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PyPI Mirror for Offline/Restricted Environments

Project description


PyPI Mirror for Restricted/Offline Environments



Morgan is a PyPI mirror for restricted/offline networks/environments, where access to the Internet is not available. It allows creating small mirrors that can be used by multiple "client" Python environments (i.e. CPython versions, operating systems, etc.). The Morgan server is a single-file script that only uses modules the standard Python library, making it easy to deploy in such environments.

The basic idea is to run the mirror utility where Internet access is available—which generates a directory tree ("package index") with all of the required packages, their dependencies, and the server script—then copy this tree to the restricted network (going through whatever security policies are in place), run the server inside the restricted network, and set pip in the client environments to use the mirror instead of, which they can't access anyway.

Features and Concepts

  • Runs under Python 3.7 and up (both server and mirrorer).
  • Package index is a simple directory tree that can be easily archived, copied, rsynced, etc.
  • Package index contains a configuration file that lists markers for different client environments and a list of package requirement strings as per PEP 508.
  • Mirrorer automatically and recursively mirrors dependencies of all direct requirements.
  • Only mirrors optional dependencies if they were part of the requirement strings (a.k.a "extras"), or are relevant to the environment markers. This is true for direct requirements and for dependencies of dependencies.
  • For each requirement, downloads the latest version that satisfies the requirement (e.g. "requests>=2.24.0,<2.27.0" will download 2.26.0, whereas "requests" will download the latest available version).
  • Downloads both source distributions and binary distributions. Only binary distributions that are relevant to either of the environment markers defined in the configuration file are downloaded.
  • Server is a one-file script with no dependencies outside the standard library available in Python 3.7 and above. The script is automatically extracted into the package index.
  • Server implements PEP 503 (Simple Repository API), PEP 658 (Serve Distribution Metadata in the Simple Repository API), and PEP 691 (JSON-based Simple API for Python Package Indexes).


Morgan is meant to be used as a command line utility (although it can be used as a library if necessary), therefore it is recommended to install via a utility such as pipx:

pipx install morgan

You can also install it directly through pip:

python3 -m pip install morgan


  1. Create a directory where the package index will reside.
  2. Create a "morgan.ini" file in this directory, with at least one environment definition and list of requirements (see Sample Configuration File below). You can use morgan generate_env >> morgan.ini to generate a configuration block for the local interpreter. You can also use morgan generate_reqs >> morgan.ini to generate list of requirements from all packages installed in the current environment, which is especially useful when using virtual environments.
  3. Run the mirrorer from inside the package index via morgan mirror (alternatively, provide the path of the package index via the --index-path flag).
  4. Copy the package index to the target environment, if necessary.
  5. Run the server using python3 Use --help for a full list of flags and options. You can also use morgan server instead.

Sample Configuration File

Environment configuration blocks can be automatically generated via morgan generate_env. I recommend you read the "Environment Markers" section of PEP 508 to see exactly how they are calculated.

python_version = 3.7
python_full_version = 3.7.7
os_name = posix
sys_platform = linux
platform_machine = i686
platform_python_implementation = CPython
platform_system = Linux
implementation_name = cpython

os_name = posix
sys_platform = linux
platform_machine = x86_64
platform_python_implementation = CPython
platform_system = Linux
python_version = 3.10
python_full_version = 3.10.6
implementation_name = cpython

requests = >=2.24.0
protobuf = ==3.20.1
redis = >4.1.0,<4.2.1
xonsh = [full]~=0.11.0

In this example we can see two different client environments: a "legacy" one with a relatively old installation of CPython 3.7.7 on 32-bit Linux, and an "edge" environment with a recent installation of CPython 3.10.6 on 64-bit Linux.

All these different markers are needed because they can be used in package metadata, and Morgan needs them to determine which files and dependencies to download.

This configuration file sets "requests", "protobuf", "redis" and "xonsh" as the packages to mirror, with certain version specifications for each. The xonsh requirements also specifies an extra which results in the downloading of certain optional dependencies. When the mirrorer is executed on a directory that contains this configuration file, it will find the latest version that satisfies the specifications of each package, download relevant files for each of them, and then recursively download their dependencies. It will download source files suitable for any environment, and binary distributions (wheels) that match the definitions of the "legacy" and "edge" environments.

Configuration markers for a specific environment can easily be generated by running the provided generate_env command in the target environment.

How Does Morgan Resolve Dependencies?

Dependency resolution in Python is hard. The standard for specifying dependencies was only created in 2015 with PEP 508. For years (and to this day), many projects have used setuptools for distribution, which had its own mechanisms for dependency specifications. Many Python packages define their dependencies in non-standard files such as Setuptools' requires.txt file, and not in their actual METADATA files, despite the latter supporting dependency specification. Today, setuptools has moved to using the newer pyproject.toml format standardized by PEP 621.

Many tools that attempt to extract requirements from package metadata, such as pkginfo, do not return dependencies listed outside standard METADATA files. pip-tools is the only tool outside of pip itself that can resolve dependencies from multiple sources, but like pip itself, it is not meant to be used as a library, and it is also meant to be used on project development sources, not project distributions.

Morgan, therefore, implements its own dependency resolution (which heavily relies on the packaging library). It utilizes an incremental strategy for extracting metadata from package distributions (whether source or binary distributions), parsing any file that may contain necessary metadata. Currently this includes METADATA, PKG-INFO, requires.txt, setup_requires.txt and pyproject.toml files. Morgan also takes into account build dependencies to ensure that packages that are necessary to compile source distributions are also available in the mirror (so, if a source distribution requires hatch in order to build, Morgan will ensure hatch is mirrored as well).

It should be noted that recursively resolving dependencies is difficult, and requires care in order to prevent circular dependencies. Morgan's current strategy is very simple and possibly too broad, and although I haven't yet found any issues, they may happen. Please open a ticket if you encounter any such issues.


  • Morgan currently only targets CPython. Packages/binary files that are specific to other Python implementations are not mirrored. This may change in the future.

  • Morgan only targets Python 3 packages. Python 2 packages are not mirrored and there's no currently any plan to support them.

  • The only binary distributions supported are wheels. Eggs are not supported and probably never will be.

  • The Morgan server is currently read-only. Packages cannot be published to the index through it. This may change in the future.

  • Morgan does not mirror packages with versions that do not comply with PEP 440. These are generally older packages that are no longer accepted by PyPI anyway. This is unlikely to change.

  • Morgan does not mirror yanked files (see PEP 592). This is how PyPI supports removing files without breaking projects that are specifically pinned to them. This was a conscious decision that will probably not change, but may be made configurable.

Why Not Use X?

Morgan was written because of insufficiencies of other mirroring solutions:

  • bandersnatch is geared more towards mirroring of the entire PyPI repository, with support for different filters to reduce/limit the size of the mirror. Unfortunately, it doesn't automatically download dependencies of direct requirements, making the "package" filter virtually unusable, and the "platform" filters are not fine-grained enough. It also has many dependencies outside the standard library.
  • localshop is a proxy that basically caches PyPI responses to pip requests, so it's not useful for restricted networks. It also has many non-standard-library dependencies, and can't download binary distributions for multiple environments.
  • devpi also works as a caching proxy, and also attempts to automatically refresh from PyPI at regular intervals. It also has many non-standard-library dependencies.
  • pypickup was started around the same time as Morgan. It is more fitting for and offline mirror than the above three but takes a different approach than Morgan. It doesn't include a server, instead relying on pip's ability to install from a directory tree, so this tree needs to be accessible to your servers. It also favors CLI commands over a configuration file (e.g. an add command is used to mirror a dependency). I'm not sure how it resolves dependencies, if at all.


  • pip fails installing a package file that exists.

    If pip fails with a message similar to "ERROR: Could not find a version that satisfies the requirement FastAPI (from versions: 0.88.0)", despite package files existing with the correct version and platform, it may be that you're providing pip with a non-normalized name. You can either use the normalized name when installing (lowercase the package name and replace underscores with dashes, e.g. pip install fastapi instead of pip install FastAPI), or start the server with the --no-metadata flag, which will disable serving metadata files and workaround the issue. This seems to be a non-standard behavior in pip, as it is sending the normalized name to the server, but for some reason expecting to get the non-normalized name back.


Morgan is distributed under the terms of the Apache License 2.0.

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