Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Proof Implementation in Pure Python
Table of Contents
This is a slightly modified implementation of Schnorr's protocol that utilizes a state seed. The proofs used are rather complex in nature, but I will do my best to explain its functionality, but please refer to the research papers on which this implementation is based as it does a far more complete job with explanation than I.
Elliptic Curve Based Zero Knowledge Proofs and Their Applicability on Resource Constrained Devices by Ioannis Chatzigiannakis, Apostolos Pyrgelis, Paul G. Spirakis, and Yannis C. Stamatiou
Zero-Knowledge Proofs are undoubtedly the future of authentication security within various IT and application development industrires. The ability to verify the veracity of a claim (ex: proving that you know a secret password), without divulging any information about the claim itself (ex: passwords or hashes), allows for servers to guarantee secure AAA operations (authentication, authorization, and accounting) without exposing private information.
NoKnow is an implementation of a Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Proof protocol specifically designed for verifying text-based secrets, which is ideal for passwords or other authentication means.
How It Works
TODO: explain how it works
noknow Python API is meant to be simple and intuitive:
The parameters used to initialize the Zero-Knowledge crypto system.
class ZKParameters(NamedTuple): """ Parameters used to construct a ZK proof state using an curve and a random salt """ alg: str # Hashing algorithm name curve: str # Standard Elliptic Curve name to use s: int # Random salt for the state
A crytographic, zero-knowledge signature that can be used to verify future messages.
class ZKSignature(NamedTuple): """ Cryptographic public signature used to verify future messages """ params: ZKParameters # Reference ZK Parameters signature: int # The public key derived from your original secret
A cryptograpgic proof that can be verified against a signature.
class ZKProof(NamedTuple): """ Non-deterministic cryptographic zero-knowledge proof that can be verified to ensure the private key used to create the proof is the same key used to generate the signature """ params: ZKParameters # Reference ZK Parameters c: int # The hash of the signed data and random point, R m: int # The offset from the secret `r` (`R=r*g`) from c * Hash(secret)
Wrapper that contains a proof and the necessary data to validate the proof against a signature.
class ZKData(NamedTuple): """ Wrapper to contain data and a signed proof using the data """ data: Union[str, bytes, int] proof: ZKProof
ZK class is the central component of
NoKnow and its state (defined by
ZKParameters) should be inherently known to both the Client (Prover) and Server (Verifier).
||Prover||Create a cryptographic signature derived from the value
||Prover||Create a |
||Verifier||Verify the user-provided
NoKnow is available from PyPi! Simply run:
pip install -U noknow
TODO: Include example usage
""" Extremely simple example of NoKnow ZK Proof implementation """ from getpass import getpass from noknow.core import ZK, ZKSignature, ZKParameters, ZKData, ZKProof from queue import Queue from threading import Thread def client(iq: Queue, oq: Queue): client_zk = ZK.new(curve_name="secp256k1", hash_alg="sha3_256") # Create signature and send to server signature = client_zk.create_signature(getpass("Enter Password: ")) oq.put(signature.dump()) # Receive the token from the server token = iq.get() # Create a proof that signs the provided token and sends to server proof = client_zk.sign(getpass("Enter Password Again: "), token).dump() # Send the token and proof to the server oq.put(proof) # Wait for server response! print("Success!" if iq.get() else "Failure!") def server(iq: Queue, oq: Queue): # Set up server component server_password = "SecretServerPassword" server_zk = ZK.new(curve_name="secp384r1", hash_alg="sha3_512") server_signature: ZKSignature = server_zk.create_signature("SecureServerPassword") # Load the received signature from the Client sig = iq.get() client_signature = ZKSignature.load(sig) client_zk = ZK(client_signature.params) # Create a signed token and send to the client token = server_zk.sign("SecureServerPassword", client_zk.token()) oq.put(token.dump(separator=":")) # Get the token from the client proof = ZKData.load(iq.get()) token = ZKData.load(proof.data, ":") # In this example, the server signs the token so it can be sure it has not been modified if not server_zk.verify(token, server_signature): oq.put(False) else: oq.put(client_zk.verify(proof, client_signature, data=token)) def main(): q1, q2 = Queue(), Queue() threads = [ Thread(target=client, args=(q1, q2)), Thread(target=server, args=(q2, q1)), ] for func in [Thread.start, Thread.join]: for thread in threads: func(thread) if __name__ == "__main__": main()
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