Skip to main content
This is a pre-production deployment of Warehouse. Changes made here affect the production instance of PyPI (
Help us improve Python packaging - Donate today!

simple sql migration tool to save you from becoming mad

Project Description
.. -*- mode: rst -*-


Nomad is a simple migration application, which specifically takes into account
properties of development with DVCS and is completely agnostic from ORM or
whatever you are using to access your database. It uses simple SQL scripts to
migrate and can run pre- and post-processing routines written in any language
(Python, Ruby or whatever do you use for your application).

Tests status: |travis|, `changelog <>`_

.. |travis| image::

.. begin-writeup


Nomad's migration store is a directory with ``nomad.ini`` and directories with
migrations inside. Each such directory must contain ``migration.ini`` to be
recognized as a migration and this directory name is an unique identifier of a

Your directory tree thus will look like this::


Nomad uses table called ``nomad`` to track what was applied already. It's just a
list of applied migrations and dates when they were applied.


To start working, create ``nomad.ini``, and initialize your database (I assume
it already exists)::

$ nomad init

Then you can start creating your first migration::

$ nomad create 0-initial

Put your ALTERs and CREATEs in ``0-initial/up.sql`` and apply a migration::

$ nomad apply -a # or nomad apply 0-initial

Nomad should report which migrations it applied successfully, but you can check
status of that with ``nomad ls -a`` (or ``nomad ls`` to see only unapplied

I guess it's time to create new migration::

$ nomad create 1-next -d 0-initial

``-d 0-initial`` means you want your ``1-next`` to depend on ``0-initial``. This
means Nomad will never apply ``1-next`` without applying ``0-initial``
first. You usually want to depend on migrations which created tables you're
going to alter, or just to make it easier - on the latest available migration.


There are three types of migration files that ``nomad`` supports:

1. Plain SQL files with the extension ``.sql``. Just put SQL commands you need
to execute in the migration folder and they will be executed.
2. Executable files. All file extensions are supported as long as the file
is executable. These files must contain everything necessary to migrate
your data, including setting up a database connection. ``nomad`` will pass
all of the `Configuration`_ variables as environmental variables, prefixed
with their section.
3. Template files with the extension ``.j2``. These templates will be
passed through the Jinja2 templating library. You must install the
``jinja2`` library for this functionality. The entire `Configuration`_ is
available to the template files as a single dictionary. These could be
useful if you are distributing an application where the end user needs to
control some aspects of the migrations (ie. additional database users and
passwords, additonal database names, etc.).


# nomad.ini
another_user = reader
another_pass = pass


# migrations/0001-initial/up.sql.j2
CREATE ROLE {{ db.another_user }};
ALTER ROLE {{ db.another_user }} WITH NOSUPERUSER LOGIN PASSWORD '{{ db.another_pass }}' VALID UNTIL 'infinity';

Files inside of each migration folder are executed in lexographical order.


Nomad reads database connection information from the ``[nomad]`` section of the
``nomad.ini`` file.


engine = sqla
url = pgsql://user:password@host:port/db

Possible configuration options:

- ``engine`` (required) - SQL engine to use, possible options:

- ``sqla`` - use SQLAlchemy as an adapter, supports everything SQLAlchemy supports
- ``dbapi`` - use regular DB API, supports ``sqlite``, ``mysql`` and ``pgsql``

- ``url`` (required) - URL to database, takes multiple options, see format below
- ``path`` - path to migrations (default: directory with ``nomad.ini``)

Each migration has its own ``migration.ini`` file, which, by default, has a
single configuration option, ``nomad.dependencies``, defining which migration
(or migrations) this one depends.

You may add your own configuration variables to either the ``nomad.ini`` or
``migration.ini`` files and they will be available in your jinja2 templates
as a single dictionary and your executable files as environmental

Note that ini-files are parsed with extended interpolation (use it like
``${var}`` or ``${section.var}``).

A few predefined variables are provided to every migration:

- ``confpath`` - path to ``nomad.ini``
- ``confdir`` - path to directory, containing ``nomad.ini``
- ``dir`` - path to directory of migration

Example configuration:

| configration | executable | template |
| :: | :: | :: |
| | | |
| [nomad] | NOMAD_ENGINE = sqla | nomad.engine = sqla |
| engine = sqla | NOMAD_URL = someurl | nomad.url = someurl |
| url = someurl | | |
| | FOO_BAR = zeta | = zeta |
| [foo] | | |
| bar = zeta | NOMAD_CONFPATH = path | nomad.confpath = path |
| | NOMAD_CONFDIR = dir1 | nomad.confdir = dir1 |
| | NOMAD_DIR = dir2 | nomad.dir = dir2 |

URL format

Nomad can read connection url to database in a few various ways. ``nomad.url``
configuration option is a space separated list of descriptions of how Nomad can
obtain database connection url.

The easiest one is simply an url (like in config example). The others are:

- ``file:<path-to-file>`` - a path to file containing connection url
- ``env:<var-name>`` - an environment variable (do not prefix with `$`)
- ``py:<python.mod>:<>`` - a Python path to a module,
containing a variable with connection url
- ``cmd:<cmd-to-execute>`` - command to execute to get connection url
- ``json:<path-to-file>:key.0.key`` - path to file with JSON and then path
to a connection url within JSON object
- ``yaml:<path-to-file>:key.0.key`` - path to file with YAML and then path
to a connection url within YAML object
- ``ini:<path-to-file>:<section.key>`` - path to INI file (parsed by
configparser with extended interpolation) and then path to a connection url
within this file

An example::

url =

Notice that in all cases in the end you have to return URL to a database in
normal format, i.e. ``dbtype://user:pass@host:port/dbname?options``.

``options`` are supported only by pgsql right now, whatever you put there, nomad
will do ``set ...`` before every migration. Note that if you do not supply
anything there, nomad sets ``statement_timeout`` to 1000 ms and ``lock_timeout``
to 500 ms by default.

Main ideas

- There are no downgrades - nobody ever tests them, and they are rarely
necessary. Just write an upgrade if you need to cancel something.
- You can write migration in whatever language you want, Nomad only helps you
track applied migrations and dependencies.
- ``.sql`` is treated differently and executed against database, configured in
- Only ``.sql``, ``.j2``, and executable files (sorry, Windows! - though I am eager to
hear ideas how to support it) are executed. You can put READMEs, pieces of
documentation, whatever you want alongside your migrations.
- Name matters - everything is executed in order. Order is determined by using
human sort (so that ``x-1.sql`` is earlier than ``x-10.sql``, you can always
check sorting with ``ls --sort=version``).

.. end-writeup
Release History

Release History

This version
History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


History Node


Download Files

Download Files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

File Name & Checksum SHA256 Checksum Help Version File Type Upload Date
nomad-1.19.tar.gz (11.9 kB) Copy SHA256 Checksum SHA256 Source May 20, 2016

Supported By

WebFaction WebFaction Technical Writing Elastic Elastic Search Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Dyn Dyn DNS Sentry Sentry Error Logging CloudAMQP CloudAMQP RabbitMQ Heroku Heroku PaaS Kabu Creative Kabu Creative UX & Design Fastly Fastly CDN DigiCert DigiCert EV Certificate Rackspace Rackspace Cloud Servers DreamHost DreamHost Log Hosting