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Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Proof Implementation in Pure Python

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Zero-Knowledge Proof implementation in pure python

Built with ❤︎ by Austin Archer :)

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This is a slightly modified implementation of Schnorr's protocol that utilizes a state seed. The proofs used are rather complex in nature, but I will do my best to explain its functionality, but please refer to the research papers on which this implementation is based as it does a far more complete job with explanation than I.

Elliptic Curve Based Zero Knowledge Proofs and Their Applicability on Resource Constrained Devices by Ioannis Chatzigiannakis, Apostolos Pyrgelis, Paul G. Spirakis, and Yannis C. Stamatiou


Zero-Knowledge Proofs are undoubtedly the future of authentication security within various IT and application development industrires. The ability to verify the veracity of a claim (ex: proving that you know a secret password), without divulging any information about the claim itself (ex: passwords or hashes), allows for servers to guarantee secure AAA operations (authentication, authorization, and accounting) without exposing private information. NoKnow is an implementation of a Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Proof protocol specifically designed for verifying text-based secrets, which is ideal for passwords or other authentication means.

How It Works

TODO: explain how it works


The noknow Python API is meant to be simple and intuitive:

Core Components


The parameters used to initialize the Zero-Knowledge crypto system.

class ZKParameters(NamedTuple):
    Parameters used to construct a ZK proof state using an curve and a random salt
    alg: str                    # Hashing algorithm name
    curve: str                  # Standard Elliptic Curve name to use
    s: int                      # Random salt for the state


A crytographic, zero-knowledge signature that can be used to verify future messages.

class ZKSignature(NamedTuple):
    Cryptographic public signature used to verify future messages
    params: ZKParameters        # Reference ZK Parameters
    signature: int              # The public key derived from your original secret


A cryptograpgic proof that can be verified against a signature.

class ZKProof(NamedTuple):
    Non-deterministic cryptographic zero-knowledge proof that can be verified to ensure the
    private key used to create the proof is the same key used to generate the signature
    params: ZKParameters        # Reference ZK Parameters
    c: int                      # The hash of the signed data and random point, R
    m: int                      # The offset from the secret `r` (`R=r*g`) from c * Hash(secret)


Wrapper that contains a proof and the necessary data to validate the proof against a signature.

class ZKData(NamedTuple):
    Wrapper to contain data and a signed proof using the data
    data: Union[str, bytes, int]
    proof: ZKProof


The ZK class is the central component of NoKnow and its state (defined by ZKParameters) should be inherently known to both the Client (Prover) and Server (Verifier).

instance methods

Method Parameters Role Purpose
create_signature secret: Union[str, bytes] Prover Create a cryptographic signature derived from the value secret to be generated during initial registration and stored for subsequent challenge proofs
sign secret: Union[str, bytes]
data: Union[str, bytes, int]
Prover Create a ZKData object using the secret and any additional data
verify challenge: Union[ZKData, ZKProof]
signature: ZKSignature
data: Optional[Union[str, bytes, int]]
Verifier Verify the user-provided challenge against the stored signature and randomly generated token to verify the validity of the challenge


NoKnow is available from PyPi! Simply run:

pip install -U noknow

Example Usage

TODO: Include example usage

Example 1

Extremely simple example of NoKnow ZK Proof implementation
from getpass import getpass
from noknow.core import ZK, ZKSignature, ZKParameters, ZKData, ZKProof
from queue import Queue
from threading import Thread

def client(iq: Queue, oq: Queue):
    client_zk ="secp256k1", hash_alg="sha3_256")

    # Create signature and send to server
    signature = client_zk.create_signature(getpass("Enter Password: "))

    # Receive the token from the server
    token = iq.get()

    # Create a proof that signs the provided token and sends to server
    proof = client_zk.sign(getpass("Enter Password Again: "), token).dump()

    # Send the token and proof to the server

    # Wait for server response!
    print("Success!" if iq.get() else "Failure!")

def server(iq: Queue, oq: Queue):
    # Set up server component
    server_password = "SecretServerPassword"
    server_zk ="secp384r1", hash_alg="sha3_512")
    server_signature: ZKSignature = server_zk.create_signature("SecureServerPassword")

    # Load the received signature from the Client
    sig = iq.get()
    client_signature = ZKSignature.load(sig)
    client_zk = ZK(client_signature.params)

    # Create a signed token and send to the client
    token = server_zk.sign("SecureServerPassword", client_zk.token())

    # Get the token from the client
    proof = ZKData.load(iq.get())
    token = ZKData.load(, ":")

    # In this example, the server signs the token so it can be sure it has not been modified
    if not server_zk.verify(token, server_signature):
        oq.put(client_zk.verify(proof, client_signature, data=token))

def main():
    q1, q2 = Queue(), Queue()
    threads = [
        Thread(target=client, args=(q1, q2)),
        Thread(target=server, args=(q2, q1)),
    for func in [Thread.start, Thread.join]:
        for thread in threads:

if __name__ == "__main__":

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