain modules will only extend the parent Trino service and do not actually define any new services/containers. See the Snowflake catalog modules for an example of this. For these modules, the only label requirement is to add the module-specific label to the Trino service in the relevant docker-compose.yml file


Test the New Catalog

We are all finished up. We can test our new catalog through the Minitrino CLI:

minitrino provision -m postgres

We can now shell into the trino container and run some tests:

docker exec -it trino bash 
trino-cli
trino> show catalogs;

Customizing Images

If you need to build an image from a local Dockerfile, you can do so and structure the Compose file accordingly. See the library's root docker-compose.yml file for an example of this. Path references for volumes and the image build context will follow the same convention as volume mount paths described earlier.

Bootstrap Scripts

Minitrino supports container bootstrap scripts. These scripts do not replace the entrypoint (or default command) for a given container. The script is copied from the Minitrino library to the container, executed, and then removed from the container. Containers are restarted after each bootstrap script execution, so the bootstrap scripts themselves should not restart the container's service.

If a bootstrap script has already executed in a container and the volume associated with the container still exists, Minitrino will not re-execute the bootstrap script unless the contents of the script have changed. The is useful after running minitrino down --keep (which does not remove unnamed container volumes), so that the subsequent provision command will not re-execute the same bootstrap script(s).

If a bootstrap script is updated, it is recommended to destroy the associated container(s) via minitrino down and then to re-provision.

To add a bootstrap script, add a resources/bootstrap/ directory in any given module, create a shell script, and then reference the script name in the Compose YAML file:

version: "3.8"
services:

  trino:
    environment:
      MINITRINO_BOOTSTRAP: "bootstrap.sh"

The elasticsearch module is a good example of this.

Installing Shell Packages for Bootstrap Scripts

If you need to install a shell package for a bootstrap script, it is recommended that the package be added at the Dockerfile level instead of within the bootstrap script. This is to ensure compatibility between SEP Trino-based releases.

To add the necessary package, simply update shell dependencies in lib/dockerfile-resources/configure.sh.

Managing Trino's config.properties File

Many modules can change the Trino config.properties and jvm.config files. Because of this, there are two supported ways to modify these files with Minitrino.

The first way is by setting the CONFIG variable in your minitrino.cfg file. This will propagate the config to the Trino container when it is provisioned.

Generally speaking, this can be used for any type of configuration (i.e. memory configuration) that is unlikely to be modified by any module. This also applies to the jvm.config file, which has identical support via the JVM_CONFIG variable. If there are duplicate configs in either file, Minitrino will warn the user.

To set these configs, your configuration file should look like:

[TRINO]
CONFIG=
    query.max-memory-per-node=500MB
    query.max-total-memory-per-node=500MB
JVM_CONFIG=
    -Dsun.security.krb5.debug=true

The second way to modify core Trino configuration is via module bootstrap scripts. This method is utilized by modules that need to make module-specific changes to Trino files. An example bootstrap snippet can be found below:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

set -euxo pipefail

echo "Adding Trino configs..."
cat <<EOT >> /etc/starburst/config.properties
query.max-stage-count=105
query.max-execution-time=1h
EOT

Troubleshooting

  • If you experience issues executing a Minitrino command, re-run it with the -v option for verbose output. This will often reveal the issue
  • If you experience an issue with a particular Docker container, consider running these commands:
    • docker logs <container>: Print the logs for a given container to the terminal
    • docker ps: Show all running Docker containers and associated statistics
    • docker inspect <container> to see various details about a container
  • If you experience issues with a library module, check that that module is structured correctly according to the module tutorial, and ensure the library and the CLI versions match
  • Sometimes, a lingering persistent volume can cause problem (i.e. a stale Hive metastore database volume from a previous module), so you can run:
    • minitrino down
    • minitrino -v remove --volumes to remove all existing Minitrino volumes. Alternatively, run minitrino -v remove --volumes --label <your label> to specifiy a specific module for which to remove volumes. See the removing resources section for more information.

If none of these troubleshooting tips help to resolve your issue, please file a GitHub issue and provide as much information as possible.


Reporting Bugs and Contributing

To report bugs, please file a GitHub issue on the Minitrino repository. Bug reports should:

  • Contain any relevant log messages (if the bug is tied to a command, running with the -v flag will make debugging easier)
  • Describe what the expected outcome is
  • Describe the proposed code fix (optional)

Contributors have two options:

  1. Fork the repository, then make a PR to merge your changes
  2. If you have been added as a contributor, you can go with the method above or you can create a feature branch, then submit a PR for that feature branch when it is ready to be merged.

In either case, please provide a comprehensive description of your changes with the PR.

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